How People Spend Their Time
 
Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 9

TOPICS COVERED: In this memo is on one of our favorite topics: how families spend their time. There's a lot of information out there about how families are "time stressed," and how children are getting short-changed because of it. But time studies don't actually support that claim. Yes, families may feel pressured, but children aren't getting shortchanged because of it. In fact, we have some pretty surprising information on how work, income, and education effect the time you spend with your kids. This memo is written from perspective of how the parents spend time; for how children spend their time (and how parents impact that time), don't miss our memo on Modern Child Development, another one of our favorites. (Oh, and before you email us about the time spent on child care is must be wrong because it's so low – we know. We had the same reaction. But here's the thing: time use studies define "child care" as the time spent in direct interaction with a child. Just having Timmy in the car with you on the way to the dry cleaners doesn't count. Nor does having Maria watch t.v. or play with a friend while you fix dinner. They're only measuring the time parents are actually play with them, bath them, read to them – when it's the primary activity of that very moment. And if you wonder how much of a difference those definitions make, consider for example that stay-at-home moms are with their children 7.5 hours a week more than working moms. But stay-at-home moms only spend three hours more in direct interaction with their kids.*)
 
MEMOS ON RELATED INFORMATION: Time Use (analysis), Family Structure, Housework, Caregivers in the Workforce, Child Care, Modern Child Development (for information on children's time use)
 
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 

PAGE INDEX:

 
 

PAID VS. UNPAID WORK

CHILD CARE
Who's Doing What How Parents' Work and Education Effect Time with Their Kids

 
 
 
 

PAID VS. UNPAID WORK

 
 
 
About 30 minutes
Average increase in hours of paid work per week when an American married man when he becomes a father. 1
 
 
 
1.5 hours
Average decrease in hours of paid work per week when a Canadian married man when he becomes a father (his unpaid work hours go up). 2.
 
 
 
2 hours
Average decrease in hours of paid work per week when an American married woman when she becomes a mother – and yes, her unpaid work hours go up. 3.
 
 
 
5 hours
Average decrease in hours of paid work per week when a Canadian married woman when she becomes a mother – while her unpaid work hours go up. 4.
 
 
 
Three hours –
the increase a university degree increases men’s overall paid work by about 3 hours a week. 5.
 
 
 
But there's no real effect
for women – being more educated doesn't significantly effect how much total unpaid work women do. 6.
 
 
 
15 percent –
The increase of time spent at work by Canadian employed adults, age 20-64. How they do it: less leisure time (-10 percent) and less personal needs (-4.2 percent). 7.
 
 
 
Not surprisingly,
according to studies in the US and Australia, women and men do less unpaid work if they do more paid work. And they do more unpaid work if their spouse works more paid hours. 8.
 
 
 
It's almost exactly the same –
the time spent on work by British men and women. British women spend more time on child care while British men spend more time at school or at work. But when you add the time spent in all of their work activities, including paid work and unpaid work – from jobs to housework and everything else – on the average, men and women spend almost exactly the same amount of total time on it: just under seven hours and fifty minutes each day. 9.
 
 
 
But not everywhere –
Of Australian partnered men and women with children, men do twice as much paid work than the women, and the women do twice as much unpaid work as the men. 10.
 
 
 
Not here, either –
when paid and unpaid hours are combined, Austrian women work one hour a day more than men. 11.
 
 
 
Winner, of the "Most Stressed" Award –
Mothers. In a survey of Canadian parents, 38 percent of mothers identified themselves as “severely time stressed,” That both includes single and married mothers: they were the most stressed out of all the groups. What made a difference in the mothers' stress level, apparently, was not whether or not they were married, but whether or not they worked full time. 12.
 
 
 
Taking home the silver –
Married fathers. In a survey of Canadian parents, with 26 percent of fathers having identifying themselves as “severely time stressed.” 13.
 
 
 
61 percent
of Australian working mothers with partners surveyed said that they were "time stressed." 14.
 
 
 
43 percent
of Australian stay-at-home mothers with partners surveyed said that they, too, were "time stressed." 15.
 
 
 

PAID VS. UNPAID WORK

 
 
 

CHILD CARE

 

Who's Doing What How Parents' Work and Education Effect Time with Their Kids


 
 
Who's Doing What
 
 
The Physical and Routine Care of Children –
is usually done by mothers. 16.
 
 
 
About 75 percent
of U.S. parents say they have regular conversations with their kids about how the children are doing in school. 17.
 
 
 
About half
of U.S. parents say they participate in five or more school-related activities each year. That includes parent-teacher conferences, parent association meetings, volunteering at the school, coming to see a child in a school play, etc. 18.
 
 
 
About Ten Minutes
for each additional child, the decrease in amount of time a U.S. mother spends doing actual childcare. One possible explanation for this is that each additional child increases the amount of housework that needs to be done, and thereby reduces the time a mother has to spend on the children. 19.
 
 
 
Playing –
Dads spend a greater proportion of the time with their children playing. Mothers spend more hours playing with them, but it's not as big a percentage of the over-all time spend in child care. 20.
 
 
 
Increased –
the amount of time fathers spend doing childcare (and housework), across an analysis of 16 countries’ data from the 1960s to the 1990s. 21.
 
 
 
Increased –
the amount of time full-time employed mothers spend caring for their children, across an analysis of 16-countries’ data from the 1960s to the 1990s. Note that unlike fathers, the time spent in housework decreased. 22.
 
 
 
Increased
The amount of time studies have found that U.S. and Australian parents are spending in face-to-face activities with their children, despite a concurrent increase in the children’s increase of time spent at child care centers, preschool, and school programs. 23.
 
 
 
More than 90 percent
of U.S. mothers surveyed report having spent time in direct childcare activities on the day they were surveyed. That held true from the 1960s to 1990s. 24.
 
 
 
51 percent
of full-time employed U.S. fathers who reported any childcare activities in the 1960s (on their diary day). 25.
 
 
 
72 percent
of full-time employed U.S. fathers studied reported any childcare activities in the 1990s (on their diary day). 26.
 
 
 
Less Personal Care and Fewer Hours of Paid Work
How the employed mothers, in that 16-country study, find the time for that increased time in childcare. 27.
 
 
 
Less Sleep and Fewer Hours of Paid Work
How the fathers, in that 16 country study, find the time for that increased time in childcare and housework. Personal care, on the whole, takes a hit, but sleep is the main thing in that category that is reduced. 28.
 
 
 
How Parents' Work and Education Effect Time with Kids
 
 
 
0.9 hours less –
the difference in hours per day that Australian employed parents spend (2.1 hours per day) in comparison to the number of hours spent by those who are not employed (3.0 hours per day) At least one sociologist argues that if similar findings are made in other nations, then working mothers have not dramatically effected the time spent with their children. 29.
 
 
 
1.5 hours –
– the decrease in amount of time spent in childcare for Canadian women who are employed full or part time, compared to their unemployed counterparts. 30.
 
 
 
A half-hour –
the decrease in amount of time spent in childcare for Canadian men who are employed full or part time, compared to their unemployed counterparts. 31.
 
 
 
The Weekend –
Canadian fathers spend more time doing direct child care on weekends. Canadian mothers spend less time doing child care on those days. One possible explanation for this is that there is a sort of division of labor going on here – where the father is working with the children and giving the mother a couple days off – a weekend, so to speak. 32.
 
 
 
Older employed mothers
spend slightly more time doing child care than their younger counterparts, but it's an almost insignificant difference. 33.
 
 
 
Parents' Education –
effects both the amount of time spent with children, and the kind of activities the parents do during that time. More educated parents spend more time with their kids, and they spend that time in activities meant to stimulate their children's intellectual growth. 34.
 
 
 
More educated parents
spend more time talking to their children and helping them with their homework. 35.
 
 
 
More educated fathers –
are more likely to have adopted a philosophy that they should be more involved in childrearing. 36.
 
 
 
About 40-50 minutes per day
the amount of the increase in time spent devoted to childcare by Canadian parents who are more highly educated, compared to those who are not (varying by sex and employment status). 37.
 
 
 
30 minutes a day –
– the amount of time devoted by British men in white collar jobs to childcare in 1999. 38.
 
 
 
50 minutes a day –
– the amount of time devoted by British men in blue collar jobs to childcare in 1999. 39.
 
 
 
63 percent of mothers
in France, with children under the age of 12, who reported that they spend more time with their children since the 2000 introduction of the French 35-hour work week. 40.
 
 
 
52 percent of fathers
in France, with children under the age of 12, who reported that they spend more time with their children since the 2000 introduction of the French 35-hour work week. 41.
 
 
 
In Finland, fathers of young children work more overtime than other them. And both new mothers and fathers often have atypical work hours. 42.
 
 
 
0.2 hours per day –
the amount of time devoted by U.S. married fathers to childcare in 1975. 43.
 
 
 
0.3 hours per day –
the amount of time by U.S. married fathers to childcare in 1981. 44.
 
 
 
1.2 hours per day
the amount of time devoted to childcare by U.S. married fathers who were employed full-time in 2000. 45.
 
 
 
0.6 hours per day –
the amount of time devoted to childcare by U.S. married mothers in 1924-1931. 46.
 
 
 
1.0 hours per day –
the amount of time devoted to childcare by U.S. married mothers in 1981. 47.
 
 
 
0.2 hours per day –
the amount of time devoted by U.K. married fathers to childcare in 1961. 48.
 
 
 
0.8 hours per day –
the amount of time devoted by U.K. married fathers to childcare in 1999. 49.
 
 
 
0.7 hours per day –
the amount of time devoted by U.K. married mothers to childcare in 1961. 50.
 
 
 
1.57 hours per day –
the amount of Canadian married mothers spent in child care in 2004. 51.
 
 
 
.67 hours per day –
the amount of Canadian married fathers spent in child care in 2004. 52.
 
 
 
1.7 hours per day –
the amount of time devoted by U.K. married mothers to childcare in 1999. 53.
 
 
 
1.7 hours per day
the amount of time devoted by U.S. married mothers to childcare in 1965. 54.
 
 
 
1.8 hours per day –
– the amount of time devoted by U.S. married mothers to childcare in 1998. 55.
 
 
_________________________________________________________________
 
* John F. Sandberg and Sandra L. Hofferth, Changes in Children's Time with Parents, U.S. 1981-1997, PSC Research Report, Report No. 01-475, Population Studies Center at the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (May 2001), p. 4-5 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr01-475.pdf
1. Anne H. Gauthier and Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Working More, Playing Less: Changing Patterns of Time Use Among Young Adults," Network On Transitions to Adulthood Policy Brief, Issue 5 (October 2004), Archived at: http://www.transad.pop.upenn.edu/news/chap%205-formatted.pdf
2. Kerry Daly, "It Keeps Getting Faster: Changing Patterns of Time in Families," The Vanier Institute of the Family, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (2000). Archived at: http://www.vifamily.ca/library/cft/faster.html
3. Anne H. Gauthier and Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Working More, Playing Less: Changing Patterns of Time Use Among Young Adults," Network On Transitions to Adulthood Policy Brief, Issue 5 (October 2004), Archived at: http://www.transad.pop.upenn.edu/news/chap%205-formatted.pdf
4. Kerry Daly, "It Keeps Getting Faster: Changing Patterns of Time in Families," The Vanier Institute of the Family, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (2000). Archived at: http://www.vifamily.ca/library/cft/faster.html
5. Michael Bittman, Paula England, Nancy Folbre, and George Matheson, When Gender Trumps Money: Bargaining and Time in Household Work, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University (April 2001).
6. Michael Bittman, Paula England, Nancy Folbre, and George Matheson, When Gender Trumps Money: Bargaining and Time in Household Work, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University (April 2001).
7. Kerry Daly, "It Keeps Getting Faster: Changing Patterns of Time in Families," The Vanier Institute of the Family, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (2000). Archived at: http://www.vifamily.ca/library/cft/faster.html
8. Michael Bittman, Paula England, Nancy Folbre, and George Matheson, When Gender Trumps Money: Bargaining and Time in Household Work, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University (April 2001).
9. ________, 2002 UK Time Use Survey, Housework / Work, National Statistics Online, National Statistics, United Kingdom (October 2, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/timeuse/summary_results/housework_work.asp#ch on August 27, 2005.
10. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 73. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
11. Rudolf Richter and Sandra Kytir, "Families in Austria," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 201-214 (2005), p. 204 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
12. Kerry Daly, "It Keeps Getting Faster: Changing Patterns of Time in Families," The Vanier Institute of the Family, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (2000). Archived at: http://www.vifamily.ca/library/cft/faster.html
13. Kerry Daly, "It Keeps Getting Faster: Changing Patterns of Time in Families," The Vanier Institute of the Family, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (2000). Archived at: http://www.vifamily.ca/library/cft/faster.html
14. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 84 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
15. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 84 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
16. Liana C. Sayer, Anne H. Gauthier, Frank F. Furstenberg, "Educational Differences in Parents’ Time with Children: Cross-national Variations," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 66, No. 5 (December 2004), p. 1153. Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=48909E6B003467D67130
17. ________, How Do Children Spend Their Time? Children’s Activities, School Achievement, and Well-Being, Research on Today's Issues Series, Issue No. 11 Population Reference Bureau for the Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Center for Population Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (August 2000), p. 1 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/about/cpr/dbs/pubs/ti11.pdf
18. ________, How Do Children Spend Their Time? Children’s Activities, School Achievement, and Well-Being, Research on Today's Issues Series, Issue No. 11 Population Reference Bureau for the Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Center for Population Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (August 2000), p. 1 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/about/cpr/dbs/pubs/ti11.pdf
19. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
20. Liana C. Sayer, Anne H. Gauthier, Frank F. Furstenberg, "Educational Differences in Parents’ Time with Children: Cross-national Variations," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 66, No. 5 (December 2004), pp. 1153-1154. Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=48909E6B003467D67130
21. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291 See also John F. Sandberg and Sandra L. Hofferth, Changes in Children's Time with Parents, U.S. 1981-1997, PSC Research Report, Report No. 01-475, Population Studies Center at the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (May 2001), p. 4 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr01-475.pdf
22. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291 See also John F. Sandberg and Sandra L. Hofferth, Changes in Children's Time with Parents, U.S. 1981-1997, PSC Research Report, Report No. 01-475, Population Studies Center at the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (May 2001), p. 4 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr01-475.pdf
23. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
24. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
25. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
26. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
27. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
28. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
29. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
30. Note that the Canadian results “cannot be generalized to all industrialized countries,” but the “historical trends for Canada appear to be in line with those observed in other industrialized countries." Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
31. Note that the Canadian results “cannot be generalized to all industrialized countries,” but the “historical trends for Canada appear to be in line with those observed in other industrialized countries." Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
32. Note that the Canadian results “cannot be generalized to all industrialized countries,” but the “historical trends for Canada appear to be in line with those observed in other industrialized countries." Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
33. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
34. Liana C. Sayer, Anne H. Gauthier, Frank F. Furstenberg, "Educational Differences in Parents’ Time with Children: Cross-national Variations," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 1152-1169 (December 2004), p. 1152 (citations omitted) . Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=48909E6B003467D67130 See also John F. Sandberg and Sandra L. Hofferth, Changes in Children's Time with Parents, U.S. 1981-1997, PSC Research Report, Report No. 01-475, Population Studies Center at the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (May 2001), p. 4 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr01-475.pdf
35. Liana C. Sayer, Anne H. Gauthier, Frank F. Furstenberg, "Educational Differences in Parents’ Time with Children: Cross-national Variations," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 1152-1169 (December 2004), p. 1154 (citations omitted) . Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=48909E6B003467D67130 See also John F. Sandberg and Sandra L. Hofferth, Changes in Children's Time with Parents, U.S. 1981-1997, PSC Research Report, Report No. 01-475, Population Studies Center at the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (May 2001), p. 4 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr01-475.pdf
36. Liana C. Sayer, Anne H. Gauthier, Frank F. Furstenberg, "Educational Differences in Parents’ Time with Children: Cross-national Variations," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 1152-1169 (December 2004), p. 1154 (citations omitted) . Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=48909E6B003467D67130 See also John F. Sandberg and Sandra L. Hofferth, Changes in Children's Time with Parents, U.S. 1981-1997, PSC Research Report, Report No. 01-475, Population Studies Center at the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (May 2001), p. 4 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr01-475.pdf
37. Note that the Canadian results “cannot be generalized to all industrialized countries,” but the “historical trends for Canada appear to be in line with those observed in other industrialized countries." Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
38. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
39. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
40. Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), pp. 34-36 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
41. Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), pp. 34-35 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
42. Sirpa Taskinen, The Situation of Families in Finland in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_finland_taskinen_en.pdf
43. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
44. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
45. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
46. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
47. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
48. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
49. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
50. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
51. Liana C. Sayer, Anne H. Gauthier, Frank F. Furstenberg, "Educational Differences in Parents’ Time with Children: Cross-national Variations," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 66, No. 5, (December 2004), p. 1160 (citation omitted) . Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=48909E6B003467D67130
52. Liana C. Sayer, Anne H. Gauthier, Frank F. Furstenberg, "Educational Differences in Parents’ Time with Children: Cross-national Variations," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 66, No. 5, (December 2004), p. 1160 (citations omitted) . Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=48909E6B003467D67130
53. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
54. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
55. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291