What Makes You a Grown-up?
 
Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 14
 
TOPICS COVERED: "When I was your age, I . . . ." Who hasn't heard that, without cringing at the veiled critique that is almost sure to finish that sentence? Maybe you heard it when you were 10 – maybe it was when you were 40. But, no matter what the age, it's amazing how it always hits home, isn't it? But then, I think it's because we've already lectured ourselves with the very same line. "When Dad was my age, he'd already . . . ." And, no matter what comes next, we start to feel like we're six.

So what does make you a grown-up? Is it moving out of the house? Hitting a certain age? Having a relationship? Getting a job? How is it that we can do those things, that we consider to be "adult," but we still feel like kids? Or that we feel like grown-ups, we're certainly old enough, but we haven't seemed to have accomplished any of those things "grown-ups" have done? What marks the point at which you now shoulder all the expectations of being grown up? At the point you finish your education? (Does that include grad school, part time, for years - or Learning Annex classes?) At the point you get married, even if you marry young? This is one of those subtle issues that silently and profoundly affects how generations get along and judge each other. What it means to be “a grown up” is very different today than in the past – the set of responsibilities that go with being 30, or 21, or 15 have changed. Learning how the definition of growing up varies greatly around the world somehow makes it easier to understand and accept that it’s changed so much in a few generations here. In other words, there’s no inherent “right” answer. We all have adapted this definition to fit varying economic and cultural circumstances.
 
MEMOS ON RELATED INFORMATION: American Dream (for children's expectations of success), Education, Moving Back Home, Keeping Up With the Joneses, Marriage Part One (for societal and historical perceptions of marriage), Marriage Part Two (for demographic information on marriage, including more information on probability of getting married), Households (for demographics on families and households), Delaying Marriage (for information relating to timing of marriage), Family Structures.
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 

PAGE INDEX:

 

WHAT MAKES A GROWN UP?

WHEN ARE THEY LEAVING HOME?

LEAVING HOME – A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

 
 
 

WHAT MAKES A GROWN UP?

 
 
 
“And as the inner life--this is all in Western history, of course--as the inner life takes over our philosophy of work, as people start asking, What do you want to be when you grow up?' it becomes impossible to stop that question from seeping into the rest of your life. Who do you want to be with when you grow up?' That's really a large question about who you are inside, What do you want to be when you grow up?' And once it's asked, once your work is no longer handed down to you, you know, you don't wear your parents' clothes or use the loom that your parents used, but have to go invent your life for yourself . . . .” 1.
 
 
 
"By the 1950s and 1960s, most Americans viewed family roles and adult responsibilities as nearly synonymous. In that era, most women married before they were 21 and had at least one child before they were 23. For men, having the means to marry and support a family was the defining characteristic of adulthood, while for women, merely getting married and becoming a mother conferred adult status." 2.
 
 
 
In the U.S., leaving home is a particularly important element of becoming an adult, because "for much of the twentieth century, home-leaving was the starting point for a range of processes that signaled the transition from youth to adulthood. Most young people left home to marry, complete their education, serve in the military, or to work. With those changes came parenthood and economic independence. The timing of the components of home-leaving has changed, making the whole process occur earlier or later, or even become reversible as people return home. In these transitions we see the outline of change in their lives and in the experiences of American society as a whole." 3.
 
 
 
70 percent
of 25-year-old women in 1960 had attained traditional adult status defined as: leaving home, finishing school, getting married, having a child, and being financially independent. 4.
 
 
 
25 percent
of 25-year-old women in 2000 had attained traditional adult status defined as: leaving home, finishing school, getting married, having a child, and being financially independent. On the other hand, in 2000, 25-year-old women had increased their participation in the labor force to levels approaching those of 25-year old men. 5.
 
 
 
65 percent
of 30-year-old American men in 1960 had achieved all of the traditional benchmarks of “becoming an adult,” defined as: leaving home, finishing school, getting married, having a child, and being financially independent. 6.
 
 
 
Less than half of that –
31 percent – of 30-year-old American men in 2000 had achieved all of the traditional benchmarks of “becoming an adult,” defined as: leaving home, finishing school, getting married, having a child, and being financially independent. 7.
 
 
 
77 percent
of 30-year-old American women in 1960 had achieved all of the traditional benchmarks of “becoming an adult,” defined as leaving home, finishing school, getting married, having a child, and being financially independent. 8.
 
 
 
About two-thirds of that –
– 46 percent – of 30-year-old American women in 2000 had achieved all of the traditional benchmarks of “becoming an adult,” defined as: leaving home, finishing school, getting married, having a child, and being financially independent. 9.
 
 
 
70 percent
of 30-year-old American men in 2000 who had achieved all of modern benchmarks of “becoming an adult,” defined as: leaving home, finishing school, and being financially independent, but did not include getting married or having a child. While higher than the traditional benchmarks, if the modern benchmarks were applied to 1960, a still greater number of those 30-year-old men (82 percent) would have accomplished all of these. 10.
 
 
 
75 percent
of 30-year-old American women in 2000 who had achieved all of modern benchmarks of “becoming an adult,” defined as: leaving home, finishing school, and being financially independent – but did not include getting married or having a child. While higher than the traditional benchmarks, if the modern benchmarks were applied to 1960, a still greater number of those 30-year-old women (85 percent) would have accomplished all of these. 11.
 
 
 
Two-thirds
The amount of U.S. adults in their early 20s who receive economic support from parents. 40 percent still receive financial assistance in their late 20s. "A century ago, it was the other way around: young adults typically helped their parents when they first went to work, if (as was common) they still lived with their parents." 12.
 
 
 
70 percent
of American men in the mid-1990s, age 24-28, earn enough to support themselves. 13.
 
 
 
But less than half of them –
that is, American men in the mid-1990s, age 24-28 – earned enough to support a family of three. 14.
 
 
 
In 2001, 28 percent of women between 21 and 25 were already mothers in Sweden and the United Kingdom, when just only 12 percent were mothers in Italy. 15.
 
 
 
In 2001, in the U.K., half of the young people had joined the job market by age 19, but half of young people in Italy and Spain were still without a job after age 24. 16.
 
 
 
Attending initiation school is the first step
in South Africa to becoming an adult. Initiation school teaches children about respect for the society's elders, and about hardship – through activities like swimming in a cold river during the winter. For boys in some tribes, it may include circumcision. 17.
 
 
 
Not until you've had a kid –
In South Africa, men really aren't thought of as adults until the birth of their first child. 18.
 
 
 
Not until your husband's died –
In South Africa, women really aren't thought of as independent adults until after the death of their husbands and his brothers. 19.
 
 
 
In the Gulf Countries, "most young men and women no longer consider marriage as a step that grants them societal membership, although marriage is still an important social matter. Today there are other criteria and other characteristics that confirm a person’s full membership in society, such as educational attainment and occupation or employment." 20.
 
 
 
A growing prestige –
In Afghanistan, a woman's power and social status continue to grow throughout her life, increasing as she transitions from "child to bride to mother to grandmother." 21.
 
 
 
In Spain, "The lengthening of the youth period, with young men and women remaining longer at the parental home, is shaping gender relations in a more equalitarian direction." 22.
 
 
 
 

WHAT MAKES A GROWN UP?
LEAVING HOME – A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

 
 
 
 

WHEN ARE THEY LEAVING HOME?

 
 
 
"In societies of Mediterranean Europe, . . . the definitive departure of young people tends to coincide more or less closely with their marriage and finding a stable job. The years between adolescent maturity (ages 18-20 years) and marriage are spent largely within the parental household. If a person gets a job during this period, he or she normally continues to live at home, a strategy that enables the young adult to save for his or her own marriage." 23.
 
 
 
62 percent
of American college students surveyed expect to live at home after graduation. 24.
 
 
 
20 percent
of U.S. men aged 25 to 29 were living with their parents in the 1990s. 25.
 
 
 
12 percent
of U.S. women aged 25 to 29 were living with their parents in the 1990s. 26.
 
 
 
Seven percent
of U.S. women 25-34 years old were living with their parents in 2003. 27.
 
 
 
13.5 percent
of U.S. men 25-34 years old were living with their parents in 2003. 28.
 
 
 
59 percent
of Italians from 18 to 34 lived with their parents in 1998, up from about 52 percent in 1990. 29.
 
 
 
More than 70 percent
of Italian men under 30, and Spanish men aged 25-29, live with their parents. 30.
 
 
 
27 percent
of Italians age 30 to 34 live with their parents. Twice as many men live at home than women. 31.
 
 
 
41 percent
of Australians aged 20 to 24 years old still live with their parents. 32.
 
 
 
31 percent
of young Australian adults in their 20s who were living in the parental home in 1999, an increase from 1986’s 27 percent. 16 percent are still in the family home until their late 20s. 33.
 
 
 
149 men to 100 women
In Australia, the ratio of men in their twenties who live with their parents compared to the number of women of the same age who also still live at home. In fact, the past decade has seen a greater increase in women staying home – but the young men at home still far outnumbers the women. 34.
 
 
 
44.7 percent
The European average percentage of young people, 16-30 years old, live with their parents – but that varies dramatically by region and nation. 35.
 
 
 
69.6 percent
The European average percentage of boys, 16-24 years old, who live with their parents. But that varies dramatically. In Ireland, that's 77.5 percent and in Belgium, it's 83.3 percent. 36.
 
 
 
25 percent
of Central European men aged 25 to 29 were living with their parents in the 1990s. 37.
 
 
 
11 percent
of Central European women aged 25 to 29 were living with their parents in the 1990s. 38.
 
 
 
65 percent
of Southern European men aged 25 to 29 were living with their parents in the 1990s. 39.
 
 
 
44 percent
of Southern European women aged 25 to 29 were living with their parents in the 1990s. 40.
 
 
 
58 percent
of British men, 20-24 years old, live with their parents. 41.
 
 
 
39 percent
of British women, 20-24 years old, live with their parents. 42.
 
 
 
59.1 percent
of Spanish young people, 16-30 years old, live with their parents. 43.
 
 
 
56.3 percent
of Portuguese young people, 16-30 years old, live with their parents. 44.
 
 
 
42.9 percent
of Greek young people, 16-30 years old, live with their parents. 45.
 
 
 
55.7 percent
of Irish young people, 16-30 years old, live with their parents. 46.
 
 
 
22.6 percent
of Finnish young people, 16-30 years old, live with their parents. 47.
 
 
 
24.7 percent
of Danish young people, 16-30 years old, live with their parents. 48.
 
 
 
34 percent
of Swedish young people, 16-30 years old, live with their parents. 49.
 
 
 
25 percent
of Dutch young people, 16-30 years old, live with their parents. 50.
 
 
 
41 percent
of French young people, 16-30 years old, live with their parents. 51.
 
 
 
33 percent
of German young people, 16-30 years old, live with their parents. 52.
 
 
 
23 percent
of Austrian men born between 1966 and 1970 had not moved out of their parents' homes by the time they were 30. The median age for men leaving home was 22 years and five months old, while women leave two years earlier. 53.
 
 
 
Why more young people are staying home –

In Italy, "The most common reason given by young people living with parents . . . is that they're happy with the living arrangement." 54.
 
 
 
In Italy, "leaving your family to work or study is not acceptable to Italians. "People will say that something is wrong with your family, or your relationship . . . . The only legitimate reason to leave the family is marriage--something Italians are doing later and later." 55.
 
 
 
In a survey, of Italians age 30 to 34 living at home, about 40 percent consider their situation "normal." 56.
 
 
 
High rents – they can't afford anything else. 57.
 
 
 
High unemployment. In Spain, a job search takes an average of 28.6 months. 58.
 
 
 
Higher affluence and moral tolerance in the parental home, and consequently, less pressure to leave. 59.
 

 
Young people in Northern Europe who have a lower educational level tend to stay on longer with their parents, than those with a higher level. However, the situation is the opposite in Italy, Spain, Portugal and Ireland: young people with a higher educational level are the ones who are staying on longer in the parental household. 60.
 
 
 
"In England, the Netherlands, and the United States, for example, young adults often remain at home past 20 years of age, while in Spain and Portugal some people leave home before marriage and others continue to live with their parents after marriage, at least for awhile. In fact, temporary coresidence of parents and married children, and even prolonged periods of economic help, have never been infrequent, either in the past or today. Nevertheless, these moments of help were always considered as exceptional by everyone. These exceptions only underlie the great differences between northern and southern Europe on this point." 61.
 
 
 

WHAT MAKES A GROWN UP?
WHEN ARE THEY LEAVING HOME?

 
 
 

LEAVING HOME – A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

 
 
 
"From at least the latter part of the Middle Ages until the second half of the nineteenth century or the early years of this century, it was common in rural England for young adults to leave their parental households to work as agricultural servants in other households for a prolonged period." 62.
 
 
 
"The history of home-leaving in the U.S. since 1880 largely reflects changes in social conventions, family relationships, and individual characteristics. During the Long First Half of the Twentieth Century, one of the most important factors in the rising age of home-leaving was declining adult mortality, which led to declining rates of orphanhood. High rates of immigration into the U.S. up until the 1920s also influenced the age at which young people left home, because young adults who immigrated by themselves during the peak years were necessarily away from the home of their parents. Finally, social change that led to decreased child labor and increased schooling in the first decades of the century led to later home leaving." Another element – parental life expectancy increased, so that involuntary home-leaving also went down. 63.
 
 
 
Therefore, in the U.S., from 1880 until 1940 for males and 1950 for females, the age at leaving home rose. The decline occurred during the 1950s and 1960s – with falling ages for marriage and men entering the military. The process continued with the instigation of the G.I. Bill and state-sponsored college educations, so that more people moved away from home to attend school. Then, beginning with 1970, the age of home-leaving began to rise again, reaching relatively high levels by 1990. 64.
 
 
 
In the U.S., "Economic opportunity in the community also influenced when a child left home. A young adult who could not find a way to contribute to the family economy while remaining at home might leave to look for work. . . . The change was due in part to technological advances in factories and legal reforms requiring children to be in school. New cultural perspectives also contributed to the change. One result was that while middle class parents viewed urban or non-family related work as damaging to young people, they believed that labor involvement in a family farm or small business was morally and physically wholesome." 65.
 
 
 
In the U.S., "American children had worked as preparation for adult occupations. By the 1960s, however, young workers were increasingly likely to be employed in service jobs, such as pumping gas or serving food, which financed personal consumption but were unrelated to later work. As the U.S. service economy expanded, young adults were more likely to work, but their jobs were less likely to lead to economic self-sufficiency." 66.
 
 
 
"Where the strong family flourishes, the familial group more than the individual tends to predominate in the socialization of the young. In these contexts, the family is seen as defending its members against the difficulties imposed by social and economic realities. A child receives support and protection until he or she leaves [home] for good, normally for marriage, and even later." 67.
 
 
 
"In weak-family areas, the value attributed to the individual and to individualism tends to predominate. Young adults leave home, encouraged by their parents, so as to acquire the experiences they need to handle life as autonomous individuals. Leaving home at an early age is considered an important part of their education. Where the strong family flourishes, the familial group more than the individual tends to predominate in the socialization of the young. In these contexts, the family is seen as defending its members against the difficulties imposed by social and economic realities. A child receives support and protection until he or she leaves [home] for good, normally for marriage, and even later." 68.
 
 
 
"In northern Europe and in the United States, young adults normally abandon their parental households when they have acquired a degree of maturity so as to start out their adult lives on their own, lives that are occupied by their studies or by efforts to establish economic independence from their parents. Their jobs, even if often unstable or only seasonal, might also enable them to save for their own marriages, although nowadays this sense of saving is much less important than their effort to settle into an independent life. Often these initial forays into the adult world are made while sharing housing with friends and colleagues who are at a similar stage of their own lives. Later, often years later, these young people marry and once again start a new household, albeit this time with the intention of founding a family within the context of a stable relationship with another person." 69.
 
 
 
____________________________________________________________________
 
 
1. ________, "Arranged Marriages and the Place They Have in Today's Culture," NPR Talk of the Nation trans. (July 20, 1999).
2. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., Sheela Kennedy, Vonnie C. Mcloyd, Rubén G. Rumbaut and Richard A. Settersten, Jr., "Growing Up is Harder to Do," Contexts, Amer. Sociological Assoc., Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 33-41 (Summer 2004), p. 35.
3. Thomas W. Pullum, "Three Eras of Young Adult Home Leaving in Twentieth-Century America," Journal of Social History (March 22, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:84678611
4. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., Sheela Kennedy, Vonnie C. Mcloyd, Rubén G. Rumbaut and Richard A. Settersten, Jr., "Growing Up is Harder to Do," Contexts, Amer. Sociological Assoc., Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 33-41 (Summer 2004), p. 38.
5. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., Sheela Kennedy, Vonnie C. Mcloyd, Rubén G. Rumbaut and Richard A. Settersten, Jr., "Growing Up is Harder to Do," Contexts, Amer. Sociological Assoc., Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 33-41 (Summer 2004), p. 38.
6. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., Sheela Kennedy, Vonnie C. Mcloyd, Rubén G. Rumbaut and Richard A. Settersten, Jr., "Growing Up is Harder to Do," Contexts, Amer. Sociological Assoc., Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 33-41 (Summer 2004), p. 37.
7. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., Sheela Kennedy, Vonnie C. Mcloyd, Rubén G. Rumbaut and Richard A. Settersten, Jr., "Growing Up is Harder to Do," Contexts, Amer. Sociological Assoc., Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 33-41 (Summer 2004), p. 35.
8. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., Sheela Kennedy, Vonnie C. Mcloyd, Rubén G. Rumbaut and Richard A. Settersten, Jr., "Growing Up is Harder to Do," Contexts, Amer. Sociological Assoc., Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 33-41 (Summer 2004), p. 37.
9. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., Sheela Kennedy, Vonnie C. Mcloyd, Rubén G. Rumbaut and Richard A. Settersten, Jr., "Growing Up is Harder to Do," Contexts, Amer. Sociological Assoc., Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 33-41 (Summer 2004), p. 35.
10. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., Sheela Kennedy, Vonnie C. Mcloyd, Rubén G. Rumbaut and Richard A. Settersten, Jr., "Growing Up is Harder to Do," Contexts, Amer. Sociological Assoc., Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 33-41 (Summer 2004), pp. 36-38.
11. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., Sheela Kennedy, Vonnie C. Mcloyd, Rubén G. Rumbaut and Richard A. Settersten, Jr., "Growing Up is Harder to Do," Contexts, Amer. Sociological Assoc., Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 33-41 (Summer 2004), pp. 36-38.
12. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., Sheela Kennedy, Vonnie C. Mcloyd, Rubén G. Rumbaut and Richard A. Settersten, Jr., "Growing Up is Harder to Do," Contexts, Amer. Sociological Assoc., Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 33-41 (Summer 2004), p. 40.
13. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., Sheela Kennedy, Vonnie C. Mcloyd, Rubén G. Rumbaut and Richard A. Settersten, Jr., "Growing Up is Harder to Do," Contexts, Amer. Sociological Assoc., Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 33-41 (Summer 2004), p. 39.
14. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., Sheela Kennedy, Vonnie C. Mcloyd, Rubén G. Rumbaut and Richard A. Settersten, Jr., "Growing Up is Harder to Do," Contexts, Amer. Sociological Assoc., Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 33-41 (Summer 2004), p. 39.
15. Giovanni B. Sgritta, The Situation of Families in Italy in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), pp. 4-5 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_italy_sgritta_en.pdf
16. Giovanni B. Sgritta, The Situation of Families in Italy in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), pp. 4-5 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_italy_sgritta_en.pdf
17. Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), pp. 49-50. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
18. Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 50. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
19. Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 50. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
20. Yahya El-Haddad, "Major Trends Affecting Families in the Gulf Countries," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (200_), p. 8 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtelhaddad.pdf
21. Nancy Hatch Dupree and Thomas E. Gouttierre, "The Society and Its Environment," Chapter 2, "Gender Roles" section, Afghanistan, Library of Congress Country Study. (1997). Available in on-line edition at: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/aftoc.html
22. Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 3. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf
23. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
24. _______, Del Webb 2004 Baby Boomer Survey, "Empty Nester Syndrome: When the Kids Go Away Will Boomers Play?' (2004). Accessed at http://www.pulte.com/pressroom/2004BabyBoomer/BabyBoomerDetailReport.pdf on August 15, 2005 and _______, Del Webb 2004 Baby Boomer Survey Press Release, "Baby Boomers Reclaim Independence in the Empty Nest But Del Webb Survey Shows ‘Boomerang’ Kids May Re-feather Their Future," Del Webb Website (June 29, 2004). Accessed at http://www.pulte.com/pressroom/2004BabyBoomer/BabyBoomerNesters.pdf on August 15, 2005.
25. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
26. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
27. ________, Table AD, "Young Adults Living At Home, 1960 to Present," U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (Internet Release date: September 15, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/hh-fam/tabAD-1.pdf
28. ________, Table AD, "Young Adults Living At Home, 1960 to Present," U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (Internet Release date: September 15, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/hh-fam/tabAD-1.pdf
29. Carla Power, "Staying Home With Mamma," Newsweek International (August 14, 2000). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:64076546
30. Carla Power, "Staying Home With Mamma," Newsweek International (August 14, 2000). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:64076546 See also David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915 and Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), pp. 3-4. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf
31. Carla Power, "Staying Home With Mamma," Newsweek International (August 14, 2000). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:64076546
32. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 74. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
33. ________, "Family Formation: Young Adults Living in the Parental Home," Australian Social Trends 2000: Family, Australian Bureau of Statistics (November 18/2002). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/abs@.nsf/94713ad445ff1425ca25682000192af2/041f6b186438fe55ca256a7100188a54!OpenDocument on August 13, 2005, and David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 74. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
34. ________, "Family Formation: Young Adults Living in the Parental Home," Australian Social Trends 2000: Family, Australian Bureau of Statistics (November 18/2002). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/abs@.nsf/94713ad445ff1425ca25682000192af2/041f6b186438fe55ca256a7100188a54!OpenDocument on August 13, 2005.
35. As of 1998. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
36. Lynne Chisholm, Antonio de Lillo, Carmen Leccardi and Rudolf Richter (eds), Family Forms and the Young Generation in Europe, Report on the Annual Seminar 2001, Milan, Italy, 20–22 September 2001, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family (2001), p. 63. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/milan_report_2001_en.pdf
37. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
38. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
39. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
40. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
41. ________, "Households & Families: Highlights," National Statistics Online, National Statistics, United Kingdom (March 22, 2005). Accessed at: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=1044 on January 2, 2006.
42. ________, "Households & Families: Highlights," National Statistics Online, National Statistics, United Kingdom (March 22, 2005). Accessed at: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=1044 on January 2, 2006.
43. As of 1998. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
44. As of 1998. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
45. As of 1998. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
46. As of 1998. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
47. As of 1998. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
48. As of 1998. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
49. As of 1998. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
50. As of 1998. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
51. As of 1998. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
52. As of 1998. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
53. Rudolf Richter and Sandra Kytir, "Families in Austria," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 201-214 (2005), p. 203 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
54. Carla Power, "Staying Home With Mamma," Newsweek International (August 14, 2000)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:64076546 ________, and "Italy by Numbers . . . ," National Italian American Foundation News from Italy website (October 2002). Accessed at: https://www.niaf.org/news/news_italy/news_italy_october.asp on August 15, 2005.
55. Carla Power, "Staying Home With Mamma," Newsweek International (August 14, 2000)(quotation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:64076546
56. ________, "Italy by Numbers . . . ," National Italian American Foundation News from Italy website (October 2002). Accessed at: https://www.niaf.org/news/news_italy/news_italy_october.asp on August 15, 2005.
57. ________, "Italy by Numbers . . . ," National Italian American Foundation News from Italy website (October 2002). Accessed at: https://www.niaf.org/news/news_italy/news_italy_october.asp on August 15, 2005.Carla Power, "Staying Home With Mamma," Newsweek International (August 14, 2000). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:64076546
58. Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), pp. 3-4. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf See also ________, "Italy by Numbers . . . ," National Italian American Foundation News from Italy website (October 2002). Accessed at: https://www.niaf.org/news/news_italy/news_italy_october.asp on August 15, 2005.
58. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
60. Lynne Chisholm, Antonio de Lillo, Carmen Leccardi and Rudolf Richter (eds), Family Forms and the Young Generation in Europe, Report on the Annual Seminar 2001, Milan, Italy, 20–22 September 2001, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family (2001), p. 63. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/milan_report_2001_en.pdf
61. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
62. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
63. Thomas W. Pullum, "Three Eras of Young Adult Home Leaving in Twentieth-Century America," Journal of Social History (March 22, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:84678611
64. Thomas W. Pullum, "Three Eras of Young Adult Home Leaving in Twentieth-Century America," Journal of Social History (March 22, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:84678611
65. Thomas W. Pullum, "Three Eras of Young Adult Home Leaving in Twentieth-Century America," Journal of Social History (March 22, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:84678611
66. Thomas W. Pullum, "Three Eras of Young Adult Home Leaving in Twentieth-Century America," Journal of Social History (March 22, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:84678611
67. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
68. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
69. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915