Grandparents
 
Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 10
 
TOPICS COVERED: Popular media frequently bemoan the disappearance of the traditional grandparents, sitting in rocking chairs, ready to spin a good yarn into a story or knit it in a sweater. But the truth is not many people ever really had that type of grandparent. In fact, historically, just having grandparents was a rarity. And grandparents' roles have always varied by culture. At the same time, almost everywhere, grandparents are a huge source of child care and family support – and with rising life expectancies, grandparents may now actually be becoming more – not less – of a long-term fixture within families. But what does that mean? Should grandparents take a more active role in their grandchildren's lives? How should they balance their lives with those of their families? To better understand the difficulty in answering those questions, this memo has information relating to grandparents – including demographic information, analysis of the quality of relationships grandparents have with their grandchildren, and information about how many grandparents live with their grandchildren. Then, we have a lot of information about a topic which isn't frequently written about – grandparents who are raising their grandchildren on their own.
 
 
MEMOS ON RELATED INFORMATION: Aging, Multiple Generation / Extended Family Households, Caregivers in the Workforce, Population, Fathers and Sons, Mothers and Daughters, Child care, Family Structure (Historical overviews)
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 

PAGE INDEX:

 

GRANDPARENTS – DEMOGRAPHICS AND ROLES

GRANDPARENTS – AS CHILD CARE PROVIDERS

GRANDPARENTS – RAISING THE GRANDCHILDREN

 
 
 

GRANDPARENTS – DEMOGRAPHICS AND ROLES

 
 
 
One in four
children born in 1900 would have had all four grandparents alive at the time of their birth. 1.
 
 
 
One in fifty
children born in 1900 would have had all four grandparents live until they'd reached the age of 15. 2.
 
 
 
And most would not see old age themselves –
Of American children born in 1900-1902, only about 39 percent of men and 43 percent of women would survive to age 65. 3.
 
 
 
One-third
of American children born in the late 1970s had all four grandparents alive. 4.
 
 
 
Approximately 70 percent
of American children born in the late 1970s had at least two of their grandparents still alive when they reached adulthood. 5.
 
 
 
47.5 percent
of Finnish children born in 1998 had all four of their grandparents still alive at their birth. 6.
 
 
 
12.5 percent
of Finnish teenagers in 1998 had still had all of their grandparents; 15.6 percent of them had no surviving grandparents. 7.
 
 
 
Approximately 35 percent
of U.S. grandparents work more than 30 hours a week. 8.
 
 
 
Approximately 35 percent
of U.S. grandparents are married. 9.
 
 
 
Approximately 34 percent
of U.S. grandparents have living parents. 10.
 
 
 
5.5 million
Number of U.S. grandparents living with one or more of their grandchildren under 18 years old – 5.6 million grandkids in all (eight percent of all children in the U.S.). By and large, the kids are living in their grandparent's house: 4.2 million grandparents are the householder. 11.
 
 
 
2.6 million
Number of U.S. family households where the grandparent is the householder, and their children and grandchildren live with them. 12.
 
 
 
Four percent
of Americans age 30 and over live with grandchildren. 13.
 
 
 
Twice that –
Eight percent of Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, and Alaska natives, age 30 and over live with grandchildren – twice the national rate. And for Pacific Islanders, it's ten percent. 14.
 
 
 
60 percent
of the American grandparents living with their grandchildren are under 60 years old. 15.
 
 
 
Ambiguous –
the role of modern American grandparents, who are torn between maintaining their own autonomy and a desire to be involved with their grandchildren's lives. 16.
 
 
 
"Remote"
29 percent of American grandparents are "remote" – emotionally and / or geographically – from their grandchildren. 17.
 
 
 
"Companionate"
55 percent of American grandparents are "companionate"; they love their grandchildren and enjoy being around them, but have no real responsibility for them. 18.
 
 
 
"Involved"
16 percent of American grandparents are "involved" – spending a substantial amount of time with their grandchildren and exercise a form of parental influence over them. 19.
 
 
 
"The exception, not the rule"
for American grandparents to provide their grandchildren with intensive caregiving. 20.
 
 
 
“. . . black grandparents, on average, were more deeply involved in their grandchildren’s lives than were white grandparents. . . . Moreover, the greater involvement of black grandmothers seemed to hold at all income levels, a finding consistent with reports of the importance of extended kin in black middle-class families.” 54.
 
 
 
Mind watching the kids? Well, maybe –
In a survey of U.S, baby boomers, the majority look forward to having grandchildren – but they don't necessarily want to be responsible for them. 38 percent would be happy to baby-sit for more than 2 weeks, but 28 percent would be unhappy. And don't worry about knowing which grandparent you've got: they'll tell you. Of those who would be unhappy, the majority will tell that to their children. 21.
 
 
 
Filipino American grandparents, on the other hand –
view the grandparenting caregiving role as normal, not than a burden, and may act as surrogate parents and homemakers when parents are absent. This perspective comes from a cultural belief that the family is responsible for caring for its own, from cradle to grave. And the needs of the family come before the needs of a single individual. To the point that Filipino grandparents will even emigrate to America if their children need help raising the kids. 22.
 
 
 
More of them are on their own –
In East and Southeast Asia, however, while grandparents might have typically lived with their children in a large extended family household 50 years ago, that is becoming less common. Some still live with their children, but growing numbers are just there for a visit. And the wealthier the country, the more likely it is that grandparents are maintaining separate households. 23.
 
 
 
One percent
of all Australian families with children under the age of 17 are headed by grandparents (22,500 families). 24.
 
 
 
75 percent
of Austrian men and women over 60 have a grandchild. 16 percent of the men and 23 percent of the women are great-grandparents. 25.
 
 
 
90 percent
of all pre-school children in Austria have at least one living grandparent, and 45 percent have four grandparents. Children are on average 11 years old when their grandfather dies, and 23 years old when their grandmother dies. Of all people aged 60 to 74, 62 percent have at least one grandchild. 26.
 
 
 
"Very Close"
In an Austrian survey, three out of four grandparents reported that they were very close to their grandchildren. Another 12 percent were "quite close." Only five percent thought that they weren't close with them. 27.
 
 
 
Good News -
British grandparents have an important role in their grandchildren's lives – which continues even if the parents separate or divorce. And grandmothers' ties may be important help for children going through such a transition. 28.
 
 
 
– and Bad News
A substantial minority of young British grandmothers (those under 54 years old) struggle between having their own careers and caring for other family members. It's particularly difficult since British grandparents see providing at least occasional child-care as part of their role as a grandparent. 29.
 
 
 

GRANDPARENTSDEMOGRAPHICS AND ROLES
GRANDPARENTSRAISING THE GRANDCHILDREN

 
 

GRANDPARENTS – AS CHILD CARE PROVIDERS

 
 
 
20.8 percent
Grandparents are the primary source of child care for 20.8 percent of American preschoolers with mothers who are working or are in school. 30.
 
 
 
Important –
Grandparents are an important source of childcare for working parents in the U.K. 31.
 
 
 
31 percent
of parents in Ireland rely on non-paid relatives – mostly grandparents – for child care. 32.
 
 
 
46 percent
of Spanish maternal grandmothers who live in the same city as their preschool grandchildren care for those children while their mother is at work. 33.
 
 
 
38 percent
of Spanish maternal grandmothers who live in the same city as their school-age grandchildren care for the children after school. 34.
 
 
 
Very Important –
In Spain, while it isn't regularly acknowledged, grandparent-provided child care has been one of the main reasons that women have been able to enter the work force in such large numbers in the past few decades. Without the grandparents' contribution, it likely would not have occurred. 35.
 
 
 
Becoming less available –
Fewer grandmothers in Greece can be a regular source of child care for working parents: grandparents can't watch the children because more of them are working, or live too far away to help out. 36.
 
 
 
 

GRANDPARENTSDEMOGRAPHICS AND ROLES
GRANDPARENTSAS CHILD CARE PROVIDERS

 
 

GRANDPARENTS – RAISING THE GRANDKIDS

 
 
 
2.3 million grandparents – 1.5 million grandmothers and 860,000 grandfathers –
43 percent of the American grandparents who live with their grandchildren – are responsible for providing their grandchildren's basic needs (i.e., food, shelter, and clothing). 37.
 
 
 
It's Because of A Crisis

– A British government report found that when grandparents assume full responsibility for raising a grandchild, it's usually the result of a family crisis. 38.
 
– An American study found that grandparents frequently are responsible for their grandchildren because of a serious problem with the parents which makes them incapable of caring for their children – such as a parent's drug addition or imprisonment. 39.
 
– And in South Asia, grandparents are raising their grandchildren because their parents have emigrated to other nations to find work. 40.

 
 
34 percent
of U.S. grandparent caregivers are in “skipped generation” households – meaning neither parent of the grandchild lives in the home. 41.
 
 
 
71 percent
of the 31,100 Australian children who live with their grandparents are in skipped generation households: both parents are absent. 42.
 
 
 
38.5 percent
of the U.S. grandparents who are primary caregivers for their grandchildren have been responsible for the children for at least five years. 43.
 
 
 
18.8 percent
of the U.S. grandparents who are primary caregivers for their grandchildren are in poverty. 44.
 
 
 
52 percent
of black U.S. grandparents living with their grandchildren are responsible for their care. Similarly, 56 percent of American Indian and Alaska native coresident grandparents are the primary caregiver. Both are higher rates than those of other racial or ethnic groups. 45.
 
 
 
1.4 million
U.S. grandparents are working and are responsible for their grandchildren. 46.
 
 
 
50 percent
of American grandparents under 50 years of age and living with their grandchildren are responsible for those children's welfare. 47.
 
 
 
Seven percent
of U.S. grandparent caregivers are in their 30s. 48.
 
 
 
35 percent
of U.S. grandparent caregivers are in their 50s. 49.
 
 
 
One percent
of U.S. grandparent caregivers are age 80 and over. 50.
 
 
 
18 percent
of American grandparents age 75 to 84 act as caregivers for coresident grandchildren. 51.
 
 
 
Nine percent
of American Grandparents age 85 and older acting as caregivers for coresident grandchildren. 52.
 
 
 
31 percent
of American grandparents 60 years old and older living with their grandchildren are responsible for those children. 53.
 
 
____________________________________________________
 
 
1. Yoshinori Kamo and Chizuko Wakabayashi, "Grandparenthood," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Ponzetti, James J. (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA (2002), p. 760 . Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
2. Yoshinori Kamo and Chizuko Wakabayashi, "Grandparenthood," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Ponzetti, James J. (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA (2002), p. 760. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
3. Yoshinori Kamo and Chizuko Wakabayashi, "Grandparenthood," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Ponzetti, James J. (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA (2002), p. 760. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
4. Yoshinori Kamo and Chizuko Wakabayashi, "Grandparenthood," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Ponzetti, James J. (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA (2002), p. 760 . Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
5. Yoshinori Kamo and Chizuko Wakabayashi, "Grandparenthood," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Ponzetti, James J. (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA (2002), p. 760 . Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
6. Sirpa Taskinen, "Families in Finland: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 6 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Finland.pdf
7. Sirpa Taskinen, "Families in Finland: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 6 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Finland.pdf
8. Yoshinori Kamo and Chizuko Wakabayashi, "Grandparenthood," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Ponzetti, James J. (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA (2002), p. 763 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
9. Yoshinori Kamo and Chizuko Wakabayashi, "Grandparenthood," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Ponzetti, James J. (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA (2002), p. 763 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
10. Yoshinori Kamo and Chizuko Wakabayashi, "Grandparenthood," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Ponzetti, James J. (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA (2002), p. 763 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
11. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2005: Sept. 11," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (July 11, 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
12. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
13. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
14. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
15. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
16. Discussing a report by Andrew Cherlin and Frank Furstenberg, Jr. Liselotte Wilk, “Intergenerational Relationships: Grandparents and Grandchildren,” Family issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report, Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies (May 2000), p. 28 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
17. Shampa Mazumdar, "Kinkeeping and Caregiving: Contributions of Older People in Immigrant Families," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302756
18. Shampa Mazumdar, "Kinkeeping and Caregiving: Contributions of Older People in Immigrant Families," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302756
19. Shampa Mazumdar, "Kinkeeping and Caregiving: Contributions of Older People in Immigrant Families," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302756
20. Shampa Mazumdar, "Kinkeeping and Caregiving: Contributions of Older People in Immigrant Families," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004) (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302756
21. _______, Del Webb 2004 Baby Boomer Survey, "Empty Nester Syndrome: When the Kids Go Away Will Boomers Play?' (2004) p. 15. Accessed at http://www.pulte.com/pressroom/2004BabyBoomer/BabyBoomerDetailReport.pdf on August 15, 2005. _______, Del Webb 2004 Baby Boomer Survey Press Release, "Baby Boomers Reclaim Independence in the Empty Nest But Del Webb Survey Shows ‘Boomerang’ Kids May Re-feather Their Future," Del Webb Website (June 29, 2004). Accessed at http://www.pulte.com/pressroom/2004BabyBoomer/BabyBoomerNesters.pdf on August 15, 2005.
22. Marian Yoder, "Grandparent Caregiving Role in Filipino American Families," Journal of Cultural Diversity (September 22, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:125337672
23. Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003) (p. 20). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
24. _______, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
25. Based on 1998 data. Helmuth Schattovits, The Situation of Families in Austria, 1994-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_austria_schattovits_en.pdf
26. Liselotte Wilk, “Intergenerational Relationships: Grandparents and Grandchildren,” Family issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report, Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies (May 2000), p. 27. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
27. Helmuth Schattovits, The Situation of Families in Austria, 1994-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_austria_schattovits_en.pdf
28. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 6 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
29. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 6 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
30. ________, "Historical Table. Primary Child Care Arrangements Used by Employed Mothers of Preschoolers: 1985 to 1999." U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/child/ppl-168/tabH-1.pdf
31. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), pp. 5-6 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
32. Valerie Richardson, "Families in Ireland: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 14. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Ireland.pdf
33. Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, "Families in Spain: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 8. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Spain.pdf
34. Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, "Families in Spain: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 8. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Spain.pdf
35. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915 . See also Cordón, Juan Antonio Fernández, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 4. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf and Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, "Families in Spain: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 8. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Spain.pdf
36. Christos Bagavos, The Situation of Families in Greece, 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_greece_bagavos.pdf
37. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2005: Sept. 11," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (July 11, 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
38. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 6 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
39. Shampa Mazumdar, "Kinkeeping and Caregiving: Contributions of Older People in Immigrant Families," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004) (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302756
40. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 11. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
41. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
42. _______, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
43. Based on 2000 census data. Tavia Simmons and Jane Lawler Dye, Grandparents Living With Grandchildren: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR-31. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2003), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf
44. Based on 1999 numbers and 2000 Census data. Tavia Simmons and Jane Lawler Dye, Grandparents Living With Grandchildren: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR-31. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2003), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf
45. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
46. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2005: Sept. 11," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (July 11, 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
47. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
48. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
49. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
50.________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
51. Yvonne J. Gist and Lisa I. Hetzel, We the People: Aging in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-19. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-19.pdf
52. Yvonne J. Gist and Lisa I. Hetzel, We the People: Aging in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-19. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-19.pdf
53. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
54. Andrew J. Cherlin, Marriage, Divorce, Remarriage, Revised and Enlarged Ed., Harvard University Press, USA (1992), p. 108 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/067455082X/ref=sib_rdr_dp/104-0887680-4192712?%5Fencoding=UTF8&no=283155&me=ATVPDKIKX0DER&st=books