Caregivers in the Workforce
 
Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 20
 
TOPICS COVERED: A concise analysis of whether corporate America has become more family-friendly, as long promised.
 
MEMOS ON RELATED INFORMATION: Child Care, Mothers and Daughters, Fathers and Sons, How People Spend their Time
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 

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TREND ANALYSIS: WORK-LIFE BALANCE

 
 
THE TREND AS IDENTIFIED IN MASS MEDIA:

It's uneven, but there's a recurrent string of articles about how workplaces are going too become more family-friendly / parent-supportive environments, because they have to, and / or they recognize the talent is worth it.
 
HOW THEY GET IT WRONG:
 
Point 1: It just isn't happening.
 
For decades already, the articles have said that it's coming. There may be some ability to telecommute, change work hours, but, by and large, things don't seem to have changed. The time-bind / work - family tension coverage seems to be continue; women and men still keep dropping out of the work force (if they can), still saying they have to choose a lesser position and less money to be with their kids. And the work week just gets longer. And technology is making the 7-day wk, 24-work day more of a reality – for upperclass / management (less so for blue collar jobs which typically are underemploying workers).
 
 
1978
The U.S. passed the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, which outlawed discrimination in hiring, firing, promotions or pay, on the basis of a woman's pregnancy.
 
 
1987
The U.S. Supreme Court upheld a California law requiring most employers give pregnant women up to four months of unpaid disability and the right to return to their job at the end of that time.
 
 
 
1993
The year the U.S. federal government enacted the Family and Medical Leave Act, which requires that eligible employees can take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave for childbearing or care of a family member.
 
 
 
36 percent
During the period of 1981-1985, 36 percent of U.S. women pregnant with their first child quit their jobs while pregnant or soon after giving birth.
 
 
 
26 percent
During the period of 1996-2000, 26 percent of U.S. women pregnant with their first child quit their jobs while pregnant or soon after giving birth.
 
 
 
3.9 percent
of U.S. women who had given birth to their first child during the period of 1961-1965 were working by the time the child was a month old.
 
 
 
13.6 percent
of U.S. women who had given birth to their first child during the period of 1996-1999 were working by the time the child was a month old.
 
 
16.8 percent
of U.S. women who had given birth to their first child during the period of 1961-1965 were working by the time the child was a year old.
 
 
 
64.8 percent
of U.S. women who had given birth to their first child during the period of 1996-1999 were working by the time the child was a year old.
 
 
 
33.5 percent
of U.S. women who had given birth to their first child during the period of 1961-1965 were working by the time the child was five years old.
 
 
 
78.6 percent
of U.S. women who had given birth to their first child during the period of 1991-1995 were working by the time the child was five years old.
 
 
 
January 2003
Date in Egypt, when the first woman judge was appointed by a presidential decree only in January 2003 – an indication of both the growth of Arabic women's education and preeminence in their fields and how far behind they still are compared to women elsewhere around the globe.
 
 
 
34.7 percent –
of Oman's women were working in the industrial labor force was female by the 1990s.
 
 
 
Seven percent –
of women in the other Gulf nations were working in industry.
 
 
 
45.3 percent –
of Oman's women in the 1990s were working in the service sector – the lowest rate of the Arab Gulf nations.
 
 
 
98 percent –
of the women in Kuwait who worked were working within the service sector.
 
 
 
46.4 percent –
of women age 25 to 44 in Persian Gulf region nations were working in the year 2000.
 
 
 
22.3 percent –
of women in Argentina were working in 1950.
 
 
 
38.4 percent –
of women in Argentina were working in the year 2000.
 
 
 
14.5 percent –
of women in Brazil were working in 1950.
 
 
 
41.0 percent –
of women in Brazil were working in the year 2000.
 
 
 
17.6 percent –
of women in Colombia were working in 1950.
 
 
 
37.1 percent –
of women in Colombia were working in the year 2000.
 
 
 
In 1950, sociologist Hollingshead wrote: “Lower-class families exhibit the highest prevalence of instability of any class . . . A companionate family is often a complicated one. It may include the natural chil-dren of the couple, plus the woman’s children from a previous legal or com-panionate relationship ; also there may be dependent children of the man living with the woman. Normally, when the lower-class family is broken, as in the higher classes, the mother keeps the children. However, the mother may desert her ’man’ for another man, and leave her children with him, her mother or sister, or social agency. In the Deep South and Elmtown, from 50 to 60 percent of lower-class family groups are broken once, and often more, by desertion, divorce, death, or separation, often due to imprisonment of the man, between marriage, legal or companionate, and its normal dissolution through the marriage of adult children and the death of aged parents. ¶ Economic insecurity is but one of a number of factors that give rise to this amount of instability. lower-class people are employed in the most menial, the poorest paid, . . . seasonal and cyclical, and of short duration. More-over, from one-half to two-third of the wives are gainfully employed outside the family; in may cases they are the sole support of the family. However, the problem of economic insecurity does not account for amoral behavior that ranges from the flagrant violation of conventional sex mores to open rebellion against formal agencies of social control.”
 
 
 
60 percent
"of Australian couple families with dependent children both parents were employed. . . . Of the 698,800 couple families with dependent children where only one parent was employed, the employed parent was the father in 89 percent of cases."
 
 
21 percent –
during the period of 1890 and 1920 – the increase in single women who were working.
 
 
 
100 percent –
during the period of 1890 and 1920 – the increase in married women who were working.
 
 
 
Why mothers in 1920s Philadelphia worked –

– they were widows (22 percent);
– they were on their own financially because their husbands had either deserted them or were not giving them any financial support (24 percent);
– they had husbands who were ill (14 percent);
– their husbands didn't make enough money (29 percent); and
– the women preferred to work (11 percent).
 

 
Two out of every three Americans between the ages of 14 and 65
were expected to be in the armed forces or working (or have substitutes in their places) by 1943. That estimate did not include millions more who were in seasonal agricultural work, or were volunteering for the Red Cross and other wartime relief agencies.
 
 
 
22,000,000 women
were working in the U.S. in 1961.
 
 
 
By 1961,
Science News Letter estimated that “A young woman in the U.S. today can anticipate spending about 25 years of her married life working outside the home.”
 
 
 
In Belgium, "New measures tend to take on male-oriented overtones. Currently, the system of parental leave is undergoing reform. In Belgium, parental leave was a special arrangement within a broader context of career interruption. As of 1 January 2002, this system will be discontinued and replaced by a new system involving time credit. This new systems foresees that each employee has the right to take off one year (full-time) (or its equivalent in part-time periods) over the space of the working career."
 
 
 
In Belgium, "Since 1997, the issue of parental leave has taken on new overtones; and the target population has not been exclusively mothers but also fathers. Special arrangements exclusively for fathers were introduced. One example was when a regional government (Brussels) introduced an additional ten days of fatherhood leave for their staff, effective as of 1 January 2002. Across regions, two general tendencies can be identified. First, the amounts received for parental leave tend to be quite substantial. For example, in the non-profit sector, employees can take three months of fatherhood leave and receive an amount of ¤ 927.12 a month as of January 2001. Second, incentives are built in so that the measures attract men as well as women."
 
 
 
In Germany, "To make clear that raising children is also work, the term ‘parental leave’ (Erziehungsurlaub)–which tends to connote ‘vacations’ in German–was substituted by ‘parental time’ (Elternzeit)."
 
 
 
In the Netherlands, "The most prevalent pattern is that of a family where the father is working full-time and the mother is working for an extra income that, in most cases, amounts to a half-time job or less."
 
 
 
44 percent
of Japanese women were in the paid labor force in 2000.
 
 
 
33 percent
of Japanese women in the paid labor force in 1950.
 
 
 
27 percent
of working mothers in Spain say that it is the help of their own mothers which is the main reason they can maintain both a family and a career. That's two percent less than say it's their husband are the reason. 14 percent say that it's proximity between work and home. Another 10 percent credit their other family members.
 
 
 
“Low”
The percentage of married American women graduating from college in 1900-1919 who were working at age 30.
 
 
 
25 percent
of married American women graduating from college in 1920-1945 who were working at age 30.
 
 
 
25-30 percent
of married American women graduating from college in 1946-1965 who were working at age 30.
 
 
 
65 percent
of married American women graduating from college in 1966-1979 who were working at age 30.
 
 
 
80 percent
of married American women graduating from college in 1980-1990 who were working at age 30.
 
 
 
12.3 percent
of American women with juris doctorates were no longer attorneys within 10 years of graduation, in comparison to 4.0 percent of men, according to a 1993 survey.
 
 
 
10.7 percent
of American women with M.D.s who were no longer doctors within 10 years of graduation, in comparison to 3.7 percent of men, according to in a 1993 survey.
 
 
 
One-fourth
of female graduates of various Harvard professional schools are not in the workforce, according to a study.
 
 
 
16 percent more likely –
For every hour a parent works between six and nine in the evening, the child is 16 percent more likely to score in the bottom fourth in math tests, according to a US study.
 
 
 
"Thus, the individualist will tend to view the needs of the self and the family as distinct, and will experience conflict when there are demands made by both. In other words, the work and family domains are seen as exerting competing demands where addressing one will likely be at the expense of the other. As a result, when work time demands are high, individualists are bound to experience higher levels of work--family stressors and consequent strain than are collectivists."
 
 
 
"In collectivist societies, according to Yang et al. (2000), people's focus is on the family's welfare. Work is seen not as a means of enhancing the self, but as a means of supporting the family. For example, Chinese traditionally view work as more important than leisure, and as contributing to family welfare instead of competing with it (Redding, 1993). Bu and McKeen (2000) found that Chinese business students were more committed to work than were Canadians and expected to work more hours. In addition, there may be less tendency for Chinese and other collectivists to consider home and work as independent domains, which may reflect more of a western point of view that is not universally held."
 
 
30 percent
of American married mothers of children younger than six who were in the labor force in 1970.
 
 
 
60.8 percent
of American married mothers of children younger than six who were in the labor force in 2002.
 
 
 
55.4 percent
of U.S. mothers are married, live with their husbands, and are in the labor force.
 
 
 
53.3 percent
of U.S. mothers without present spouses are in the labor force.
 
 
 
30 million
The increase of the European labor force between 1960 and 1990.
 
 
 
25 million
of those Europeans entering the labor force between 1960 and 1990, 25 million of them were women.
 
 
 
50 percent
of women in Spain 25-49 years old are in the work force. That's the lowest percentage of working women in the European Union.
 
 
 
80 percent
of women in Spain 25-49 years old are in the work force. That's the highest percentage of working women in the European Union.
 
 
 
Two-thirds
of women 25-49 years old in the European Union are working.
 
 
 
Eight percent
of employed women in Greece 25-49 years old are only working part-time.
 
 
 
75 percent
of employed women in the Netherlands 25-49 years old are only working part-time.
 
 
 
57 percent
in the U.S. in 1977 who agreed with the statement that a wife should help her husband's career rather than have one of her own. 43 percent disagreed.
 
 
 
19 percent
in U.S. in 1998 still agreed with the statement that a wife should help her husband's career instead of having one of her own. In 20 years, the number of those who disagreed doubled – to 81 percent.
 
 
 
66 percent
of those surveyed in the U.S. in 1977 agreed with the statement that "it is much better for everyone involved if the man is the achiever outside the home and the woman takes care of the home and family." (34 percent opposed.)
 
 
 
34 percent
of those surveyed in the U.S. in 1977 opposed the statement that "it is much better for everyone involved if the man is the achiever outside the home and the woman takes care of the home and family."
 
 
 
34-38 percent
in the U.S. in 1998 agreed with the statement that "it is much better for everyone involved if the man is the achiever outside the home and the woman takes care of the home and family."
 
 
 
62-66 percent
in the U.S. in 1998 opposed the statement that "it is much better for everyone involved if the man is the achiever outside the home and the woman takes care of the home and family."
 
 
 
67 percent
of those surveyed in the U.S. in 1996 thought that both the husband and wife should earn an income.
 
 
 
31.0 percent
of U.S. mothers with infants were in the workforce in 1976.
 
 
 
54.6 percent
of U.S. mothers with infants who were in the workforce in 2002. The rate increased to a peak of 58.7 percent in 1998, and then for the first time since 1976, it began to drop or stay unchanged. However, it is unclear if that is because of the economic downturn or a lifestyle movement.
 
 
 
55 percent
of U.S. mothers with infant children are in the workforce.
 
 
 
10 million
women in the U.K. were working in 1971.
 
 
 
13.2 million
women in the U.K. were working in 2001.
 
 
 
Over half –
of British mothers with preschool children were working in 1997. 18 percent of them were working full time.
 
 
 
Almost one-fifth
of British children live in a household without a working parent.
 
 
 
One out of every six
U.S. children lived with a householder who was not in the labor force in 2000. In California, New York, and Mississippi, that figure rose to 21 percent. In Washington DC, it was 32 percent.
 
 
 
Seven million
U.S. married mothers were out of the labor force in 2003.
 
 
 
Six million mothers –
– 88 percent of the mothers who were out of the labor force – said that the primary reason they weren't working was because they were taking care of their homes and families. Of these six million women, five million of them had the fathers of their children in the labor force for the entire year.
 
 
 
160,000
– 16 percent – U.S. married fathers were out of the labor force in 2003 because they were taking care of their homes and families. For about 100,000 of these families, the mother was in the workforce the entire year.
 
 
 
45 percent
of those fathers out of the workforce who said that the primary reason they weren't working because they were ill or disabled.
 
 
 
"The economies in the Anglo countries tend to be stronger than those in China and Latin America, resulting in a higher average household income. Thus, working longer hours in the Anglo world may appear to be less necessary for family survival. It makes sense that where making a living is more difficult, people would be more accepting of working long hours. Similarly, higher unemployment rates than those in Anglo countries may force managers in less developed areas to protect their jobs by working longer hours. Such extended hours would be tolerated by the family as a necessary evil, or even celebrated as a further guarantee of job security in an uncertain job market where having a management job is certainly an unusual privilege. Furthermore, there may be greater extended family support in collectivist countries on matters such as babysitting children, thereby making it easier for families to manage with one or even both parents working long hours."
 
 
 
Three in five
British couples with dependent children are ‘dual-earner’ families – both adults are working.
 
 
 
36 percent
of the British mothers who have partners, do not work. By contrast, 73 percent of British women with partners but without children are employed.
 
 
 
37 percent
of the British mothers who have partners, work but just part-time. By contrast, just 22 percent of British women with partners but without children work part-time.
 
 
 
27 percent
of the British mothers who have partners, work full-time. By contrast, 51 percent of British women with partners but without children are employed full-time.
 
 
 
In Finland, "Because the benefits do not totally compensate for earnings, it is more profitable for the parent with the lower income to stay at home. Most often, this is the mother."
 
 
 
 
In Finland, "In 1998, every second child had two working parents, though the mothers tended to regulate their working time according to their children's age. When the youngest child was under three, only 45 percent of the mothers worked." 70. Sirpa Taskinen, The Situation of Families in Finland in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_finland_taskinen_en.pdf
 
 
 
 
In Germany, "Besides migration, the discussion [on low fertility and the “extinction of the German population] soon focused on the enormous potential of qualified women. If future offers enable them to better reconcile work and family life, they could close the anticipated gap between the supply of and demand for skilled labour."
 
 
 
In Ireland, "For many years the underlying assumption of social welfare and taxation in Ireland was that of a breadwinner father with dependent spouse and children in a lifelong marriage. As the Report states “this is, however, no longer necessarily the norm in Irish society.”
 
 
 
23.1 percent
of women in Portugal worked in 1970.
 
 
 
62.0 percent
of women in Portugal worked in 1998.
 
 
 
68 percent
of couples with at least one dependent child in Portugal were dual-earner families.
 
 
 
70 percent
of women with children in Finland work.
 
 
 
58 percent
of women without children in Finland work.
 
 
 
Every second child –
in Finland had two working parents in 1998. Although fewer mothers of younger children worked.
 
 
 
40 percent
of the American labor force works mostly nonstandard hours: they work in the evenings, overnight, on rotating schedules, or on weekends.
 
 
 
For one out of five
employed Americans, they work most of their hours outside the range of 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. or they have a schedule that regularly rotates.
 
 
 
In 35 percent
of American dual-earner couples with a child under five years old, one of the parents had an atypical work schedule.
 
 
 
One-third
of American single mothers work weekends.
 
 
 
One-fourth
of American single mothers work in late evenings or on rotating shifts.
 
 
 
More than half
of all American mothers with children under age five who work late or rotating schedules or weekends rely on two or more caregivers.
 
 
 
Just about 35 percent
of single mothers who work evenings eat with their children at least five days a week.
 
 
 
They have 2.7 times the risk of being suspended from school –
– "they" being children with parents who work nights.
 
 
 
Lower cognitive scores –
In a study, cognitive scores for children with mothers who ever worked nonstandard hours – evenings, nights, or variable schedules – were lower at 15, 24 and 36 months, when compared to the scores of children with mothers who worked standard hours.
 
 
 
60 percent
of Australian couple families with dependent children both parents are employed. Of the 698,800 couple families with dependent children where only one parent was employed, the employed parent was the father in 89 percent of cases.
 
 
 
If it's one parent working, it's Dad
Of the 698,800 Australian couple families with dependent children where only one parent was employed, the employed parent was the father in 89 percent of cases.
 
 
 
Almost 50 percent
of Irish mothers with partners work.
 
 
 
74 percent
of new jobs in 1990s Greece were filled by women.
 
 
 
". . . neither capitalist America nor socialist China had shown real signs of a significant transformation from patriarchal to gender-egalitarian power relationships in the past fifty years. The wife's recent achievement in economic independence via labor force participation does not easily translate into a gender-balanced power structure in the conjugal family. In the case of Detroit, we do not see an expected steady decline in husbands' power since the 1960s' cohorts where women begun to increasingly enter into the labor force. In the case of China, the finding is consistent with previous studies, which revealed that in urban Chinese families husbands tend to dominate the decision-making process."
 
 
 
24 percent
of all women in Canada were in the labor force in 1951.
 
 
 
60 percent
of all women in Canada were in the labor force in 1990.
 
 
 
31 percent
of all British women were in the labor force in 1951.
 
 
 
44 percent
of all British women were in the labor force in 1993.
 
 
 
17.0 percent
of women in Latin American were in the labor force in 1950.
 
 
 
27.5 percent
of women in Latin American were estimated to be in the labor force in the year 2000.
 
 
 
48 hours a week –
the most hours an employer can require an employee to work in the U.K., following a 1998 law meant to acknowledge the need to balance work and family life.
 
 
 
In the U.K., it's the grown-ups who need a note to go leave early –
Beginning in 2003, British parents can make a written request for flexible work scheduling – and their bosses have to explain why such a request isn't granted. And the employee has the right to appeal the decision, even in a tribunal, if necessary.
 
 
 
Over 80 percent
of unmarried women in Spain, aged 25 to 49, are working.
 
 
 
57 percent
of married women in Spain, aged 25 to 49, are working. That is an increase from 42 percent in 1991.
 
 
 
In Spain, "Cultural gender differentiations are gradually vanishing. A clear change in the opinions and attitudes about sharing household tasks has occurred since 1975, when household maintenance was considered to be women’s work. In a recent survey, young people saw sharing domestic tasks as one of the key conditions for a successful partnership. Notwithstanding this tendency, families – especially those with children – tend to reproduce traditional roles, either by preventing married women from working when care obligations are impossible to fulfill with both parents working full-time, or by forcing working mothers to accept strategies involving informal and formal care and lengthy working days without any noticeable support from their husband, except in terms of direct child care. Staying at home is more often the case among women with less education, who at the same time feel less attraction for their job and are less able to afford external help given their small salary. Traditional roles have not changed in the workplace, which is still dominated by the male-breadwinner model; and these roles have not changed much in the family either, the two areas being too closely related."
 
 
 
35-hours –
the number of hours in a French work week since its institution in the year 2000.
 
 
 
57 percent
of French parents with children under the age of six – and one-third of all French parents – think the reduced work week was helping them balance work and family responsibilities, especially child care. But it wasn't just the change in the hours. Analysts think that – without supportive employers and other French benefits (such as parental leave and child care) – the change in hours alone would probably not have had as significant an impact.
 
 
 
Almost half
of French parents with children under 12 years old surveyed responded that they spend more time with their children since the reduction of work hours.
 
 
 
Three times as likely –
U.S. mothers with graduate degrees are three times as likely to be working full-, rather than part-time.
 
 
 
63 percent
of U.S. mothers with at least one year of a college education were working in 2002, despite having had a child within the past year.
 
 
 
1998-2002
The only years with a decline of the mothers with infants in the U.S. labor force participation, since the Census started keeping records of this in 1976. It was a four percent drop – from 59 to 55 percent.
 
 
 
2.1 million
of U.S. mothers of infants were in the workforce in 2002. Of these, 1.9 million had jobs at the time of the Census, while the remainder were currently unemployed.
 
 
 
72 percent
of U.S. mothers with children, one year old or older, were in the labor force in 2002.
 
 
 
55 percent
of U.S. mothers with infants were in the labor force in 2002. Of these mothers, 61 percent of those over the age of 30 were working while just 39 percent of teenage mothers (15 to 19 years old) have jobs.
 
 
 
80-90 percent
of Sri Lanka's free trade zone labor force in 2003 was female.
 
 
 
A double-edged sword –
In South Asia, mothers' work gives the families the financial means to provide children with the necessary nutrition. But the children are still malnourished – because the mothers aren't around to ensure that the children are eating proper, nutritious meals. And infants fare even worse, since the working mothers can't breast-feed or establish regular feeding-schedules for their babies because of their work.
 
 
____________________________________________________
 
Julia Overturf Johnson and Barbara Downs, Maternity Leave and Employment Patterns of First-Time Mothers: 1961-2000, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-103. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-103.pdf
________, California Federal Savings and Loan Assn. et al. v. Guerra, 479 U.S. 272 (1986). Archived at: http://laws.findlaw.com/us/479/272.html
Julia Overturf Johnson and Barbara Downs, Maternity Leave and Employment Patterns of First-Time Mothers: 1961-2000, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-103. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-103.pdf
Julia Overturf Johnson and Barbara Downs, Maternity Leave and Employment Patterns of First-Time Mothers: 1961-2000, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-103. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-103.pdf
Julia Overturf Johnson and Barbara Downs, Maternity Leave and Employment Patterns of First-Time Mothers: 1961-2000, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-103. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-103.pdf
Julia Overturf Johnson and Barbara Downs, Maternity Leave and Employment Patterns of First-Time Mothers: 1961-2000, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-103. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), pp. 12, 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-103.pdf
Julia Overturf Johnson and Barbara Downs, Maternity Leave and Employment Patterns of First-Time Mothers: 1961-2000, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-103. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), pp. 12, 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-103.pdf
Julia Overturf Johnson and Barbara Downs, Maternity Leave and Employment Patterns of First-Time Mothers: 1961-2000, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-103. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), pp. 12, 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-103.pdf
Julia Overturf Johnson and Barbara Downs, Maternity Leave and Employment Patterns of First-Time Mothers: 1961-2000, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-103. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), pp. 12, 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-103.pdf
Julia Overturf Johnson and Barbara Downs, Maternity Leave and Employment Patterns of First-Time Mothers: 1961-2000, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-103. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), pp. 12, 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-103.pdf
Julia Overturf Johnson and Barbara Downs, Maternity Leave and Employment Patterns of First-Time Mothers: 1961-2000, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-103. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), pp. 12, 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-103.pdf
August B. Hollingshead, "Class Differences in Family Stability," The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 272, pp. 39-46 (November 1950). pp. 45-46.
________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
Mary Ross, “Shall We Join the Gentlemen?,” The Survey, p. 264, et seq. (December 1, 1926), p. 265.
Mary Ross, “Shall We Join the Gentlemen?,” The Survey, p. 264, et seq. (December 1, 1926), p. 265.
“The Parent’s Wages,” The Survey, p. 284, (Dec. 1, 1926)
10. “The War Needs Women,” Parents’ Magazine, p. 24 (Sept. 1943).
12. "Do You Know?" Science News Letter, Feb. 4, 1961 (p. 78)
13. “Do You Know?” Science News Letter, Oct. 28, 1961 (p. 296) (emphasis in orig)
Wilfried Dumon, The Situation of Families in Belgium, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 11. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_belgium_dumon.pdf
Wilfried Dumon, The Situation of Families in Belgium, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 11. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_belgium_dumon.pdf
Walter Bien, The Situation of Families in Germany, 2000-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 3. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_germany_bien_en.pdf
Hans-Joachim Schulze and Peter Cuyvers, The Situation of Families in The Netherlands in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 4. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_netherlands_schulze_cuyvers.pdf
Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 26 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 26 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, "Families in Spain: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 9. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Spain.pdf
Claudia Goldin, The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family, Mommies and Daddies on the Fast Track: Success of Parents in Demanding Professions, Special Issue of The Annals of the Amer. Acad. of Political and Social Science (Vol. 596) p. 23 (11/2004)
Claudia Goldin, The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family, Mommies and Daddies on the Fast Track: Success of Parents in Demanding Professions, Special Issue of The Annals of the Amer. Acad. of Political and Social Science (Vol. 596) p. 23 (11/2004)
Claudia Goldin, The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family, Mommies and Daddies on the Fast Track: Success of Parents in Demanding Professions, Special Issue of The Annals of the Amer. Acad. of Political and Social Science (Vol. 596) p. 23 (11/2004)
Claudia Goldin, The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family, Mommies and Daddies on the Fast Track: Success of Parents in Demanding Professions, Special Issue of The Annals of the Amer. Acad. of Political and Social Science (Vol. 596) p. 23 (11/2004)
Claudia Goldin, The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family, Mommies and Daddies on the Fast Track: Success of Parents in Demanding Professions, Special Issue of The Annals of the Amer. Acad. of Political and Social Science (Vol. 596) p. 23 (11/2004)
Pamela Stone and Meg Lovejoy, Fast Track Women and the “Choice” to Stay Home, Mommies and Daddies on the Fast Track: Success of Parents in Demanding Professions, Special Issue of The Annals of the Amer. Acad. of Political and Social Science (Vol. 596) p. 63 (11/2004)
Pamela Stone and Meg Lovejoy, Fast Track Women and the “Choice” to Stay Home, Mommies and Daddies on the Fast Track: Success of Parents in Demanding Professions, Special Issue of The Annals of the Amer. Acad. of Political and Social Science (Vol. 596) p. 63 (11/2004
Pamela Stone and Meg Lovejoy, Fast Track Women and the “Choice” to Stay Home, Mommies and Daddies on the Fast Track: Success of Parents in Demanding Professions, Special Issue of The Annals of the Amer. Acad. of Political and Social Science (Vol. 596) p. 64 (11/2004)
Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 27 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
Shanfa Yu, "A Cross-national Comparative Study of Work–Family Stressors, Working Hours, and Well-being: China and Latin America versus the Anglo World," Personnel Psychology (March 22, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:114785362
Shanfa Yu, "A Cross-national Comparative Study of Work–Family Stressors, Working Hours, and Well-being: China and Latin America versus the Anglo World," Personnel Psychology (March 22, 2004)(citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:114785362
Janice Fanning Madden, Preface, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 596, No. 1, pp. 6-18 (November 2004), p. 7. Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4534898792C12B9608F1
Janice Fanning Madden, Preface, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 596, No. 1, pp. 6-18 (November 2004), p. 7. Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4534898792C12B9608F1
Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 20 (quoting from Female Careers Between Employment and Children). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 20 (quoting from Female Careers Between Employment and Children). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 20 (quoting from Female Careers Between Employment and Children). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 20 (quoting from Female Careers Between Employment and Children). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 20 (quoting from Female Careers Between Employment and Children). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 20 (quoting from Female Careers Between Employment and Children). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 20 (quoting from Female Careers Between Employment and Children). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), pp. 6-7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), pp. 6-7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
________, "Percentage of Childless Women 40 to 44 Years Old Increases Since 1976, Census Bureau Reports," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 23, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/fertility/001491.html on August 15, 2005.
Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
As of 1999. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 7 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 11-12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 11-12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 11-12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 11-12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
Shanfa Yu, "A Cross-national Comparative Study of Work–Family Stressors, Working Hours, and Well-being: China and Latin America versus the Anglo World," Personnel Psychology (March 22, 2004)(citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:114785362
Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
Sirpa Taskinen, The Situation of Families in Finland in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_finland_taskinen_en.pdf
Walter Bien, The Situation of Families in Germany, 2000-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_germany_bien_en.pdf
Gabriel Kiely, The Situation of Families in Ireland, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_ireland_kiely_en.pdf
Karin Wall, The Situation of Families in Portugal in the Late 1990s, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_portugal_wall_en.pdf
Karin Wall, The Situation of Families in Portugal in the Late 1990s, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_portugal_wall_en.pdf
According to a 1999 national survey. Karin Wall, The Situation of Families in Portugal in the Late 1990s, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_portugal_wall_en.pdf
Sirpa Taskinen, The Situation of Families in Finland in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_finland_taskinen_en.pdf
Sirpa Taskinen, The Situation of Families in Finland in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_finland_taskinen_en.pdf
Sirpa Taskinen, The Situation of Families in Finland in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_finland_taskinen_en.pdf
________, "24/7 Economy’s Work Schedules Are Family Unfriendly and Suggest Needed Policy Changes," Amer. Sociological Assoc. Press Release (May 25, 2004).
________, "24/7 Economy’s Work Schedules Are Family Unfriendly and Suggest Needed Policy Changes," Amer. Sociological Assoc. Press Release (May 25, 2004).
________, "24/7 Economy’s Work Schedules Are Family Unfriendly and Suggest Needed Policy Changes," Amer. Sociological Assoc. Press Release (May 25, 2004).
________, "24/7 Economy’s Work Schedules Are Family Unfriendly and Suggest Needed Policy Changes," Amer. Sociological Assoc. Press Release (May 25, 2004).
________, "24/7 Economy’s Work Schedules Are Family Unfriendly and Suggest Needed Policy Changes," Amer. Sociological Assoc. Press Release (May 25, 2004).
________, "24/7 Economy’s Work Schedules Are Family Unfriendly and Suggest Needed Policy Changes," Amer. Sociological Assoc. Press Release (May 25, 2004).
________, "24/7 Economy’s Work Schedules Are Family Unfriendly and Suggest Needed Policy Changes," Amer. Sociological Assoc. Press Release (May 25, 2004).
Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 27 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 27 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
Gabriel Kiely, The Situation of Families in Ireland, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_ireland_kiely_en.pdf
Christos Bagavos, The Situation of Families in Greece, 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 3 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_greece_bagavos.pdf
Xiaohe Xu, "Convergence or Divergence: The Transformation of Marriage and Relationships in Urban America and Urban China," Journal of Asian and African Studies (May 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:20980086
Kimberly Abshoff and Mira J. Hird, "Women Without Children: A Contradiction In Terms?" Journal of Comparative Family Studies (June 22, 2000)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:68535835
Kimberly Abshoff and Mira J. Hird, "Women Without Children: A Contradiction In Terms?" Journal of Comparative Family Studies (June 22, 2000)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:68535835
Kimberly Abshoff and Mira J. Hird, "Women Without Children: A Contradiction In Terms?" Journal of Comparative Family Studies (June 22, 2000)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:68535835
Kimberly Abshoff and Mira J. Hird, "Women Without Children: A Contradiction In Terms?" Journal of Comparative Family Studies (June 22, 2000)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:68535835
Sherri Grasmuck, "Gender, Households and Informal Entrepreneurship in the Dominican Republic," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 1997). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:20355395
Sherri Grasmuck, "Gender, Households and Informal Entrepreneurship in the Dominican Republic," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 1997). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:20355395
Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 12 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 12 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 3. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf
As of 2000. Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 3. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf
Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 3. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf
Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 34 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 34 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 34 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
________, "Percentage of Childless Women 40 to 44 Years Old Increases Since 1976, Census Bureau Reports," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 23, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/fertility/001491.html on August 15, 2005.
Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 6. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
________, "Percentage of Childless Women 40 to 44 Years Old Increases Since 1976, Census Bureau Reports," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 23, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/fertility/001491.html on August 15, 2005.
________, "Percentage of Childless Women 40 to 44 Years Old Increases Since 1976, Census Bureau Reports," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 23, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/fertility/001491.html on August 15, 2005.
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 44. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), pp. 25-26. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Date in Egypt, when the first woman judge was appointed by a presidential decree only in January 2003 – an indication of both the growth of Arabic women's education and preeminence in their fields and how far behind they still are compared to women elsewhere around the globe. Nazek Nosseir, "Family in the New Millennium: Major Trends Affecting Families in North Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtnosseir.pdf
of Oman's women were working in the industrial labor force was female by the 1990s. Yahya El-Haddad, "Major Trends Affecting Families in the Gulf Countries," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (200_), p. 7 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtelhaddad.pdf
Yahya El-Haddad, "Major Trends Affecting Families in the Gulf Countries," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (200_), p. 7 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtelhaddad.pdf
Yahya El-Haddad, "Major Trends Affecting Families in the Gulf Countries," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (200_), p. 7 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtelhaddad.pdf
Yahya El-Haddad, "Major Trends Affecting Families in the Gulf Countries," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (200_), p. 7 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtelhaddad.pdf
Yahya El-Haddad, "Major Trends Affecting Families in the Gulf Countries," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (200_), p. 7 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtelhaddad.pdf
Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 22, Table 2. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 22, Table 2. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 22, Table 2. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 22, Table 2. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 22, Table 2. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 22, Table 2. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
Alice Parsons Beal, “Four Ways to Support a Family: IV. The Parent’s Wages,” The Survey, p. 284, et seq. (December 1, 1926), p. 284.
Alice Parsons Beal, “Four Ways to Support a Family: IV. The Parent’s Wages,” The Survey, p. 284, et seq. (December 1, 1926), p. 284.
Alice Parsons Beal, “Four Ways to Support a Family: IV. The Parent’s Wages,” The Survey, p. 284, et seq. (December 1, 1926), p. 284.