North America (Part Two)
 

Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 50+
 
This information duplicates items from the rest of The Factbook, selecting only those items that relate to North America. However, numbers don't mean much without a comparison to family life in other continents. And that is why we may have included a lot of information on certain issues, but it seems like we have less regional information for others. Actually, that isn't the case – we just chose what were for us notable commonalities or exceptions, cross-culturally. For further information about a particular region, see the regional studies we've referenced in the footnotes: they probably have any additional information you might need on a particular country or region.
 
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 

STEPFAMILIES

 
 
One-third –
Estimated proportion of all Americans who – through birth, divorce, and remarriage – are part of a stepfamily. 1.
 
 
 
5.1 million
Number of U.S. children living with at least one stepparent. 2.
 
 
 
4.9 million
Number of U.S. children living with a biological parent and a stepparent. Of these, 4.1 million of these children were living with a biological mother and a stepfather. 3.
 
 
 
10 percent
of U.S. children – 7.3 million children – live with a half-sibling. 4.
 
 
 
One percent
of U.S. children live with a stepsibling. 5.
 
 
 
14.6 percent
of U.S. minor children live in a blended family – where they are either the stepchild of a parent, and/or have stepsiblings or half-siblings. 6.
 
 
 
If you find those numbers shocking – well, they are almost nothing, compared to Colonial times . . . .
In southern Maryland between 1658 and 1705, 67 percent of the married or widowed men who died left behind a family of all minor children. If the children were fortunate, they'd find themselves in a stepfamily – the product of their mother's quick remarriage. If not, the children could become wards of the state, apprenticed to a tradesman, or even sold as slaves. 7.

 
 
My step-stepmother –
Because so many died young in some of the American colonies, it was not uncommon in those areas for single men and women to marry spouses who were considerably older than they were and already had children. Then, if their spouse died, the young widow or widower would soon remarry, bringing both biological and stepchildren into the new marriage . . . which was often to another spouse who also already had children – including stepchildren. The result was not just that colonial families were "blended families" – meaning they had both step and biological children – but also regularly included children not biologically related to either parent. 8.
 
 
 
Cinderella's fate – a dead father and a cruel stepmother – would have been much more real – and upsetting – to a child in the American colonies than today's stepchild:
Cruel treatment by stepparents was commonplace in the colonies. If stepparents were blatantly abusive, a county court could step in and remove a child from a home. But having a child work – even to the point of near slavery – would not have been considered abuse, since the law provided for stepparents to be reimbursed for whatever they used to raise a stepchild. And if there was no money to do that, they were entitled to have a child work to earn her keep. 9.

 
 
The more things change . . . .
Only five U.S. states require that a stepparent help financially provide for his stepchild. 10.
 
 
 
At Higher Risk
Studies have shown that a report of a child's maltreatment is twice as likely to be filed when there is a father-surrogate instead of two-biological parents in the house, while stepfather-caregivers are more likely than biological fathers to sexually and physically abuse the children under their care. Stepfathers also involved in a slightly higher number of reported family violence incidents. 11.
 
 
 
Disadvantaged –
children living with a parent and stepparent are more disadvantaged in terms of psychological functioning, behavioral problems, education, and health than a child raised by both biological parents. 12.
 
 
 
If a stepchild yells, "He can't tell me what to do!"
technically, she's right. Stepparents in the U.S. have no legal relationship with their stepchildren, even if they live together. Therefore, they have no legal right to discipline a child. They can't authorize emergency treatment or even sign a school report card. In fact, stepparents have less legal authority over stepchildren than a legal guardian or a foster parent. 13.
 
 
 
Three percent
of the 45.5 million U.S. households with children of any age have only stepchildren. 14.
 
 
 
0.1 percent
of all 45.5. million U.S. households with children include the householder's biological children and adopted children and stepchildren. 15.
 
 
 
Approximately 271,000
unmarried men in the U.S have stepchildren living in their households. 16.
 
 
 
198,000 –
Of the 271,000 unmarried men with stepchildren, 198,000 of them are living with a female unmarried partner. And therefore it's likely they are considering themselves stepfathers of their unmarried partner's children. 17.
 
 
 
90 percent
of stepchildren in the U.S. live with a householder who is in the labor force. 18.
 
 
 
67 percent
of stepchildren in the U.S. live in a home that is owned and occupied by the householder. That is the same percentage as for biological children. 19.
 
 
 
Between 30 and 40 percent
of stepchildren in the U.S. will go through the divorce of their custodial parent and stepparent. 20.
 
 
 
Almost every state in the U.S. ends a stepparent-stepchild relationship if the biological parent divorces or dies. And in most states, a stepparent has no legal right for custody of a stepchild – not even a right of visitation. 21.
 
 
 
North Dakota
is the only state that requires a stepparent to provide for the stepchildren once the stepparent has divorced the biological parent. 22.
 
 
 

SINGLE PARENT FAMILIES DEMOGRAPHICS

 
 
 
" [S]ociological studies show that, at least in some [Western European] countries . . . single motherhood is only a temporary, transitional stage in the union formation. Many unmarried mothers, in other words, are not necessarily to be considered as lone parents. Single motherhood by choice, more particularly among older, better-educated, working women, also seems to be on the rise . . . , but this phenomenon is not yet well documented. Contrary to all the former categories of one-parent families, widowed lone-parent families are, as a result of decreases in mortality, strongly declining." 1.
 
 
 
"As the divorce rate soared after 1960, three other major trends started to emerge that were part of the 20th century's transformation in pair-bonding in the Western world: the rate of marriage decreased, while the rates of cohabitation without marriage and nonmarital births increased. . . . This nonmarital birthrate increase is particularly impressive because it occurred at the same time that women in the West had more contraceptive choice than ever before in the history of the human species." 2.
 
 
 
26 percent
of U.S. children under the age of 18 lived in a single-parent home. 3.
 
 
 
In the U.S. and Western Europe, "It is likely that the frequency of one-parent families, at least as a transitional family stage in the life course, will increase or remain high. These families are highly vulnerable, since most are headed by women, whose social position is still relatively weaker than that of men. These women have to cope with the existing incompatibilities between gainful employment and family life, especially child care." 4.
 
 
 
30 percent
of U.S. “children in married-couple family groups were living with householders who had at least a bachelor’s degree, compared with 9 percent of children living with neither parent present and 12 percent of children living in single-parent family groups.” 5.
 
 
 
U.S. Hispanic Female-Householders –

Between 1850 and 1880, between 25 and 38 percent of Spanish-surnamed households in Los Angeles, California, Santa Fe, New Mexico, and Tucson, Arizona were headed by women – when just four to nine percent of White Non-Hispanic households had a female head. This was due to a high mortality rate for Mexican-American men – twice that of women. 6.
 
In 2000, 17.3 percent of Hispanic households had a female head, compared to 11.8 percent of the total population. 7.
 
 
 
4.4 million
Number of U.S. male-maintained family households with no wife present: that’s 4.2 percent all households. 8.
 
 
 
19.2 percent
of American children live with single mothers in 2002, down from 21.5 percent in 1997. 9.
 
 
 
About 70 percent
of American single mothers were employed in March and April 2003, down from] its peak of nearly 75 percent in November and December 2000. 10.
 
 
 
12 percent
of U.S. "female-maintained family households with no husband present represented 12 percent, while male-maintained family households with no wife present were 4 percent of all households." 11.
 
 
 
"From 1970 to 2000, the number of [U.S.] male-maintained family households and female-maintained family households both with no spouse present increased. During the same time period, the proportion of female-maintained family households with no husband present was more than double that of their male counterparts." 12.
 
 
 
 
 
"In 1990/91 lone-parent families represented 8.6 percent of all families with children under 18 years of age in Spain, in contrast to 11.9 percent in France, 15.7 percent in Germany, 16.8 percent in Canada, 18.1 percent in the Netherlands, 22.0 percent in Denmark, 22.3 percent in Sweden, and 23.5 percent in the United States." 38.
 
 
 
 

SINGLE PARENT FAMILY EFFECTS AND ECONOMICS

 
 
 
 
 
"Children who grow up in single-parent families are twice as likely to have a child before the age of 20, and one and a half times as likely to be out of school and out of work in their late teens and early 20s as their counterparts who grow up in two-parent families." 39.
 
 
 
When single moms work evenings, only slightly more than 35 percent eat with their children at least five days a week. 40.
 
 
 
Children who live with only one parent or with a parent and stepparent, experience more disadvantages in terms of psychological functioning, behavioral problems, education, and health. 41.
 
 
 
It's five times as likely
for U.S. children in mother-only family groups to be in poverty as children living in married-couple family groups: 39 percent of children in mother-only groups are in poverty while eight percent of married-couple families are in poverty. 42.
 
 
 
53.3 percent
of U.S. mothers without present spouses (married without spouse, separated, divorced, widowed or never married ) who are in the labor force. 43.
 
 
 
$25,500
is the median family income for U.S. female householders with no husband present. That is about half the income of all families and less than half of married-couple families. And, adjusting for inflation, it's also less than the median family income of married-couple families in 1969 ($39,800). 44.
 
 
 
"More than half (55.4 percent) of the [U.S.] families maintained by men without spouses were homeowners, compared with about half (49.6 percent) of [U.S.] families maintained by women without spouses." 45.
 
 
 
"From 1969 to 1999, the income gap between [U.S.] families maintained by women with no husband present and married-couple families widened. During that time, [U.S.] families maintained by women with no husband present had a smaller percentage increase in median income (32 percent) than that of married-couple families (44 percent)." 46.
 
 
 
28.0 percent – 3.9 million –
of the households in the U.S. with a female-householder and no-husband present families are in poverty – compared to just 5.5 percent of married-couple families. 47.
 
 
 
13.5 percent
of the households in the U.S. with a male-householder and no-wife present families in the U.S. are in poverty – compared to 5.5 percent of married-couple families. 48.
 
 
 
52.6 percent
of related U.S. children under six who live in families with female householders with no husband present were in poverty in 2004, about five times the rate of their counterparts in married couple families (10.1 percent). 49.
 
 
 
59.2 percent
of U.S. children living with a single mother lived in poverty in 1994. 50.
 
 
 
16.7 percent
of U.S. children living with single parents lived in poverty in 1994. 51.
 
 
 
 

WHAT WE (SORT OF) KNOW – DEMOGRAPHICS OF GAYS IN THE U.S.

 
 
 
 
1300 A.D.
And there's an apparent consensus among historians that it has only been since 1300 A.D. since the Catholic Church sought to discourage same gender unions. 1.
 
 
 
Now, of course,
a number of religious denominations recognize same gender marriages, and perform ceremonies of marriage for same gender couples, while for still others, homosexuality is grave sin that is grounds for expulsion from the religious community. 2.
 
 
 
An estimated two percent to 10 percent
of the total U.S. population that is gay, lesbian or bisexual. In the last three elections, the Voter News Service exit poll registered the gay vote between 4 percent and 5 percent. 3.
 
 
 
So when does sex equal sexuality?
In the American National Health and Social Life Survey of 1992, only 2.8 percent men and 1.4 percent women reported that they were gay or bisexual. But almost twice of those same men – 4.9 percent – and three times as many of the women – 4.1 percent – reported that they had had at least one same-sex partner since they were 18 years old. Similarly, surveys found that 5.2 percent of British men and 4.1 percent of French men had had a same-sex partner at some point in their lives while 2.7 percent of British women and 2.6 percent of French women had had a same-sex partner. 4.
 
 
 
Gay or straight – men really are all cads?
Well, all we know is that over 90 percent of women marry. 93.8 of lesbians will at some point live with a same-sex partner. And, uh, 32.1 percent of gay men don't ever live with a same-sex partner. So you tell us. What do you think that means? 5.
 
 
 
Closets aren't just for kids in Narnia –

28.7 percent
According to demographers' analysis of the U.S. 1990 Census, 28.7 of the women who identified themselves as lesbian had been previously married. Another 1.2 percent said that they were lesbian and were still married at the time of the survey. According to demographers' analysis, for two other preeminent U.S. surveys – the National Health and Social Life Survey and the General Social Survey – the number was even higher: 46 percent of lesbians were either married or previously married. The difference between these two amounts should not call both into question. Instead, the second findings actually support the Census finding – in essence, establishing a minimum percentage. Census reports are responses to a question as to marital status at a particular point in time. For example, the Census asks if someone is currently married, but does not always ask if a currently married person was divorced. The other surveys examine sexual behavior and practices over a person's entire life course. 6.
 
 
 
17.2 percent
of the men who identified themselves as gay in the 1990 U.S. Census had been previously married, while another 1.3 percent said that they were gay and still married at the time of the survey. According to another 1990s survey, the number was even higher: 30 percent of gay men were either married or previously married. 7.

 
 
Gays are more educated –
According to 1990 census data, almost 30 percent of American gay men in a relationship had college degrees, and 13 percent of them had done post-graduate studies, about twice the rate as for married men: 17.7 percent of married men had a college degree and 6.8 percent have done post-graduate work. Similarly, 31 percent of lesbians in relationships had a college degrees, and 15.6 percent have done post-graduate studies. Only 17.9 percent of married women had college degrees, and just 4.9 percent had done post-grad work. 8.
 
 
 
But gay men earn less –
In 1990, the average U.S. college educated married man aged 45 to 54 was making $55,623 a year, while his gay partnered counterpart only made $47,541. But lesbian partnered women were making about $6,000 to $9,000 more than the married women. Of course, women are always paid less, so they were still making one-third to one-half less than the men were. 9.
 
 
 
Almost two-thirds
of Fortune 100 companies offer health benefits to same-sex partners. 10.
 
 
 
Four to six years younger
U.S. same-sex couples living together tend to be about four to six years younger than the average married opposite-sex couple. 11.
 
 
 
Six to seven years older
U.S. same-sex couples living together tend to be about six to seven years older than the average unmarried opposite-sex couples who live together. 12.
 
 
 
594,000
The number of same-sex couple households in the U.S., according to the 2000 Census. 13.
 
 
 
301,026
of those are gay male couple households. 14.
 
 
 
293,364
of those are lesbian couple households. 15.
 
 
 
About 314 percent
the increase in number of U.S. same-sex households since the 1990 census. However, the increase is more due to the fact that the families were previously undercounted, not out of a dramatic increase in the families themselves. 16.
 
 
 
By as much as 62 percent
the estimated 2000 census's current undercount of U.S. gay and lesbian families, according to the Human Rights Campaign, a gay and lesbian advocacy group. 17.
 
 
 
30 percent
of gay and lesbian people are living in a committed relationship in the same residence, according to a 2001 Harris Interactive Poll. 18.
 
 
 

GAYS RAISING CHILDREN

 
 
 
The best book I can recommend on the subject of gays raising children is titled Families Like Mine: Children of Gay Parents Tell It Like It Is by Abigail Garner, published by HarperCollins, 2004. 19.
 
Ms. Garner makes the following very astute points:
 
That gay-friendly media stories usually try to show how incredibly normal and healthy children of LGBT parents are, and in so doing, media representations of LGBT families have yet to catch up to reflect their true diversity.
 
Children with LGBT parents see how they are represented publicly and begin to internalize a paradox: to be accepted for being different, they first have to prove that they are just like everyone else.
 
Because the right for LGBT families to exist is the subject of debate, children begin to figure out that the outcome of this debate rests on how they ‘turn out.’ They are not allowed to be as wacky, troubled, or complex as any other American family.
 
The result: children of same-sex-oriented parents have issues like all children do, at the rate all children do, but they often do not seek help or counsel for their troubles, because they don’t want to reflect badly on their parents and/or same-sex parents in general. They are afraid their parents will be blamed and politically penalized. So they are more likely to hide their problems, and let them grow, untreated. For instance, a child might let her learning disability go undiagnosed. Or a child who hates algebra and skips school might not let anyone know, for fear his parent’s sexual-orientation will be blamed. And worse. Drug use, teen sexuality, depression all get ignored because of fear of the accusation that it has something to do with the orientation of his or her parents.
 
In other words, this public debate is putting children at risk unnecessarily. It is causing youths who need help to forego help.
 
 
Between 1 and 9 million
The estimated number of children in the United States have at least one parent who is lesbian or gay. 20.
 
 
 
Between 3 and 5 million
The estimated number of lesbian and gay parents who have had children during prior opposite-sex relationships. 21.
 
 
 
Most of the children
with lesbian or gay parents were conceived in the context of a heterosexual relationship. Many may have lived with both their heterosexual parents for at least the first few years of their lives. If the lesbian or gay parent decides to "come out," the couple may divorce, but continue to share child-rearing responsibilities. For these families, the gay parents may or may not have homosexual relationships. But in those that do, the issues confronting them are similar to those of heterosexual stepfamilies. 22.
 
 
 
Two out of every thousand
of couples in the U.S. with children are same-sex couples, according to the 2000 Census. 23.
 
 
 
Mississippi, South Dakota, Alaska, South Carolina, and Louisiana –
The states where U.S. same-sex couples are most likely raising children, despite the fact that those states do not have high concentrations of same-sex couples. In fact, one-fourth of same-sex couples with children live in an area with a comparatively low concentration of all same-sex couples. 24.
 
 
 
In 96,000 of
lesbian couple households in the U.S., the children of the householder live with the couple. 25.
 
 
 
That's 33 percent
of U.S. female same-sex householders, nationally. On a regional basis, there are female same-sex householders living in the South (34 percent) than the Northeast (31 percent). 26.
 
 
 
At least 40 percent
of U.S. female same-sex householders in Mississippi, South Dakota, and Utah, live with their children. 27.
 
 
 
In 66,000 of
U.S. gay male couple households, the children of the householder live with the couple. 28.
 
 
 
22 percent
of U.S. male same-sex householders, nationally, live with their children. On a regional basis, there are female same-sex householders living in the South (34 percent) than the Northeast (31 percent). 29.
 
 
 
30 percent or more
of U.S. male same-sex householders in Mississippi, South Dakota, Idaho and Utah, live with their children. In Alaska, 36 percent of male same-sex households have the householder's children living with them. In Florida and Minnesota, it's just under half that (17 percent). 30.
 
 
 
96 percent
of all U.S. counties have at least one same-sex couple with children under 18 in the household, according to the U.S. 2000 Census. 31.
 
 
 
Two out of every thousand
of couples in the U.S. with children are same-sex couples, according to the Urban Institute analysis of the 2000 Census. 32.
 
 
 
 

WHERE U.S. GAYS LIVE

 
 
 
99.3 percent
of the counties in the U.S. have gay and lesbian families living in them. 33.
 
 
 
It Isn't Just an Expression: There Really is a Boys' Town, and It's Different than Suburbia
Compared to married heterosexual couples, gay and lesbian couples are more willing to live in, and possibly revive, distressed urban areas. They are more likely to live in neighborhoods which are both racially and ethnically diverse and have: more college-educated residents; older housing stock; higher crime rates and higher property values. 34.
 
 
 
California
the U.S. state with the largest percent of same-sex couple households: 1.4 percent. Massachusetts, New York and Vermont are tied for second – they all have 1.3 percent of their households being same-sex couples. 35.
 
 
 
San Francisco –
the U.S. city with a population of over 500,000 that has the largest percent of same-sex couple households. Okay, that probably wasn't a surprise. But this might be. Just 2.7 percent of all San Francisco households are same-sex couples. 36.
 
 
 
Provincetown, Massachusetts
The Cape Cod neighborhood with the U.S.'s highest concentration of same-sex couples – and the self-proclaimed titles as "gayest" town in America. 37.
 
 
 
San Francisco, Fort Lauderdale, Santa Rosa, Seattle, and New York,
The top U.S. metropolitan areas for gay male couples. 38.
 
 
 
Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, San Francisco, and Oakland,
The top U.S. metropolitan areas for lesbian couples. Note that only one of these cities is also on the list of gay male couples. That's because it turns out that gay and lesbians do not live in the same areas. Instead, of the ten metropolitan areas with the highest gay male couple population, only four of those cities are on the same list for the lesbian population. And it isn't just the cities that are different, but the type of cities they are: for example, American gay males tend to live in larger cities that have higher concentrations of gay populations than do lesbians. 39.
 
 
 
Of the top ten states with the highest gay male population, only five of them have the highest lesbian populations. For gay men, the top state is California. For lesbians, it's Vermont – which is tenth on the list for gay males. 40.
 
 
 
The South
is where most U.S. black same-sex couples live. 41.
 
 
 
Texas's metropolitan areas
is where most U.S. Hispanic gay or lesbian couples live. 42.
 
 
 
Almost one in five
of those in a same-sex couple household is at least 55 years old. 43.
 
 
 
At least 30 percent
of the U.S. gay and lesbian couples who live in the upper Midwest – North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming – are over 55 years old. 44.
 
 
 
Alaska and Vermont
have the highest concentration of gay and lesbian coupled seniors in their senior population. 45.
 
 
 
 

IS FAMILY IMPORTANT?

 
 
 
75 percent
of Americans believe that family is the most important factor in achieving personal happiness. 1.
 
 
 
"The geography of families in the central and northern parts of Europe and the communities in North America are characterized by relatively weak family ties. In contrast, families from the Mediterranean region possess stronger family bonds, as evidenced by the care they render to aged or weak members of society. There are strong evidences which indicate that these differences have extensive historical causes, which may likely have characterized European families for several centuries." 7.
 
 
 
"In weak-family areas, the value attributed to the individual and to individualism tends to predominate. Young adults leave home, encouraged by their parents, so as to acquire the experiences they need to handle life as autonomous individuals. Leaving home at an early age is considered an important part of their education. Where the strong family flourishes, the familial group more than the individual tends to predominate in the socialization of the young. In these contexts, the family is seen as defending its members against the difficulties imposed by social and economic realities. A child receives support and protection until he or she leaves home for good, normally for marriage, and even later." 8.
 
 
 
"Loneliness is one of the most important social problems in weak-family societies. I refer to the loneliness of the individual who must confront the world and his own life without the safety net of familial support so characteristic of strong-family regions. Suicide, often an indirect consequence of loneliness, tends to be far higher in northern Europe and the United States than it is in southern Europe. The effects of loneliness are compensated in weak-family societies by a strong tradition of civic association, where people form groups, clubs, and societies for the most varied purposes. The number and variety of these associations in England or the [U]nited States would be unimaginable for a citizen of southern Europe." 9.
 
 
 
 

DOES LIVING NEAR BY MEAN YOU'RE CLOSE?: FAMILY PROXIMITY AND CONTACTS

 
 
 
 
72.9 percent
of American adult children describe their relationships with their mothers as "very close." 10.
 
 
 
57.0 percent
of American adult children describe their relationships with their fathers as "very close." 11.
 
 
 
31 percent
– one in three – of American adult children have a "tight-knit" relationship with their mothers, while just 20 percent have such a close connection with their fathers. 12.
 
 
 
28 percent
of American adult children have a sociable relationship with their mothers – where they have frequent contact because of their emotional connection and geographic proximity. 23 percent have this kind of a relationship with their fathers. 13.
 
 
 
19 percent
of American adult children have an "intimate but distant" relationship with their mothers and 14 percent have this relationship with their fathers.. These children agree with their parents on most subjects, have a strong emotional tie – but they don't live near them and they don't have much regular contact with their mothers. 14.
 
 
 
Seven percent
of American adult children have "detached" relationship with their mothers: they don't see them, don't contact them, have little if any emotional connection. 15.
 
 
 
That's the least common relationship between the children and their mothers, but . . . unfortunately . . .
 
 
 
27 percent
of American adult children have "detached" relationship with their fathers – making that the most common type of relationship between adult-children and their fathers. 16.
 
 
 
Guilt.
16 percent of American adult children have an "obligatory" relationship with their parents – both their mothers and fathers. These children don't agree with their parents on most subjects, and they don't have close emotional ties. But they live near by so they feel have to spend time with their parents and to help if they're needed. And actually, more of them are providing assistance to their parents (30 percent) than those with even closer emotional relationships. 17.
 
 
 
69.4 percent
of American adults contact their mothers at least once a week. 18.
 
 
 
58.6 percent
of American adults contact their fathers at least once a week. 19.
 
 
 
58.9 percent
of American adults live within an hour from their mothers. 54.9 percent live within an hour's distance from their fathers. 20.
 
 
 
54.9 percent
of American adults live within an hour's distance from their fathers. 21.
 
 
 
About 20 percent
Of American fathers who don't live with their children, age zero to 18, about 20 percent never see, call or write to their children even once in the course of a year. 38.
 
 
 
About 15 percent
Of American mothers who don't live with their children, age zero to 18, about 15 percent never see their children in the course of a year, while 17 percent don't call or write to their children. 39.
 
 
 
About 16 percent
Of American fathers who don't live with their children, age zero to 18, about 16 percent see their children several times each week. 20 percent call or write to their children several times a week. 40.
 
 
 
About 29 percent
Of American mothers who don't live with their children, age zero to 18, about 29 percent see their children several times each week, while about 30 percent call or write to their children several times a week. 41.
 
 
 
471 miles
The mean amount of distance between American parents and the children they don't live with. But there's quite a difference between the distance between absent fathers – 424 miles – and absent mothers – 694 miles. 42.
 
 
 
10.8 years old
The mean age of U.S. children not living with their parents. 43.
 
 
 
6.9 years
The mean number years that a nonresident U.S. father has not been living with his children. 44.
 
 
 
3.8 years
The mean number years that a nonresident U.S. mother has not been living with her children. 45.
 
 
 
 

WORK-LIFE BALANCE

 
 
 
1978
The U.S. passed the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, which outlawed discrimination in hiring, firing, promotions or pay, on the basis of a woman's pregnancy.
 
 
1987
The U.S. Supreme Court upheld a California law requiring most employers give pregnant women up to four months of unpaid disability and the right to return to their job at the end of that time.
 
 
 
1993
The year the U.S. federal government enacted the Family and Medical Leave Act, which requires that eligible employees can take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave for childbearing or care of a family member.
 
 
 
36 percent
During the period of 1981-1985, 36 percent of U.S. women pregnant with their first child quit their jobs while pregnant or soon after giving birth.
 
 
 
26 percent
During the period of 1996-2000, 26 percent of U.S. women pregnant with their first child quit their jobs while pregnant or soon after giving birth.
 
 
 
3.9 percent
of U.S. women who had given birth to their first child during the period of 1961-1965 were working by the time the child was a month old.
 
 
 
13.6 percent
of U.S. women who had given birth to their first child during the period of 1996-1999 were working by the time the child was a month old.
 
 
16.8 percent
of U.S. women who had given birth to their first child during the period of 1961-1965 were working by the time the child was a year old.
 
 
 
64.8 percent
of U.S. women who had given birth to their first child during the period of 1996-1999 were working by the time the child was a year old.
 
 
 
33.5 percent
of U.S. women who had given birth to their first child during the period of 1961-1965 were working by the time the child was five years old.
 
 
 
78.6 percent
of U.S. women who had given birth to their first child during the period of 1991-1995 were working by the time the child was five years old.
 
 
 
 
In 1950, sociologist Hollingshead wrote: “Lower-class families exhibit the highest prevalence of instability of any class . . . A companionate family is often a complicated one. It may include the natural chil-dren of the couple, plus the woman’s children from a previous legal or com-panionate relationship ; also there may be dependent children of the man living with the woman. Normally, when the lower-class family is broken, as in the higher classes, the mother keeps the children. However, the mother may desert her ’man’ for another man, and leave her children with him, her mother or sister, or social agency. In the Deep South and Elmtown, from 50 to 60 percent of lower-class family groups are broken once, and often more, by desertion, divorce, death, or separation, often due to imprisonment of the man, between marriage, legal or companionate, and its normal dissolution through the marriage of adult children and the death of aged parents. ¶ Economic insecurity is but one of a number of factors that give rise to this amount of instability. lower-class people are employed in the most menial, the poorest paid, . . . seasonal and cyclical, and of short duration. More-over, from one-half to two-third of the wives are gainfully employed outside the family; in may cases they are the sole support of the family. However, the problem of economic insecurity does not account for amoral behavior that ranges from the flagrant violation of conventional sex mores to open rebellion against formal agencies of social control.”
 
 
 
 
21 percent –
during the period of 1890 and 1920 – the increase in single women who were working.
 
 
 
100 percent –
during the period of 1890 and 1920 – the increase in married women who were working.
 
 
 
Why mothers in 1920s Philadelphia worked –

– they were widows (22 percent);
– they were on their own financially because their husbands had either deserted them or were not giving them any financial support (24 percent);
– they had husbands who were ill (14 percent);
– their husbands didn't make enough money (29 percent); and
– the women preferred to work (11 percent).
 

 
Two out of every three Americans between the ages of 14 and 65
were expected to be in the armed forces or working (or have substitutes in their places) by 1943. That estimate did not include millions more who were in seasonal agricultural work, or were volunteering for the Red Cross and other wartime relief agencies.
 
 
 
22,000,000 women
were working in the U.S. in 1961.
 
 
 
By 1961,
Science News Letter estimated that “A young woman in the U.S. today can anticipate spending about 25 years of her married life working outside the home.”
 
 
 
 
“Low”
The percentage of married American women graduating from college in 1900-1919 who were working at age 30.
 
 
 
25 percent
of married American women graduating from college in 1920-1945 who were working at age 30.
 
 
 
25-30 percent
of married American women graduating from college in 1946-1965 who were working at age 30.
 
 
 
65 percent
of married American women graduating from college in 1966-1979 who were working at age 30.
 
 
 
80 percent
of married American women graduating from college in 1980-1990 who were working at age 30.
 
 
 
12.3 percent
of American women with juris doctorates were no longer attorneys within 10 years of graduation, in comparison to 4.0 percent of men, according to a 1993 survey.
 
 
 
10.7 percent
of American women with M.D.s who were no longer doctors within 10 years of graduation, in comparison to 3.7 percent of men, according to in a 1993 survey.
 
 
 
One-fourth
of female graduates of various Harvard professional schools are not in the workforce, according to a study.
 
 
 
16 percent more likely –
For every hour a parent works between six and nine in the evening, the child is 16 percent more likely to score in the bottom fourth in math tests, according to a US study.
 
 
 
"Thus, the individualist will tend to view the needs of the self and the family as distinct, and will experience conflict when there are demands made by both. In other words, the work and family domains are seen as exerting competing demands where addressing one will likely be at the expense of the other. As a result, when work time demands are high, individualists are bound to experience higher levels of work--family stressors and consequent strain than are collectivists."
 
 
 
30 percent
of American married mothers of children younger than six who were in the labor force in 1970.
 
 
 
60.8 percent
of American married mothers of children younger than six who were in the labor force in 2002.
 
 
 
55.4 percent
of U.S. mothers are married, live with their husbands, and are in the labor force.
 
 
 
53.3 percent
of U.S. mothers without present spouses are in the labor force.
 
 
 
57 percent
in the U.S. in 1977 who agreed with the statement that a wife should help her husband's career rather than have one of her own. 43 percent disagreed.
 
 
 
19 percent
in U.S. in 1998 still agreed with the statement that a wife should help her husband's career instead of having one of her own. In 20 years, the number of those who disagreed doubled – to 81 percent.
 
 
 
66 percent
of those surveyed in the U.S. in 1977 agreed with the statement that "it is much better for everyone involved if the man is the achiever outside the home and the woman takes care of the home and family." (34 percent opposed.)
 
 
 
34 percent
of those surveyed in the U.S. in 1977 opposed the statement that "it is much better for everyone involved if the man is the achiever outside the home and the woman takes care of the home and family."
 
 
 
34-38 percent
in the U.S. in 1998 agreed with the statement that "it is much better for everyone involved if the man is the achiever outside the home and the woman takes care of the home and family."
 
 
 
62-66 percent
in the U.S. in 1998 opposed the statement that "it is much better for everyone involved if the man is the achiever outside the home and the woman takes care of the home and family."
 
 
 
67 percent
of those surveyed in the U.S. in 1996 thought that both the husband and wife should earn an income.
 
 
 
31.0 percent
of U.S. mothers with infants were in the workforce in 1976.
 
 
 
54.6 percent
of U.S. mothers with infants who were in the workforce in 2002. The rate increased to a peak of 58.7 percent in 1998, and then for the first time since 1976, it began to drop or stay unchanged. However, it is unclear if that is because of the economic downturn or a lifestyle movement.
 
 
 
55 percent
of U.S. mothers with infant children are in the workforce.
 
 
 
One out of every six
U.S. children lived with a householder who was not in the labor force in 2000. In California, New York, and Mississippi, that figure rose to 21 percent. In Washington DC, it was 32 percent.
 
 
 
Seven million
U.S. married mothers were out of the labor force in 2003.
 
 
 
Six million mothers –
– 88 percent of the mothers who were out of the labor force – said that the primary reason they weren't working was because they were taking care of their homes and families. Of these six million women, five million of them had the fathers of their children in the labor force for the entire year.
 
 
 
160,000
– 16 percent – U.S. married fathers were out of the labor force in 2003 because they were taking care of their homes and families. For about 100,000 of these families, the mother was in the workforce the entire year.
 
 
 
45 percent
of those fathers out of the workforce who said that the primary reason they weren't working because they were ill or disabled.
 
 
 
"The economies in the Anglo countries tend to be stronger than those in China and Latin America, resulting in a higher average household income. Thus, working longer hours in the Anglo world may appear to be less necessary for family survival. It makes sense that where making a living is more difficult, people would be more accepting of working long hours. Similarly, higher unemployment rates than those in Anglo countries may force managers in less developed areas to protect their jobs by working longer hours. Such extended hours would be tolerated by the family as a necessary evil, or even celebrated as a further guarantee of job security in an uncertain job market where having a management job is certainly an unusual privilege. Furthermore, there may be greater extended family support in collectivist countries on matters such as babysitting children, thereby making it easier for families to manage with one or even both parents working long hours."
 
 
40 percent
of the American labor force works mostly nonstandard hours: they work in the evenings, overnight, on rotating schedules, or on weekends.
 
 
 
For one out of five
employed Americans, they work most of their hours outside the range of 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. or they have a schedule that regularly rotates.
 
 
 
In 35 percent
of American dual-earner couples with a child under five years old, one of the parents had an atypical work schedule.
 
 
 
One-third
of American single mothers work weekends.
 
 
 
One-fourth
of American single mothers work in late evenings or on rotating shifts.
 
 
 
More than half
of all American mothers with children under age five who work late or rotating schedules or weekends rely on two or more caregivers.
 
 
 
Just about 35 percent
of single mothers who work evenings eat with their children at least five days a week.
 
 
 
They have 2.7 times the risk of being suspended from school –
– "they" being children with parents who work nights.
 
 
 
Lower cognitive scores –
In a study, cognitive scores for children with mothers who ever worked nonstandard hours – evenings, nights, or variable schedules – were lower at 15, 24 and 36 months, when compared to the scores of children with mothers who worked standard hours.
 
 
 
". . . neither capitalist America nor socialist China had shown real signs of a significant transformation from patriarchal to gender-egalitarian power relationships in the past fifty years. The wife's recent achievement in economic independence via labor force participation does not easily translate into a gender-balanced power structure in the conjugal family. In the case of Detroit, we do not see an expected steady decline in husbands' power since the 1960s' cohorts where women begun to increasingly enter into the labor force. In the case of China, the finding is consistent with previous studies, which revealed that in urban Chinese families husbands tend to dominate the decision-making process."
 
 
 
24 percent
of all women in Canada were in the labor force in 1951.
 
 
 
60 percent
of all women in Canada were in the labor force in 1990.
 
 
 
Three times as likely –
U.S. mothers with graduate degrees are three times as likely to be working full-, rather than part-time.
 
 
 
63 percent
of U.S. mothers with at least one year of a college education were working in 2002, despite having had a child within the past year.
 
 
 
1998-2002
The only years with a decline of the mothers with infants in the U.S. labor force participation, since the Census started keeping records of this in 1976. It was a four percent drop – from 59 to 55 percent.
 
 
 
2.1 million
of U.S. mothers of infants were in the workforce in 2002. Of these, 1.9 million had jobs at the time of the Census, while the remainder were currently unemployed.
 
 
 
72 percent
of U.S. mothers with children, one year old or older, were in the labor force in 2002.
 
 
 
55 percent
of U.S. mothers with infants were in the labor force in 2002. Of these mothers, 61 percent of those over the age of 30 were working while just 39 percent of teenage mothers (15 to 19 years old) have jobs.
 
 
 
 

FAMILIES AT WORK

 
 
 
 
Why My Daddy Should Be Father of the Year . . . . Why My Mommy Should Be Mother of the Year . . . .
 

Love
49 percent of kids say that one of the reasons their parents should be "parents of the year" is that their parents love them. A higher percentage actually mention "love" when talking about their fathers – but at least some analysis indicates that that's because it's, uh, filler. They don't really understand what daddies do, so they say "love," when they can't think of anything any else. But mommies, if this is any consolation to dads out there, are generally supposed to get the award because they are "nice" or the generic "good mother."

 
 
Work
10 percent of kids say that one of the reasons their parents should be "parents of the year" is that their parents work. Twice as many kids think that their fathers should get the award based on their work than giving it to mothers because they work.

 
 
Has time with me –
11 percent of kids say that one of the reasons their parents should be "parents of the year" is that they have time for their kids. More kids give their fathers credit for this than moms, despite the fact they actually are spending more time with their mothers.

 
 
Takes care of me when I'm sick –
12 percent of kids say that's one of the reasons their parents should be "parents of the year": taking care of the kids when they're sick.

 
 
Cooks –
27 percent of kids say that parents cooking for them is a reason their parents should be "parents of the year." Dads get credit for a specialty item (he makes me pancakes); Moms are described more generally (she makes me dinner). Cooking is the third most common reason you should give their parents the award – right behind "love" and "nice" – and it's from almost twice to almost three times as important as any other specific task the kids mention. So it isn't just a man's heart apparently that can be won through his stomach.

 
 
They take me places –
Don't underestimate the value of the carpool: 18 percent of kids say that the fact that the parents took them where they needed to go was a reason for the parent award.

 
 
For those who think buying a present at the airport replaces being gone for a couple days –
Well, you might be right. "Buys me things," is a reason for the award for 14 percent of kids. Which – ugh – is three percent more than "has time for me." And just one percent less than "helps me with my homework" (15 percent).

 
 
She's the prototype, stereotypical good nurturer
Okay, they don't write it in those words, but basically Mommy usually deserves the award because she's a good nurturer and does all the things that good mommies are "supposed to do," e.g. cook, clean, help me with my homework.

 
 
He's not like other dads
Daddy, on the other hand, usually deserves the award because he's exceptional – he's not like other dads, because of things the kid perceives are not required of him. He works more, or spends more time with me. And generally, Daddy should get the award because of specific fun things he does with me, not the fact that he's raising me.

 

Nine percent
of the working parents with kids in day care feel very successful in balancing the demands of work and family.
 
 
 
14.3 percent
of American married mothers believe they are not very successful or not at all successful balancing work and family obligations.
 
 
15.4 percent
of American married fathers believe they are not very successful or not at all successful balancing work and family obligations.
 
 
 
46.1 percent
of American married mothers believe they are somewhat successful at balancing work and family obligations.
 
 
 
44.9 percent
of American married fathers believe they are somewhat successful at balancing work and family obligations.
 
 
 
39.6 percent
of American married mothers believe they are very successful or completely successful at balancing work and family obligations.
 
 
39.8 percent
of American married fathers believe they are very successful or completely successful at balancing work and family obligations. In case you missed that – that's almost exactly the same percent as the mothers.
 
 
14.7 percent
of American married mothers refused a job promotion, because of their family responsibilities.
 
 
17.4 percent
of American married fathers refused a job promotion, because of their family responsibilities.
 
 
 
41.2 percent
of American married mothers took on extra paid work to take care of their families.
 
 
54.1 percent
of American married mothers took on extra paid work to take care of their families.
 
 
 
31.6 percent
of American married mothers cut back on paid work to take care of their families.
 
 
31.5 percent
of American married fathers cut back on paid work to take care of their families. Once again – almost exactly the same!
 
 
 
62 percent
of American married fathers have missed an occasion with their families because of work responsibilities.
 
 
 
37 percent
of American married mothers have missed an occasion with their families because of work responsibilities.
 
 
 
17.9 percent
of American married fathers haven't been able to take care of a sick child because of work responsibilities.
 
 
 
24.8 percent
of American married mothers haven't been able to take care of a sick child because of work responsibilities. But that doesn't mean that they skipped less times with their sick kids. Instead, the researchers feel that they report more times they weren't with their kids, because they think it's their responsibility to be there.
 
 
 
55.3 percent
of American married fathers say that work has kept them from doing normal housework.
 
 
40.7 percent
of American married mothers say that work has kept them from doing normal housework.
 
 
 
Long work hours
effect the way American married fathers view their ability to balance work and family, but work hours don't really affect a working mother's view of work-family balance.
 
 
 
Having younger children
negatively affects the way American working mothers view their ability to balance work and family, probably because they have more difficulties in handling child care.
 
 
 
Making sacrifices at work for the family
negatively affects the way American fathers view their ability to balance work and family – and it does so more than it does for mothers.
 
 
 
Making sacrifices at home for work
negatively affects the way American mothers view their ability to balance work and family – and it does so more than it does for fathers.
 
 
Marital happiness
effects the way American married fathers' and mothers' view of work-family balance.
 
 
 
Housework
doesn't really effect the way American married mothers view their ability to balance work and family.
 
 
 
But, a perceived unfairness in who is responsible for what
does effect the way American married fathers does effect their ability to balance work and family – their wives' resentment if they think it's unfair effects their husbands' view on their ability to balance work and family.
 
 
 
43.2 percent
of black women in the U.S. were the family's breadwinner in 1900.
 
 
 
20.6 percent
of white women in the U.S. were working in 1900.
 
 
 
More than 80 percent
of blacks in the U.S. worked as domestic servants in 1910.
 
 
 
Less than 10 percent
of blacks in the U.S. worked in "white collar" occupations before 1960.
 
 
 
Half
of blacks in the U.S. worked in "white collar" occupations by 1990.
 
 
 
60 percent
of women in the U.S. work more than 40 hours a week.
 
 
 
 
In the nineteenth century working /immigrant classes, "Typically, a male laborer earned two-thirds of his family's income. The other third was earned by his wife and children. Many married women contributed to the working-class family economy by performing work that could be done in the home, such as embroidering, tailoring, or doing laundry, or caring for boarders or lodgers. The wages of children were particularly critical for a working-class family's standard of living. children under the age of fifteen contributed 20 percent of the income of many working-class families. Among many ethnic groups, it was common for daughters to leave school at an early age and go to work so that sons could continue their education. It was also customary for a daughter to remain unmarried so that she could care for younger siblings or her parents in their old age. The concept of the "family economy" describes this pattern, in which decision making was a by-product of collective needs rather than of individual preferences."
 
 
 
In 1926, a women in The Survey wrote an essay to answer the question, "Shall women work?" with the following: "That question is perhaps best answered by the sarcastic laughter which it might well arose in any but the most dilettante group. Women, by and large, have always worked – as men have – to support themselves and their families. If there is any new consideration on this point, it is the comparative leisure of the middle-class, middle-aged Ameri-can wives of hard-working husbands. In the past, and in Europe today, leisure has ordinarily been a prerogative of class rather than sex; the men of the 'upper' classes as well as the women have enjoyed it. For all but an in-significant iota of the women of the world, there is no problem of the whether to work or not, but only the question, where?"
 
 
 
In 1926, a (female) writer in The Survey wrote: “Gradually, in the conventional order, the husband-father, has come to find himself the sole support of the family. On the farm, even in the village and town, the wife’s work has a decided economic significance. Often the chores done by the children count in the same way. But in the cities, after a few years of intensive child care, the wife at home adds little to the family’s resources by her work. ¶ When you have to buy fruit as well as sugar, and to pay for the gas for cooking, why bother to make jam and jelly and pre-serves? They can be bought for not a great deal more than the retail cost of ingredients, from the factories which purchase wholesale and manufacture with economics of large-scale production. . . . Whichever way you figure it, the greatest part of the outlay is in cash; the work in the home, by an unspecialized jill-of-all-trades brings an almost negligible saving. And so the woman becomes chiefly a kind of family purchasing agent, with shopping as a major vocation, saving pennies here and there adding chiefly in a negative way to the economic well-being of the family.”
 
 
 
In 1926, a (female) writer in The Survey wrote: “An indignant chorus will insist that money is not every-thing; that there are intangible values in the constant pre-sence of the ‘homemaker’ which are not to be measured in cash. Undoubtedly the life of any family is the richer for the concentration of an interested adult, male or female, upon the intangibles. But most of us must consider the busi-ness of living before we can afford to think about the art of living. Until money for essentials, at least, is in sight even the interested homemaker’s attention is likely to be concentrated on the petty tangibles of economics of the cash-and-carry store, dragging the baby along as she shops, rather than upon the child’s recre-ational needs at that moment.”
 
 
 
In 1926, a (female) writer in The Survey wrote about her friend, “She would rather stay at home, if it could be done with provision for necessi-ties and a modest margin for emergencies and recreation and sociability; but when it means anxiety, insecurity, and isolation – well, she is glad she can get a job. She want the children to have more opportunity than she had– she guesses that now she is back to work, for good, or at least until they are educated.”
 
 
 
In 1926, another writer in The Survey admonished, “Three vital facts, however, we sometimes forget: that for the first time in the world's history, when the mother goes forth to work, the children are left behind; that the work she has ‘followed’ out of the home is no longer ‘her’ work – she has little or no control over her hours of labor, wages, or working con-ditions that her work and the materials she uses in it have no longer any connection whatever with her other main responsibility in life, the rearing and training of children. This final point is true even of the women who earns at home; there is no child-training material to be found in the day’s task of the industrial home-work; ‘sewing on pants’ and child-care are mutually exclusive, and one is done at the expense of the other.”
 
 
 
In 1926, yet another writer in The Survey explained, “When the family income was measured in food, clothing an shelter and all the members of the family helped produce it, it proportioned itself naturally to the size of the family. When production was shifted from the home and small shop to the factory and was measured in chase, all the family not unnaturally tried to follow it. In the early days of the factory system the workers were unmercifully exploited, and the history of social reform was for years the history of the attempt to release women and children from the bondage of long hours and savage conditions of work, and to restore them to the home. This spirited attempt was largely successful. As a result the father’s earnings began to form the chief part of the family income; and when the shift to factory pro-duction was virtually complete, as it is today, they became in effect the family income. ¶ But no sooner had the long struggle to make the man’s income the family income triumphed, than the somber phe-nomenon of the ‘dependent family’ appeared, due to the destruction of the old natural proportion between family income and the size of the family. Before the Industrial Revolution a man added to his income by acquiring a wife and children; today he adds chiefly to his liability by the acquisition.”
 
 
 
In 1943, Parents' Magazine reported,“The problem of distributing the burden of war work equitably and without drawning too heavily upon women who are mothers and home-makers is greatly complicated by the fact that the need for workers is not spread over the country evenly. . . . These dangers are as great as would be those involved if the homemakers of the community were asked to assume a heavy load of war work thus running the risk of neglect-ing their children and homes."
 
 
 
More than a third
of U.S. teens aged 16 and 17 who are in school are also in the labor force.
 
 
 

PAID VS. UNPAID WORK

 
 
 
About 30 minutes
Average increase in hours of paid work per week when an American married man when he becomes a father. 1
 
 
 
1.5 hours
Average decrease in hours of paid work per week when a Canadian married man when he becomes a father (his unpaid work hours go up). 2.
 
 
 
2 hours
Average decrease in hours of paid work per week when an American married woman when she becomes a mother – and yes, her unpaid work hours go up. 3.
 
 
 
5 hours
Average decrease in hours of paid work per week when a Canadian married woman when she becomes a mother – while her unpaid work hours go up. 4.
 
 
 
Three hours –
the increase a university degree increases men’s overall paid work by about 3 hours a week. 5.
 
 
 
But there's no real effect
for women – being more educated doesn't significantly effect how much total unpaid work women do. 6.
 
 
 
15 percent –
The increase of time spent at work by Canadian employed adults, age 20-64. How they do it: less leisure time (-10 percent) and less personal needs (-4.2 percent). 7.
 
 
 
Not surprisingly,
according to studies in the US and Australia, women and men do less unpaid work if they do more paid work. And they do more unpaid work if their spouse works more paid hours. 8.
 
 
 
Winner, of the "Most Stressed" Award –
Mothers. In a survey of Canadian parents, 38 percent of mothers identified themselves as “severely time stressed,” That both includes single and married mothers: they were the most stressed out of all the groups. What made a difference in the mothers' stress level, apparently, was not whether or not they were married, but whether or not they worked full time. 12.
 
 
 
Taking home the silver –
Married fathers. In a survey of Canadian parents, with 26 percent of fathers having identifying themselves as “severely time stressed.” 13.
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHILD CARE

 

Who's Doing What How Parents' Work and Education Effect Time with Their Kids

 
 
 
Who's Doing What
 
 
The Physical and Routine Care of Children –
is usually done by mothers. 16.
 
 
 
About 75 percent
of U.S. parents say they have regular conversations with their kids about how the children are doing in school. 17.
 
 
 
About half
of U.S. parents say they participate in five or more school-related activities each year. That includes parent-teacher conferences, parent association meetings, volunteering at the school, coming to see a child in a school play, etc. 18.
 
 
 
About Ten Minutes
for each additional child, the decrease in amount of time a U.S. mother spends doing actual childcare. One possible explanation for this is that each additional child increases the amount of housework that needs to be done, and thereby reduces the time a mother has to spend on the children. 19.
 
 
 
Playing –
Dads spend a greater proportion of the time with their children playing. Mothers spend more hours playing with them, but it's not as big a percentage of the over-all time spend in child care. 20.
 
 
 
Increased –
the amount of time fathers spend doing childcare (and housework), across an analysis of 16 countries’ data from the 1960s to the 1990s. 21.
 
 
 
Increased –
the amount of time full-time employed mothers spend caring for their children, across an analysis of 16-countries’ data from the 1960s to the 1990s. Note that unlike fathers, the time spent in housework decreased. 22.
 
 
 
Increased
The amount of time studies have found that U.S. and Australian parents are spending in face-to-face activities with their children, despite a concurrent increase in the children’s increase of time spent at child care centers, preschool, and school programs. 23.
 
 
 
More than 90 percent
of U.S. mothers surveyed report having spent time in direct childcare activities on the day they were surveyed. That held true from the 1960s to 1990s. 23.
 
 
 
51 percent
of full-time employed U.S. fathers who reported any childcare activities in the 1960s (on their diary day). 24.
 
 
 
72 percent
of full-time employed U.S. fathers studied reported any childcare activities in the 1990s (on their diary day). 25.
 
 
 
Less Personal Care and Fewer Hours of Paid Work
How the employed mothers, in that 16-country study, find the time for that increased time in childcare. 26.
 
 
 
Less Sleep and Fewer Hours of Paid Work
How the fathers, in that 16 country study, find the time for that increased time in childcare and housework. Personal care, on the whole, takes a hit, but sleep is the main thing in that category that is reduced. 27.
 
 
 
How Parents' Work and Education Effect Time with Kids
 
 
1.5 hours –
– the decrease in amount of time spent in childcare for Canadian women who are employed full or part time, compared to their unemployed counterparts. 29.
 
 
 
A half-hour –
the decrease in amount of time spent in childcare for Canadian men who are employed full or part time, compared to their unemployed counterparts. 30.
 
 
 
The Weekend –
Canadian fathers spend more time doing direct child care on weekends. Canadian mothers spend less time doing child care on those days. One possible explanation for this is that there is a sort of division of labor going on here – where the father is working with the children and giving the mother a couple days off – a weekend, so to speak. 31.
 
 
 
Older employed mothers
spend slightly more time doing child care than their younger counterparts, but it's an almost insignificant difference. 32.
 
 
 
Parents' Education –
effects both the amount of time spent with children, and the kind of activities the parents do during that time. More educated parents spend more time with their kids, and they spend that time in activities meant to stimulate their children's intellectual growth. 33.
 
 
 
More educated parents
spend more time talking to their children and helping them with their homework. 34.
 
 
 
More educated fathers –
are more likely to have adopted a philosophy that they should be more involved in childrearing. 35.
 
 
 
About 40-50 minutes per day
the amount of the increase in time spent devoted to childcare by Canadian parents who are more highly educated, compared to those who are not (varying by sex and employment status). 36.
 
 
 
0.2 hours per day –
the amount of time devoted by U.S. married fathers to childcare in 1975. 42.
 
 
 
0.3 hours per day –
the amount of time by U.S. married fathers to childcare in 1981. 43.
 
 
 
1.2 hours per day
the amount of time devoted to childcare by U.S. married fathers who were employed full-time in 2000. 44.
 
 
 
0.6 hours per day –
the amount of time devoted to childcare by U.S. married mothers in 1924-1931. 45.
 
 
 
1.0 hours per day –
the amount of time devoted to childcare by U.S. married mothers in 1981. 46.
 
 
 
1.57 hours per day –
the amount of Canadian married mothers spent in child care in 2004. 50.
 
 
 
.67 hours per day –
the amount of Canadian married fathers spent in child care in 2004. 51.
 
 
 
1.7 hours per day
the amount of time devoted by U.S. married mothers to childcare in 1965. 53.
 
 
 
1.8 hours per day –
– the amount of time devoted by U.S. married mothers to childcare in 1998. 54.
 
 
 

WHO'S DOING THE HOUSEWORK?

 
 
 
Gender
is still the best single predictor who is spending how much time doing housework. And that's not true just in the U.S., but around the world, from England to Poland to Japan. 1.
 
 
 
Women
were reported to be doing the majority of the housework, in every nation but Russia in a 13-nation study. 2.
 
 
 
70-80 percent
Amount of the total domestic work done by American wives, regardless their employment status. 3.
 
 
 
 
Yes, she is really spending all that time picking up after you –
In the U.S., women put in additional five hours a week in housework once they are married, while marriage does not significantly effect the number of hours a man does. 10.
 
 
 
It's the kids' fault, too –
Children under the age of 12 significantly increase time in housework for both American husbands and wives – but the increase is three times as much for the mother's as it is the husband's. 11.
 
 
 
Especially the boys' –
Perhaps setting a pattern of the future, while each girl aged 12 to 18 in the family increases a mother's housework by an hour – but doesn't change the father's housework. Boys the same age, however, add three hours a week of housework for their mothers, and almost one hour for husbands. 12.
 
 
 
U.S. whites –
do less housework than minorities. 13.
 
 
 
30.5 percent
of U.S. wives say the spouses do about equal amounts of housework, according to a survey. 14.
 
 
 
40.4 percent
in a study of U.S. households, of the husbands who said that the spouses do about equal amounts of housework. 15.
 
 
 
56.9 percent
of U.S. husbands surveyed who said that their wives always or usually do the housework. 16.
 
 
 
66.9 percent
of those men's wives who said they always or usually do the housework. 17.
 
 
 
 

HOW HAVE THINGS CHANGED?

 
 
 
Why you feel like your mother's house was so much cleaner and more organized than yours –

Because it probably was. But it isn't because she was a better housekeeper than you are. It's that she took twice as much time to do everything as you do.

Interestingly, in the 1990s, U.S. women spent about half the time on housework as they had 30 years earlier (17.5 hours down from 30 each week), while men, on the other hand, were spending just over twice the time they had spent (10 hours up from 4.9).

That means women now only do 1.8 hours of household work for every hour a man does –compared to the six-fold difference in 1960s. But the men's work doesn't make up for the decrease in women's hours. And men's hours haven't really changed since 1985. So one sociologist decided that, yes, we are doing some things faster – with new gadgets like the microwave and the washer/dryer – but we're also relying on outside help for more of housework, and – probably more to the point – we are just not doing the rest.

The reduction in women doing household labor, with an increase (but disproportional one) in men's work is happening elsewhere, too, such as in The Netherlands. 22.

 
 
Increased –
the amount of time fathers spend doing housework, across an analysis of 16 countries’ data from the 1960s to the 1990s. 23.
 
 
 
Decreased –
the amount of time full-time employed mothers spend doing housework, across an analysis of 16 countries’ data from the 1960s to the 1990s. 24.
 
 

WHAT REALLY CHANGES WHO DOES IT?

 

Is it more money? Is it more education? Is it Women's Lib?

 
 
 
Is it more money?
 

The more money a wife makes, the more likely her husband is to report that he does at least half of the household labor. But the women do not agree to the same amount of husband-done housework: they think it’s less. 25.
 
 
In households where women contribute to less than or up to half of the family’s income, the more money she makes, less housework she does. 26.
 
 
In households where women contribute to more than half of the family’s income, the more money she makes, more housework she does – by an increase of 5-6 hours each week. 27.
 
 
The amount of income brought in by his wife or he does not effect the man’s hours spent doing housework, so a woman’s role in the workplace effects her hours, not his. 28.
 
 
 
Is it more education?
 

Men with more educational attainment tend to do more household work. 29.
 
 
 
So be more educated or the same age than he is –
U.S. women who have more education than their husbands and those who are the same age as them do less housework, compared to couples where the husband has more education, or is more than two years older than their wives. 31.
 

 
Is it Women's Lib?
 
 

If a wife thinks that women should be equal to men –
she does less housework, but her husband doesn't do more of it. 32.
 
 
 
If a wife thinks that men and women should share household work –
she does less housework, but her husband doesn't do more. 33.
 
 
 
If a husband thinks that men and women should share household work –
his wife does less . . . but he doesn't do more. 34.
 
 
 

CHILD CARE

 
 
 
 
89 percent
of U.S. preschool aged children with working mothers – that's over 8.7 million children out of 9.8 million – are in some form of regularly arranged child care. 1.
 
 
31 percent
of U.S. preschool aged children with mothers who are not employed – that's over 2.5 million out of 8.2 million children – are in some form of regularly arranged child care. Regular was defined as at least once a week. 2.
 
 
40.2 percent
Of U.S. preschools in regular child care, for 40.2 percent of them, "child care" means being cared for by a parent, grandparent or other relative. 3.
 
 
For 23 percent
of the children in the U.S. under the age of five who have regularly arranged child care – that care is coming from their grandparents. Regular was defined as at least once a week. 4.
 
 
 
For 14.2 percent
of the children in the U.S. under the age of five who have regularly arranged child care – that care is coming from their fathers. Regular was defined as at least once a week. 5.
 
 
Almost one-fourth
of preschool-aged children with regularly arranged child care go to organized facilities. 13 percent are going to day care; six percent are going to nursery schools or preschools. 6.
 
 
 
$95
Average weekly amount spent on child care by an average U.S. family with a working mother in 2002. 7.
 
 
 
About seven percent
of that U.S. average family's income went to child care expenses in 2002. For family under the poverty level, however, child care expenses were 25.1 percent of their income. 8.
 
 
 
$67.40
Average weekly amount spent on child care in 1984, in 2002 dollars. But don't bother getting nostalgic for how much cheaper it was back then. Child care's been averaging about six to seven percent of a family's income for about the past 20 years. 9.
 
 
 
More than half
of American mothers of children under the age of five have atypical work schedules – such as they have to work late or on weekends, or their schedules change – depend on at least two different caregivers for their children's care. 10.
 
 
 
17 percent
of Canadian two-parent families had their preschool-aged children in child care. 36 percent of single parents had their kids in day care. 16.
 
 
 
One out of 20
American children are cared for by a nanny or baby-sitter on a regular, ongoing basis. 27.
 
 
 

PRESCHOOL / EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS

 
 
 
71 percent –
of American children age three to six years old are in full or part time "early childhood education and care." 40.
 
 
 
 

VIEWS OF CHILD NURTURING

 
 
 
The courts still use maternal preferences for determining child custody, but have slowly turned to looking at the best interest of the child to mean what is nurturing. For example, in 1968, the Supreme Court invalidated a state law which precluded illegitimate children from suing for the wrongful death of their mother; she raised them, “nurtured them,” and their legal status shouldn’t invalidate that. In 1972, the Supremes overturned a state law that an unmarried father of children is automatically an unfit parent and removed the children from the father’s care if the mother died (even if he’d raised them from day one). 1.
 
U.S. Courts generally have a presumption that parents have a natural affection, will nurture their children and will act in the best interests of their children. 2.
 
But “best” does not actually mean best for the child. As Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia explained in one decision:

"The best interests of the child," a venerable phrase familiar from divorce proceedings, is a proper and feasible criterion for making the decision as to which of two parents will be accorded custody. But it is not traditionally the sole criterion - much less the sole constitutional criterion - for other, less narrowly channeled judgments involving children, where their interests conflict in varying degrees with the interests of others. Even if it were shown, for example, that a particular couple desirous of adopting a child would best provide for the child's welfare, the child would nonetheless not be removed from the custody of its parents so long as they were providing for the child adequately. Similarly, "the best interests of the child" is not the legal standard that governs parents' or guardians' exercise of their custody: So long as certain minimum requirements of child care are met, the interests of the child may be subordinated to the interests of other children, or indeed even to the interests of the parents or guardians themselves. 3.

 
 
What and who is nurturing has meant a whole other set of problems: that is, who/what is a parent/family? Designation of someone as a parent brings with them the legal responsibility to care for the child, it also means they get the fruit of a child’s labor. (Yes, still. There are only a couple states that have laws requiring trust funds for child actors, etc.), and host of other privileges and responsibilities. 4.
 
 
 
In the late 1960s, the Supreme Court began to recognize that the child has at least some rights under the U.S. Constitution: they can have a lawyer for a juvenile proceeding, they have some first amendment rights. But, as they explained in 1979,

“A child, merely on account of his minority, is not beyond the protection of the Constitution. As the Court said . . . "whatever may be their precise impact, neither the Fourteenth Amendment nor the Bill of Rights is for adults alone." This observation, of course, is but the beginning of the analysis. The Court long has recognized that the status of minors under the law is unique in many respects. As Mr. Justice Frankfurter aptly put it: "Children have a very special place in life which law should reflect. Legal theories and their phrasing in other cases readily lead to fallacious reasoning if uncritically transferred to determination of a State's duty towards children." . . . . The unique role in our society of the family, the institution by which "we inculcate and pass down many of our most cherished values, moral and cultural" . . . requires that constitutional principles be applied with sensitivity and flexibility to the special needs of parents and children. We have recognized three reasons justifying the conclusion that the constitutional rights of children cannot be equated with those of adults: the peculiar vulnerability of children; their inability to make critical decisions in an informed, mature manner; and the importance of the parental role in child rearing.” 5.

Which is why a parent or judge can be required to consent for a minor’s abortion, etc.
 
 

U.S. CHILDREN'S ACTIVITIES AND TIME USE

 
 
Apparently, we may only like them when they're little, cute and cuddly –
About 80 percent of parents of preschool-age children report having a warm relationship with their children: they frequently hug and kiss the kids, tell them "I love you," play with them at least once a week. But just 57 percent of parents of school-age children say they have a warm relationship with these older children. And it matters – a warm relationship with parents means that a child is happier, less withdrawn, and has less behavioral problems. 6.
 
 
 
HOW CHILDREN SPEND THEIR TIME:
 
 
 
In bed (68 hours), at school (32 hours) and in front of the television (14 hours). 7.
 
 
 
More sleep and time spent at meals –
Children who sleep more and spend more time at meals (usually an indicator of time spent with parents) have less behavioral problems. 8.
 
 
 
One hour and 22 minutes less
the amount of time children spent at mealtime in 2003 – seven hours and six minutes, compared to 1981's eight hours and 28 minutes. 9.
 
 
 
Around six hours more, each
Children got about six hours of sleep and spent six hours more in school in 2003 than they did in 1981: they were in school for 32 and a half hours, and they were in bed for 68 hours. 10.
 
 
 
About 2.2 hours a day
The amount of time 7-15 year-old boys in Bangladesh spend in school. 11.
 
 
 
About 7.9 hours a day
The amount of time 10-12 year-old boys in Bangladesh spend working – not much less than the adult's work day (8.2 hours). 12.
 
 
 
Five to six hours a week
The amount of time 6-17 year-old American children spend doing paid and household work. 13.
 
 
 
Two percent
Children in Orchard Town, New England spent two percent of their time doing work, while children of the same age in Nyansongo, Kenya, spent 41 percent of their time at work. 14.
 
 
 
Two hours more
the amount of time children spent doing in housework in 2003 – five hours and 43 minutes, compared to 1981's three hours and 43 minutes. 15.
 
 
 
Six to seven hours a day
The amount of time 6-17 year-old American children spend in school during the week. 16.
 
 
 
Only reading –
Between reading, studying and television, only increased time spent in reading translates to increased academic achievement. And don't tell the kids but – television may be a culprit for increased child obesity, but it does not adversely impact academic achievement. It has some negative effect, but it isn't significant. Another significant way to increase achievement – not terribly surprising – more hours in school. 17.
 
 
 
So, in a nightmarishly ironic turn of events, in the past 20 years,

American kids have increased the amount of studying they do by an hour and 29 minutes
The weekly amount of time children spent studying in 2003: three hours and 58 minutes, compared to 1981's two hours and 28 minutes. 18.
 
 
but they cut the time they read by 10 minutes.
They only read for 1.3 hours a week. 19.
 
 
So the one thing outside of school that really has an impact, they only do for 1.3 hours a week –
 
but the thing that has no impact, they do for
 
– 13 to 14 hours a week
That being, the average amount of time an American child spends watching television each week. That is about one-fourth of all free-time children have in a week (51 hours of free time each week). 20.

 
 
More than nine out of ten
of U.S. children age six to 12 watch television every week. 21.
 
 
 
Eight out of ten
of U.S. children age six to 12 do housework and play every week. 22.
 
 
 
Two to three hours
Each week, children in East Asia study about two to three hours a week more than their North American counterparts; for them, those hours are leisure time. 23.
 
 
 
More organized fun
While children in North America have more leisure time than children in East Asia, they spend more time in structured activities, especially sports. 24.
 
 
11 percent
Amount of time U.S. elementary school children spent in structured activities (e.g. sports, art, church, social activities) in 1981. 25.
 
 
 
20-22 percent
Amount of time U.S. elementary school children spent in structured activities (e.g. sports, art, church, social activities) in 1997. 26.
 
 
 
"No evidence" –
According to children's time use scholar Sandra L. Hofferth, there is no evidence that a child is harmed by having a schedule full of organized activities. Instead, the reverse may be the case, because they find confidence in their ability to master activities. 27.
 
 
 
HOW PARENTS EFFECT CHILDREN'S TIME USE:
 
 
An educated parent increases –
the amount of time a child spends reading, studying and doing housework. 28.
 
 
 
A higher parental income –
has really no effect on the way a child spends their time. Wealthier children spend slightly less time watching television, and slightly more time eating, but the differences are not as significant as those from other factors (such as race, education, family size, parental age). 29.
 
 
 
Children of single-parents –
read less, play more sports, have lower test scores, and more behavioral problems. 30.
 
 
 
Children in larger families –
play more on their own, are involved in more sports, and get lower test scores than children in smaller families. 31.
 
 
 
The difference between having both parents work and a stay-at-home mom –
In terms of time use, compared to children with a stay-at-home-mom, children of two-working parents:
spend more time in school,
spend less time at home playing,
watch less television,
and sleep less. 32.

 
 
A half hour less –
A child watches a half hour of television less each week, for every year of additional education the head of the household has. 33.
 
 
 
12-14 hours more
Children of two-parent homes spend 12 to 14 hours a week more with their parents each week, than do children of single mothers. For children under the age of 13. 34.
 
 
 
No effect –
The head of the household's educational attainment or income level do not effect the amount of time children spend playing or in organized sports. 35.
 
 
 
You wish –
Sorry, but children don't do more housework, just because their mothers have jobs. 36.
 
 
 
Less time in church –
Compared to a father-breadwinner, full-time mother family, children in every other family form spend less time in church. A possible explanation for this, according to the researchers, are scheduling, but another reason they are considering is that the other families feeling less welcome in a church setting (for example, a family of a divorce or unmarried mother don't feel comfortable in a church.). 37.
 
 
 
An older parent –
Children of older parents spend more time at church and studying. 38.
 
 
 
 
HOW RACE, ETHNICITY AND A COMPUTER EFFECT CHILDREN'S TIME USE:
 
 
 
Less time playing –
U.S. Black, Hispanic, and Asian children all spend less time playing than do non-Hispanic white children. 39.

 
 
More time in church –
U.S. black children, compared to the other racial groups. The time they spend in church appears to be the additional time that the non-Hispanic white children have for play. 40.
 
 
 
More time in doing housework –
U.S. Hispanic children, compared to the other racial groups. The time they spend doing housework appears to be the additional time that the non-Hispanic white children have for play. 41.
 
 
 
More time in reading and watching television –
U.S. Asian children, compared to the other racial groups. The time they spend doing reading and watching television appears to be the additional time that the non-Hispanic white children have for play. 42.
 
 
 
More time in school –
Black children in the U.S. spend more time in school than other racial groups. 43.
 
 
 
More time studying –
U.S. Black, Hispanic, and Asian children all spend more time studying than do non-Hispanic white children. 44.
 
 
 
More time watching television –

U.S. Black and Asian children watch more television than non-Hispanic white children: black children watch 2 and 2/3 hours more and Asians watch five hours more than white children. 45.

 
 
Ten hours a week more
15 to 17 year old U.S. teens without a computer get 10 more hours of sleep a week than 15-17 year-olds with a computer and the internet. 46.
 
 
 
Seven and a half hours a week more –
15 to 17 year-old teenagers in the U.S. without a computer watch about seven and a half hours more of t.v. a week than 15-17 year-old with a computer and the internet. 47.
 
 
 
A hour and a half more –
15 to 17 year-old teens with a computer and access to the internet take about an hour and a half longer to eat each week, than those without a computer. 48.
 
 
 
So much for kids with computers never leaving the videogame:
 
15 to 17 year olds with the computer and the internet spend more time doing sports and outdoor activities than their computer-less peers, by an hour and 37 minutes each week. 49.
 
 
 
And the days of computer whiz = social geek may be over, too –
 
15 to 17 year olds with a computer and the internet spend about socialized an extra hour and 20 minutes compared to their computer-less peers. 50.
 
 
 

HOURS IN CHILD CARE

 
 
18
Average number of hours a U.S. preschool-aged child spends, each week, in some form of regularly arranged child care, if his mother is not employed. 51.
 
 
 
36
Average number of hours a U.S. preschool-aged child spends, each week, in some form of regularly arranged child care, if his mother is employed. 52.
 
 
 
19 percent
of U.S. grade school-aged children who have working mothers are in enrichment programs at least once a week, compared to just 10.5 percent of children whose mothers are not employed. 53.
 
 
 
7.7 percent
of U.S. grade school-aged children who have working mothers are in sports programs at least once a week, compared to five percent of children whose mothers are not employed. 54.
 
 
 
Left to their own devices –
Beginning to attend school at the age of seven, children in Finland go to school by themselves, and then, after school, they spend the rest of the day by themselves or with friends. Since, compared to the supervised schedule in other European nations, some see this as neglect, there has been some movement to provide supervised programs for the seven and eight year olds. 55.
 
 
 
5.8 million
U.S. grade school-aged children care for themselves, without adult supervision, on a regular basis. That's 15 percent of all grade-school aged children in the U.S. 56.
 
 
 
"No evidence" –
There is no evidence that children's self-care is inherently harmful to children. Instead, it depends on the maturity of the individual child. 57.
 
 
 
18.6 percent
of U.S. grade school-aged children, with working mothers, care for themselves, without adult supervision, on a regular basis, compared to 7.1 percent of children who care for themselves, but their mothers are not employed. 58.
 
 
 
2.8 percent
of the U.S. children five to eight years old with working mothers, care for themselves, without adult supervision, on a regular basis. 59.
 
 
 
15.1 percent
of the U.S. children 11 to 13 years old with working mothers, care for themselves, without adult supervision, on a regular basis. 60.
 
 
 
39.3 percent
of the U.S. children 12 to 14 years old with working mothers, care for themselves, without adult supervision, on a regular basis. 61.
 
 
 
Five hours a week
Of the U.S. children five to 11 years old who regularly care for themselves, they average about five hours a week on their own. 62.
 
 
 
Seven hours a week
Of the U.S. children 12 to 14 years old who regularly care for themselves, they average about seven hours a week on their own. 63.
 
 
 
 
 

CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN CHILD REARING

 
 
 
 
Are the parents supposed to be the children's teachers?
In studies, "educated middle-class Anglo-American mothers are found to consider it important to provide early stimulation to children, even during pregnancy, whereas lower-class Black mothers think it is the school's job to ‘teach children.’ Similarly, Mexican -American mothers do not see themselves as ‘teachers,’ but Chinese and Japanese mothers coach and give specific instructions regarding school work.” 66.
 
 
 
“Whether there is extensive verbalization with the child may also have something to do with some general cultural conceptions of childhood. Specifically, whether or not caregivers see themselves in an active, child development-oriented, consciously goal-directed ‘childrearing’ role appears to be important. This type of self-role definition is common among educated middle-class (especially Western and particularly American) parents. In contrast . . . Indian caregivers emphasize pleasure between adult and child and experience little pressure to mold the child in a given direction." 67.
 
 
 
 
“Most ethnic minorities in the industrialized countries of Europe, North America, and Australia are rather recent immigrants from less developed countries and especially from their rural areas . . . [where] a socially rather than a cognitively oriented conception of competence is valued, stressing conformity – obedience goals, and early learning in the family is based mainly on observation and imitation." 69.
 
 
 
“Indeed, research with ethnic minority families points to this type of parental conception and finds a misfit between this cultural conception of competence and that of the school culture in the host society . . . . immigrant Mexican parents in the United States believe, erroneously, that if their children are quiet and obedient and listen to the teacher, then they will succeed in school. . . . immigrant parents from Cambodian, Mexico, the Philippines, and Vietnam, noncognitive characteristics (i.e., motivation, social skills, and practical school skills) were as important as or more important than cognitive characteristics (problem-solving skills, verbal ability, creative ability) to their conceptions of an ‘intelligent first-grade child’– but not for Anglo-American parents. Furthermore, parents’ beliefs about the importance of conformity correlated negatively with children’s school performance, and American-born parents favored developing autonomy over conformity.” 70.
 
 
 
“. . . compared to Western children in the United States, France, and Russia, non-Western children reach the two-word sequence of linguistic development at a substantially slower pace. He [this scholar] attributed this difference to the lower density of language addressed to young children in non-Western cultures.” 73.
 
 
 
“. . . less educated Hispanic mothers typically used less verbal interaction with their young children, less praise, and less inquiring, but more modeling, directives, and negative physical control than Anglo mothers. [A study] found differences between Hispanic and Anglo children’s performance . . . as early as 2 1/2 years of age, showing the importance of early language development. Similarly, [another study] noted the lack of decontextualized communication and play with young children in Black families in the United States. She indicated that this factor explains why Black infants who surpass White infants in early sensory-motor intelligence fall behind in later language-based cognitive performance.” 74.
 
 
 

ADOPTED CHILDREN IN THE UNITED STATES

 
 
 
About 127,000
children were adopted in the U.S. in both 2000 and 2001. The number of adoptions each year hasn't really changed since 1987. 1.
 
 
 
119,000
Number of children waiting to be adopted on September 30, 2003. 2.
 
 
 
8.6 years old
Average age of a child waiting to be adopted. 3.
 
 
 
Approximately 3.65 years
Average amount of time a child waits to be adopted. 4.
 
 
 
28,840
Number of children in the U.S. who have been waiting five years or more to be adopted. 5.
 
 
 
In 2000, there were half as many adopted children in American households as stepchildren. There were a total of 2.1 million adopted children, while there were 4.4 million stepchildren. 6.
 
 
 
1.6 million
Number of children in the U.S. who have been adopted by the householder. 7.
 
 
 
Of those families with adopted children, 82 percent have just one adopted child. But 15 percent have two adopted children, and three percent have three or more children who they've adopted. 8.
 
 
 
Two percent
of 45.5. million U.S. households with children of any age are families with only adopted children. 9.
 
 
 
Two percent
of U.S. households with children of any age are families with both adopted and biological children. 10.
 
 
 
0.1 percent
of the U.S. households with children have families containing biological, adopted children, and stepchildren. 11.
 
 
 
1.7 million
Number of all American households with adopted children. That's just four percent of all households where the householder has any children. 12.
 
 
 
Alaska
The State with the highest percentage of adopted children under 18 – 3.9 percent. 13.
 
 
 
90 boys to 100 girls
For every 100 girls who are adopted, only 90 boys are. That isn't representative of the birth ratio. Boys in the same age group who are biological children of the householder outnumber girls: 106 boys to 100 girls. 14.
 
 
 
16 percent
of adopted children under 18 in the United States are black. Seven percent of adopted children are Asian, and two percent are American Indian and Alaska native. Adopted children have a higher chance of being within race groups than they do as biological children or stepchildren. 15.
 
 
 
17 percent
of U.S. adopted children under 18 are of a different race than the householder. That's more than twice as much than for biological children – 7 percent – and greater than stepchildren as well – 11 percent. 16.
 
 
 
13 percent
of adopted children in the U.S. who were born outside the country. That is more than three times the amount for biological and stepchildren: just four percent of them were not born in the U.S. 17.
 
 
 
48,000
Number of Korean-born adopted children under 18 in the U.S. Korea is the largest single-country source of foreign-born adopted children, accounting for nearly one-fourth (24 percent) of them. Almost half of foreign-born adopted children are originally from Asia. 18.
 
 
 
21,616
Number of immigrant visas for orphans coming to the United States to be adopted in 2003. That is an increase of over 7,300 from a decade earlier. Common countries of origin for the children: China and Russia. 19.
 
 
 
82 percent
of European-born children under six who are adopted in the U.S. are from Russia or Romania. 20.
 
 
 
1973
Before 1973 – the year that Roe v. Wade legalized abortion in the United States – 8.7 percent of infants given up for adoption were children born by never-married women under the age of 45. Twenty years after Roe, just 0.9 percent of infants given up for adoption were the children of never-married women. The chart at the right shows that the decline – which is most dramatic for white women. 21.

 
 
 

WHO ADOPTS?

 
 
Around 40 percent of adoptions in 2000 and 2001 were done through a public agency. More than 15 percent were "intercountry" adoptions. The remaining adoptions were through private agencies, adoptions by related individuals (including stepparents) or tribal adoptions. This last category is decreasing substantially: in 1992, 42 percent of all adoptions were just those adoptions by stepparents. 22.
 
 
 
43 years old
The average age of an American householder who has adopted children. That is about five years older than the average age of a householder with biological or stepchildren. 23.
 
 
 
$56,000
is the median income for American households with adopted children under 18. That is higher than the median income for families with biological children ($48,000) and stepchildren ($51,000). 24.
 
 
 
78 percent
of American adopted children under 18 live in homes owned by their adoptive parents. That is 11 percent higher than the percentage of biological and stepchildren living in parent-owned homes. 25.
 
 
 
33 percent
of U.S. adopted children under 18 live with a householder who has at least a bachelor’s degree. Just 26 percent for biological children and 16 percent for stepchildren live with householders having college degrees. 26.
 
 
 
31 percent
of those who had ever taken steps to adopt actually end up adopting a child. 27.
 
 

FOSTER CHILDREN

 
 
Black children are just 15 percent of all children in the United States; however, they are approximately 35 percent of the nation's population of foster children. 1.
 
 
 
31 months
The average number of months that a child is in Foster Care. 2.
 
 
 
523,000
Number of children in Foster Care in September 30, 2003. 3.
 
 
 
50,000
Number of Foster Children who were adopted in 2003. Of these, 23 percent (9,540) were adopted by relatives. 4.
 
 
 
29%
of children in Foster Care live with relatives. 5.
 
 
 
Foster Children in the U.S. are nearly twice as likely to live in an unmarried-partner household (9 percent) as children who are the sons or daughters of the householder (5 percent). 6.
 
 
 
 

CHILDREN – GLOBAL DEMOGRAPHICS

 
 
 
 
Three percent
of the world's children under 15 years old live in the U.S. – ranking the nation as having the fourth largest population of children in the world. 3.
 
 
 
Almost 60 percent
of the world’s children under age five live in 10 countries. Nine of the 10 are less developed countries – the U.S. is the lone exception on the list. 4.
 
 
 
 
The U.S. "has more than twice the total population of Nigeria but fewer children under the age of 5." 7.
 
 
 
 
Chart of Top 10 Countries By Under 5
8.

 
 
 

CHILDREN IN THE U.S.

 
 
 
90 percent
– 64.7 million – of children in the United States were sons or daughters of the householder in 2000. “The term ‘son or daughter of the householder,’ unless . . . includes all biological, step, and adopted children of the householder living in the same home, even if they were married or had children of their own." 12.
 
 
 
59.8 million
Number of U.S. children (83 percent) who were biological sons and daughters of the householder. 13.
 
 
 
52 percent
of U.S. children in 1998 by being raised by two parents in an uninterrupted marriage. 14.
 
 
 
9.9 million
Number of U.S school children (age five to 17 years old) – one out of every five children – who speak a language other than English when they're at home. For 7.0 million of them, the language they're speaking Spanish. 15.
 
 
 
Zero
Number of children currently living in a typical American household. – since 68 percent of U.S. households have no children in them. 16.
 
 
 
1.8
Average number of children an U.S. adult had the mid-1990s – down from 2.4 in 1972. 17.
 
 
 
39 percent
in the U.S. in 1996-1998, thought that 3 or more represented the ideal number of children for a family. 18.
 
 
 
56 percent
of those surveyed in the U.S. in 1972, thought that 3 or more represented the ideal number of children for a family. 19.
 
 
 
But just three to five percent
think a family with no children or an only child is ideal – and that's been consistent for the past 30 years. 20.
 
 
 
16 percent more likely
For every hour a child's parent works between six and nine p.m., the child is 16 percent more likely to score in the bottom quartile on math tests. 21.
 
 
 
52 percent
of U.S. children in 1998 by being raised by two parents in an uninterrupted marriage. That’s a decline of 21 percent points since 1972, when 73 percent of children were being reared by two married parents. 22.
 
 
 
1 million
Estimated number of children in the U.S. each year who are "exposed to and experience their parents' divorces each year. Further, an increasingly large number of children can expect to experience more than one divorce, as many parents will remarry and divorce again." 23.
 
 
 
30-40 percent
of stepchildren in the U.S. go endure a divorce of their custodial parent and their stepparent. 24.
 
 
 
Less than five percent
of U.S. children under age 18 in 1972 were living in a household with only one adult present. By the mid-1990s this had increased to 18-20 percent. 25.
 
 
 
32 percent
of U.S. households with children in 2003, down from 45 percent in 1970, and 35 percent in 1990. 26.
 
 
 
23 percent
of U.S. married couple households with children in 2003, down from 40 percent in 1970. 27.
 
 
 
90 percent
of children in the United States – 64.7 million – were sons or daughters of the householder in 2000. That includes all biological, step, and adopted children of the householder living in the same home, even if they were married or had children of their own. 28.
 
 
 
59.8 million
Number of U.S. children (83 percent) who were biological sons and daughters of the householder. 29.
 
 
 
3.3 million
Number of U.S. children who were stepchildren of the householder. 30.
 
 
 
7.6 million
Number of 2003 U.S. female-headed family households with no husband but with children present. That’s 7.2 percent of all households. That is compared to 6.0 million (6.6 percent) in 1990. There are, nationally, more than three times as many married-couple households with children than there are female family households. 31.
 
 
 
Out of the 50 U.S. states, each state had at least twice the number of married-couple households with children, than the female family households. Washington, DC, however, had more female family households (25,000) than married couple couple households with children (21,000). 32.
 
 
 
Nearly 25 percent
of all minor children in the U.S. live in a stepfamily. 33.
 
 
 
89 percent
of the 45.5 million U.S. households with children of any age contain biological children only. 34.
 
 
 
About three percent
of American households with children of any age contain stepchildren only, while four percent have both biological and stepchildren. 35.
 
 
 
More than twice as many
stepchildren (4.4 million) are in U.S. households than are adopted children (2.1 million). 36.
 
 
 
Two percent
of U.S. households with children of any age in 2002 contained only adopted children. 37.
 
 
 
Two percent
of U.S. households with children of any age in 2002 contained both adopted and biological children. 38.
 
 
 
0.1 percent
"of all households with children of the householder included biological children, adopted children, and stepchildren." 39.
 
 
 
5.6 million
Number of U.S. children – eight percent of all children – live with a grandparent. Of these, 3.7 million live in their grandparent’s home, while 1.8 million live in their parent’s home. 40.
 
 
 
17 percent
of U.S. children lived with a foreign-born householder in 2000. 41.
 
 
 
1.3 - 1.4 million
Estimated number of U.S. children who act as caregivers for someone who is seriously physically or mentally ill – most often a parent, a sibling or grandparent – in their households. They do everything from keep them company to shower, dress, feed them and pay the bills. For at least three-fourths of their caregiving activities, someone else helps them. Which is a probably a really good thing, since one-third of these children are eight to 11 years old, and 40 percent of them are 12 to 15 years old. 42.
 
 
 

PARENTAL EDUCATION/ EMPLOYMENT

 
 
 
90 percent
of stepchildren in the U.S. live with a householder who is in the labor force. 66.
 
 
 
One out of every six
U.S. children lived with a householder who was not in the labor force in 2000. In California, New York, and Mississippi, that figure rose to 21 percent. In Washington, DC, it was 32 percent. 67.
 
 
 
67 percent
of biological and stepchildren in the U.S. live in a home that is owned-occupied by the householder. 69.
 
 
 
30 percent
of U.S. children living in married-couple family groups, live with householders who have at least a bachelor’s degree. 70.
 
 
 
12 percent
of U.S. children who live with a single parent live with householders who have at least a bachelor’s degree. 71.
 
 
 
Nine percent
of U.S. children who don't live with either parent live with householders who have at least a bachelor’s degree. 72.
 
 
 
46 percent
of U.S. children living with a foreign-born householder who does not have a high school diploma (46 percent) – compared to 14 percent of children who living with a native householder without a diploma. 73.
 
 
____________________________________________________
 
 
1. Anne C. Jones, "Reconstructing the Stepfamily: Old Myths, New Stories," Social Work. (April 1, 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:100767739
2. Rose M. Kreider and Jason Fields, Living Arrangements of Children: 2001, Current Population Reports, P70-104. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (July 2005), p. 2 Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-104.pdf
3. Rose M. Kreider and Jason Fields, Living Arrangements of Children: 2001, Current Population Reports, P70-104. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (July 2005), p. 2 Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-104.pdf
4. Rose M. Kreider and Jason Fields, Living Arrangements of Children: 2001, Current Population Reports, P70-104. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (July 2005), p. 5 Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-104.pdf
5. Rose M. Kreider and Jason Fields, Living Arrangements of Children: 2001, Current Population Reports, P70-104. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (July 2005), p. 5 Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-104.pdf
6. Rose M. Kreider and Jason Fields, Living Arrangements of Children: 2001, Current Population Reports, P70-104. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (July 2005), p. 8 Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-104.pdf
7. Lorena S. Walsh, "'Till Death Us Do Part': Marriage and Family in Seventeenth Century Maryland," The Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century: Essays on Anglo-American Society, Thad W. Tate and David L. Ammerman, eds., Univ. of North Carolina Press (1979) pp. 143-144 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0807813605/qid=1123776483/sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
8. Lorena S. Walsh, "'Till Death Us Do Part': Marriage and Family in Seventeenth Century Maryland," The Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century: Essays on Anglo-American Society, Thad W. Tate and David L. Ammerman, eds., Univ. of North Carolina Press (1979) pp. 132 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0807813605/qid=1123776483/sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
9. Lorena S. Walsh, "'Till Death Us Do Part': Marriage and Family in Seventeenth Century Maryland," The Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century: Essays on Anglo-American Society, Thad W. Tate and David L. Ammerman, eds., Univ. of North Carolina Press (1979) pp. 144 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0807813605/qid=1123776483/sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
10. Anne C. Jones, "Reconstructing the Stepfamily: Old Myths, New Stories," Social Work. (April 1, 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:100767739
11. _______, "Male Perpetrators of Child Maltreatment: Findings from NCANDS," U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (January 2005) pp. 1-2, 13, and 15. Archived at: http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/05/child-maltreat/report.pdf
12. Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
13. Anne C. Jones, "Reconstructing the Stepfamily: Old Myths, New Stories," Social Work. (April 1, 2003) (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:100767739
14. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 18. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
15. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), pp. 18-19. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
16. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
17. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
18. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 17. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
19. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 17. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
20. Anne C. Jones, "Reconstructing the Stepfamily: Old Myths, New Stories," Social Work. (April 1, 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:100767739
21. Anne C. Jones, "Reconstructing the Stepfamily: Old Myths, New Stories," Social Work. (April 1, 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:100767739
22. Anne C. Jones, "Reconstructing the Stepfamily: Old Myths, New Stories," Social Work. (April 1, 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:100767739
1. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 6 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
2. William M. Pinsof, "The Death of 'Til Death Us Do Part,': The Transformation of Pair-Bonding in the 20th Century," Family Process (June 22, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:90301620
3. Rose M. Kreider and Jason Fields, Living Arrangements of Children: 2001, Current Population Reports, P70-104. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (July 2005), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-104.pdf
4. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 26. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
5. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
6. ________, "Family Structures," Encyclopedia of American Social History. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, Reproduced in the History Resource Center, Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. Archived at: http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC Document No. BT2313027032 (1993).
7. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
8. Tavia Simmons and Grace O'Neill, Households and Families: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-8. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf; and Reneé Spraggins, We the People: Women and Men in the United States, Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-20. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-20.pdf
9. Gregory Acs and Sandi Nelson, The More Things Change? Children's Living Arrangements since Welfare Reform, "Snapshots of America's Families III" No. 10, The Urban Institute (October 06, 2003). Archived at: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=310859
10. Robert I. Lerman,"How Did the 2001 Recession Affect Single Mothers?," Single Parent's Earning Monitor, No. 3, Urban Institute (January 12, 2005). Available at: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=311128
11. Reneé Spraggins, We the People: Women and Men in the United States, Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-20. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-20.pdf
12. Reneé Spraggins, We the People: Women and Men in the United States, Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-20. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-20.pdf
13. Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 52. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
14. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 12 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
15. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
16. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
17. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
18. ________, "National and State Summary Tables," Australian Social Trends, Family and Community: National Summary, Australian Bureau of Statistics (check) (July 12, 2005). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/abs@.nsf/94713ad445ff1425ca25682000192af2/2f6217fec4a8fa37ca256ea70082b950!OpenDocument on August 13, 2005.
19. ________, "Living Arrangements: Changing Families," Australian Social Trends: Family and Community, Australian Bureau of Statistics (April 22, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/abs@.nsf/94713ad445ff1425ca25682000192af2/ea563423fdbffd30ca256d39001bc33c!OpenDocument on August 13, 2005.
20. ________, "National and State Summary Tables," Australian Social Trends, Family and Community: National Summary, Australian Bureau of Statistics (check) (July 12, 2005). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/abs@.nsf/94713ad445ff1425ca25682000192af2/2f6217fec4a8fa37ca256ea70082b950!OpenDocument on August 13, 2005.
21. ________, "National and State Summary Tables," Australian Social Trends, Family and Community: National Summary, Australian Bureau of Statistics (check) (July 12, 2005). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/abs@.nsf/94713ad445ff1425ca25682000192af2/2f6217fec4a8fa37ca256ea70082b950!OpenDocument on August 13, 2005.
22. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
23.________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
24. ________, "3310.0 Marriages and Divorces, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (November 26, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/b06660592430724fca2568b5007b8619/893c1288678fd232ca2568a90013939c! OpenDocument on August 13, 2005.
25. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 70 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
26. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
27. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 70 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
28. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 70 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
29. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 72 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
30. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 72 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
31. Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 53 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
32. Ruth Katz and Yoav Lavee, "Families in Israel," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 486-506 (2005), p. 487. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
33. As of 1996. As of 1996. Gabriel Kiely, The Situation of Families in Ireland, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_ireland_kiely_en.pdf
34. Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 53 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
35. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 5. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
36. Godfrey St. Bernard, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central America and the Caribbean," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 23, 2003), p. 11. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbernard.pdf and Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbtables.pdf
37. Godfrey St. Bernard, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central America and the Caribbean," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 23, 2003), p. 11. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbernard.pdf and Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbtables.pdf
38. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998), note 27 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
39. Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
40. ________, "24/7 Economy’s Work Schedules Are Family Unfriendly and Suggest Needed Policy Changes," Amer. Sociological Assoc. Press Release (May 25, 2004).
41. Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
42. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 16. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
43. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
44. Reneé Spraggins, We the People: Women and Men in the United States, Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-20. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2005), p. 13. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-20.pdf
45. Jeanne Woodward and Bonnie Damon, Housing Characteristics: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR-01-13. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2001), pp. 5-7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-13.pdf
46. Reneé Spraggins, We the People: Women and Men in the United States, Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-20. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2005), p. 13. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-20.pdf
47. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 11. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor and Robert J. Mills, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2003, Current Population Reports, Consumer Income, P60-226. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 13. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p60-226.pdf See also Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
48. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 11. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
49. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 11. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
50. Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 60 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
 
1. Jason M. Fields and Charles L. Clark, Unbinding the Ties: Edit Effects of Marital Status on Same Gender Couples, Population Division Working Paper No. 34, Fertility and Family Statistics Branch, U. S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (April 1999). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0034.html#abs
2. See, for example, Jason M. Fields and Charles L. Clark, Unbinding the Ties: Edit Effects of Marital Status on Same Gender Couples, Population Division Working Paper No. 34, Fertility and Family Statistics Branch, U. S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (April 1999). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0034.html#abs and Richard McBrien, Catholicism, New Edition, HarperSanFrancisco (1994), pp. 993-1000. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0060654058/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
3. David M. Smith and Gary J. Gates, Gay and Lesbian Families in the United States: Same Sex Unmarried Partner Households: A Preliminary Analysis of 2000 United States Census Data, Human Rights Campaign Report (August 22, 2001), p. 2. Available at: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/1000491_gl_partner_households.pdf and Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004)(citation omitted). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance. Compare that to Fiona Tasker's "Lesbian Mothers, Gay Fathers, and Their Children: A Review," Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 26:224-240 (2005). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:133808257 Tasker reports that the range is far higher – between four and 17 percent of the population are gay.
4. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
5. Dan Black, Gary Gates, Seth Sanders, Lowell Taylor, "Demographics of the Gay and Lesbian Population in the United States: Evidence from Available Systematic Data Sources," Demography, Vol. 37, no. 2 p. 139-154 (May 2000), p. 143. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0070-3370%28200005%2937%3A2%3C139%3ADOTGAL%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X
6. See Dan Black, Gary Gates, Seth Sanders, Lowell Taylor, "Demographics of the Gay and Lesbian Population in the United States: Evidence from Available Systematic Data Sources," Demography, Vol. 37, no. 2 p. 139-154 (May 2000), pp. 150-151. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0070-3370%28200005%2937%3A2%3C139%3ADOTGAL%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X
7. Dan Black, Gary Gates, Seth Sanders, Lowell Taylor, "Demographics of the Gay and Lesbian Population in the United States: Evidence from Available Systematic Data Sources," Demography, Vol. 37, no. 2 p. 139-154 (May 2000), pp. 150-151. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0070-3370%28200005%2937%3A2%3C139%3ADOTGAL%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X
8. Dan Black, Gary Gates, Seth Sanders, Lowell Taylor, "Demographics of the Gay and Lesbian Population in the United States: Evidence from Available Systematic Data Sources," Demography, Vol. 37, no. 2 p. 139-154 (May 2000), pp. 152. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0070-3370%28200005%2937%3A2%3C139%3ADOTGAL%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X
9. Dan Black, Gary Gates, Seth Sanders, Lowell Taylor, "Demographics of the Gay and Lesbian Population in the United States: Evidence from Available Systematic Data Sources," Demography, Vol. 37, no. 2 p. 139-154 (May 2000), pp. 152. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0070-3370%28200005%2937%3A2%3C139%3ADOTGAL%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X
10. Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
11. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
12. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
13. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
14. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
15. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
16. David M. Smith and Gary J. Gates, Gay and Lesbian Families in the United States: Same Sex Unmarried Partner Households: A Preliminary Analysis of 2000 United States Census Data, Human Rights Campaign Report (August 22, 2001), p. 2-3. Available at: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/1000491_gl_partner_households.pdf
17. David M. Smith and Gary J. Gates, Gay and Lesbian Families in the United States: Same Sex Unmarried Partner Households: A Preliminary Analysis of 2000 United States Census Data, Human Rights Campaign Report (August 22, 2001), pp. 2-3. Available at: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/1000491_gl_partner_households.pdf
18. David M. Smith and Gary J. Gates, Gay and Lesbian Families in the United States: Same Sex Unmarried Partner Households: A Preliminary Analysis of 2000 United States Census Data, Human Rights Campaign Report (August 22, 2001), p. 2. Available at: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/1000491_gl_partner_households.pdf
19. Abigail Garner, Families Like Mine: Children of Gay Parents Tell It Like It Is, HarperCollins (2004). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0060527579/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
20. Ellen C. Perrin, "Technical Report: Coparent or Second-Parent Adoption by Same-Sex Parents," Pediatrics, American Academy of Pediatrics, Vol. 109., No. 2, pp. 341-344 (February 2002), p. 341 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/109/2/341?ijkey=8fbfa0f3bd6e82500ba88e4c6e35e565423e892f Again, Fiona Tasker's estimate is considerably higher: she reports the number of children with gay parents ranging between 2 to 14 million. See Fiona Tasker, "Lesbian Mothers, Gay Fathers, and Their Children: A Review," Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 26:224-240 (2005). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:133808257
21. Jean M. Lynch and Kim Murray, "For the Love of the Children: The Coming Out Process for Lesbian and Gay Parents and Stepparents," Journal of Homosexuality, New York, New York, Vol. 39, Iss. 1, p. 1. et seq. (Jun 30, 2000), pp. 1-2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=490392731&sid=6&Fmt=3&cli entId=3266&RQT=309&VName=PQD
22. See Ellen C. Perrin and the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health, "Technical Report: Coparent or Second-Parent Adoption by Same-Sex Parents," Pediatrics, American Academy of Pediatrics, Vol. 109., No. 2, pp. 341-344 (February 2002), p. 341. Archived at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/109/2/341?ijkey=8fbfa0f3bd6e82500ba88e4c6e35e565423e892f
23. Gary Gates, Gay and Lesbian Families in the Census: Couples With Children, The Urban Institute (May 30, 2003). Archived at: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=900626
24. Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance and Karen McKenzie, and Latricia Good, "The Gay and Lesbian Atlas Displays First Detailed Portrait of Same-Sex Households Across the United States; Available May 3," Press Release, U.S. Newswire (April 19, 2004). Archived at: http://releases.usnewswire.com/GetRelease.asp?id=28949
25. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 11. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
26. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
27. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
28. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 11. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
29. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
30. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
31. Gary Gates, Gay and Lesbian Families in the Census: Couples With Children, The Urban Institute (May 30, 2003). Archived at: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=900626
32. Gary Gates, Gay and Lesbian Families in the Census: Couples With Children, The Urban Institute (May 30, 2003). Archived at: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=900626
33. David M. Smith and Gary J. Gates, Gay and Lesbian Families in the United States: Same Sex Unmarried Partner Households: A Preliminary Analysis of 2000 United States Census Data, Human Rights Campaign Report (August 22, 2001), p. 2. Available at: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/1000491_gl_partner_households.pdf and Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004)(citation omitted). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
34. Karen McKenzie and Latricia Good, "The Gay and Lesbian Atlas Displays First Detailed Portrait of Same-Sex Households Across the United States; Available May 3," Press Release, U.S. Newswire (April 19, 2004). Archived at: http://releases.usnewswire.com/GetRelease.asp?id=28949 Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004)\. Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
35. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
36. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
37. Karen McKenzie and Latricia Good, "The Gay and Lesbian Atlas Displays First Detailed Portrait of Same-Sex Households Across the United States; Available May 3," Press Release, U.S. Newswire (April 19, 2004). Archived at: http://releases.usnewswire.com/GetRelease.asp?id=28949 and Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, "Facts and Findings from The Gay & Lesbian Atlas," Urban Institute, Washington, DC (2004). Archived at: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=900695
38. Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
39. Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
40. Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
41. Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance and Karen McKenzie and Latricia Good, "The Gay and Lesbian Atlas Displays First Detailed Portrait of Same-Sex Households Across the United States; Available May 3," Press Release, U.S. Newswire (April 19, 2004). Archived at: http://releases.usnewswire.com/GetRelease.asp?id=28949
42. Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance and Karen McKenzie and Latricia Good, "The Gay and Lesbian Atlas Displays First Detailed Portrait of Same-Sex Households Across the United States; Available May 3," Press Release, U.S. Newswire (April 19, 2004). Archived at: http://releases.usnewswire.com/GetRelease.asp?id=28949
43. Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
44. Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
45. Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
1. Will Lester, "Family Comes First in U.S., Japan," Associated Press (July 24, 2005).
8. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915 David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
9. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
10. Merril Silverstein and Vern L. Bengtson, "Intergenerational Solidarity and the Structure of Parent-Child Relationships in American Families," The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 103, No. 2., pp. 429-460 (September 1997), p. 438. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-9602%28199709%29103%3A2%3C429%3AISATSO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O
11. According to a 1997 study. Merril Silverstein and Vern L. Bengtson, "Intergenerational Solidarity and the Structure of Parent-Child Relationships in American Families," The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 103, No. 2., pp. 429-460 (September 1997), p. 438. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-9602%28199709%29103%3A2%3C429%3AISATSO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O
12. According to a 1997 study. Merril Silverstein and Vern L. Bengtson, "Intergenerational Solidarity and the Structure of Parent-Child Relationships in American Families," The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 103, No. 2., pp. 429-460 (September 1997), pp. 444-445. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-9602%28199709%29103%3A2%3C429%3AISATSO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O
13. According to a 1997 study. Merril Silverstein and Vern L. Bengtson, "Intergenerational Solidarity and the Structure of Parent-Child Relationships in American Families," The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 103, No. 2., pp. 429-460 (September 1997), pp. 444-445. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-9602%28199709%29103%3A2%3C429%3AISATSO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O
14. According to a 1997 study. Merril Silverstein and Vern L. Bengtson, "Intergenerational Solidarity and the Structure of Parent-Child Relationships in American Families," The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 103, No. 2., pp. 429-460 (September 1997), pp. 444-445. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-9602%28199709%29103%3A2%3C429%3AISATSO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O
15. According to a 1997 study. Merril Silverstein and Vern L. Bengtson, "Intergenerational Solidarity and the Structure of Parent-Child Relationships in American Families," The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 103, No. 2., pp. 429-460 (September 1997), pp. 444-445. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-9602%28199709%29103%3A2%3C429%3AISATSO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O
16. According to a 1997 study. Merril Silverstein and Vern L. Bengtson, "Intergenerational Solidarity and the Structure of Parent-Child Relationships in American Families," The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 103, No. 2., pp. 429-460 (September 1997), pp. 444-445. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-9602%28199709%29103%3A2%3C429%3AISATSO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O
17. According to a 1997 study. Merril Silverstein and Vern L. Bengtson, "Intergenerational Solidarity and the Structure of Parent-Child Relationships in American Families," The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 103, No. 2., pp. 429-460 (September 1997), pp. 444-445. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-9602%28199709%29103%3A2%3C429%3AISATSO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O
18. According to a 1997 study. Merril Silverstein and Vern L. Bengtson, "Intergenerational Solidarity and the Structure of Parent-Child Relationships in American Families," The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 103, No. 2., pp. 429-460 (September 1997), p. 438. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-9602%28199709%29103%3A2%3C429%3AISATSO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O
19. According to a 1997 study. Merril Silverstein and Vern L. Bengtson, "Intergenerational Solidarity and the Structure of Parent-Child Relationships in American Families," The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 103, No. 2., pp. 429-460 (September 1997), p. 438. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-9602%28199709%29103%3A2%3C429%3AISATSO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O
20. According to a 1997 study. Merril Silverstein and Vern L. Bengtson, "Intergenerational Solidarity and the Structure of Parent-Child Relationships in American Families," The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 103, No. 2., pp. 429-460 (September 1997), p. 438. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-9602%28199709%29103%3A2%3C429%3AISATSO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O
21. According to a 1997 study. Merril Silverstein and Vern L. Bengtson, "Intergenerational Solidarity and the Structure of Parent-Child Relationships in American Families," The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 103, No. 2., pp. 429-460 (September 1997), p. 438. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-9602%28199709%29103%3A2%3C429%3AISATSO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O
38. According to a 1999 study of 1987-1988 national survey data. Susan D. Stewart, "Nonresident Mothers' and Fathers' Social Contact with Children," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 4., pp. 894-907 (November 1999) p. 899. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199911%2961%3A4%3C894%3ANMAFSC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Q
39. According to a 1999 study of 1987-1988 national survey data. Susan D. Stewart, "Nonresident Mothers' and Fathers' Social Contact with Children," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 4., pp. 894-907 (November 1999) p. 899. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199911%2961%3A4%3C894%3ANMAFSC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Q
40. According to a 1999 study of 1987-1988 national survey data. Susan D. Stewart, "Nonresident Mothers' and Fathers' Social Contact with Children," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 4., pp. 894-907 (November 1999) p. 899. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199911%2961%3A4%3C894%3ANMAFSC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Q
41. According to a 1999 study of 1987-1988 national survey data. Susan D. Stewart, "Nonresident Mothers' and Fathers' Social Contact with Children," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 4., pp. 894-907 (November 1999) p. 899. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199911%2961%3A4%3C894%3ANMAFSC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Q
42. According to a 1999 study of 1987-1988 national survey data. Children are those aged zero to 18 years-old. Susan D. Stewart, "Nonresident Mothers' and Fathers' Social Contact with Children," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 4., pp. 894-907 (November, 1999) p. 901. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199911%2961%3A4%3C894%3ANMAFSC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Q
43. According to a 1999 study of 1987-1988 national survey data. Susan D. Stewart, "Nonresident Mothers' and Fathers' Social Contact with Children," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 4., pp. 894-907 (November, 1999) p. 901. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199911%2961%3A4%3C894%3ANMAFSC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Q
44. According to a 1999 study of 1987-1988 national survey data. Susan D. Stewart, "Nonresident Mothers' and Fathers' Social Contact with Children," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 4., pp. 894-907 (November 1999) p. 901. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199911%2961%3A4%3C894%3ANMAFSC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Q
45. According to a 1999 study of 1987-1988 national survey data. Susan D. Stewart, "Nonresident Mothers' and Fathers' Social Contact with Children," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 4., pp. 894-907 (November 1999) p. 901. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199911%2961%3A4%3C894%3ANMAFSC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Q
Julia Overturf Johnson and Barbara Downs, Maternity Leave and Employment Patterns of First-Time Mothers: 1961-2000, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-103. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-103.pdf
________, California Federal Savings and Loan Assn. et al. v. Guerra, 479 U.S. 272 (1986). Archived at: http://laws.findlaw.com/us/479/272.html
Julia Overturf Johnson and Barbara Downs, Maternity Leave and Employment Patterns of First-Time Mothers: 1961-2000, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-103. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-103.pdf
Julia Overturf Johnson and Barbara Downs, Maternity Leave and Employment Patterns of First-Time Mothers: 1961-2000, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-103. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-103.pdf
Julia Overturf Johnson and Barbara Downs, Maternity Leave and Employment Patterns of First-Time Mothers: 1961-2000, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-103. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-103.pdf
Julia Overturf Johnson and Barbara Downs, Maternity Leave and Employment Patterns of First-Time Mothers: 1961-2000, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-103. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), pp. 12, 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-103.pdf
Julia Overturf Johnson and Barbara Downs, Maternity Leave and Employment Patterns of First-Time Mothers: 1961-2000, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-103. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), pp. 12, 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-103.pdf
Julia Overturf Johnson and Barbara Downs, Maternity Leave and Employment Patterns of First-Time Mothers: 1961-2000, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-103. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), pp. 12, 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-103.pdf
Julia Overturf Johnson and Barbara Downs, Maternity Leave and Employment Patterns of First-Time Mothers: 1961-2000, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-103. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), pp. 12, 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-103.pdf
Julia Overturf Johnson and Barbara Downs, Maternity Leave and Employment Patterns of First-Time Mothers: 1961-2000, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-103. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), pp. 12, 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-103.pdf
Julia Overturf Johnson and Barbara Downs, Maternity Leave and Employment Patterns of First-Time Mothers: 1961-2000, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-103. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), pp. 12, 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-103.pdf
August B. Hollingshead, "Class Differences in Family Stability," The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 272, pp. 39-46 (November 1950). pp. 45-46.
Mary Ross, “Shall We Join the Gentlemen?,” The Survey, p. 264, et seq. (December 1, 1926), p. 265.
Mary Ross, “Shall We Join the Gentlemen?,” The Survey, p. 264, et seq. (December 1, 1926), p. 265.
“The Parent’s Wages,” The Survey, p. 284, (Dec. 1, 1926)
10. “The War Needs Women,” Parents’ Magazine, p. 24 (Sept. 1943).
12. "Do You Know?" Science News Letter, Feb. 4, 1961 (p. 78)
13. “Do You Know?” Science News Letter, Oct. 28, 1961 (p. 296) (emphasis in orig)
Claudia Goldin, The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family, Mommies and Daddies on the Fast Track: Success of Parents in Demanding Professions, Special Issue of The Annals of the Amer. Acad. of Political and Social Science (Vol. 596) p. 23 (11/2004)
Claudia Goldin, The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family, Mommies and Daddies on the Fast Track: Success of Parents in Demanding Professions, Special Issue of The Annals of the Amer. Acad. of Political and Social Science (Vol. 596) p. 23 (11/2004)
Claudia Goldin, The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family, Mommies and Daddies on the Fast Track: Success of Parents in Demanding Professions, Special Issue of The Annals of the Amer. Acad. of Political and Social Science (Vol. 596) p. 23 (11/2004)
Claudia Goldin, The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family, Mommies and Daddies on the Fast Track: Success of Parents in Demanding Professions, Special Issue of The Annals of the Amer. Acad. of Political and Social Science (Vol. 596) p. 23 (11/2004)
Claudia Goldin, The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family, Mommies and Daddies on the Fast Track: Success of Parents in Demanding Professions, Special Issue of The Annals of the Amer. Acad. of Political and Social Science (Vol. 596) p. 23 (11/2004)
Pamela Stone and Meg Lovejoy, Fast Track Women and the “Choice” to Stay Home, Mommies and Daddies on the Fast Track: Success of Parents in Demanding Professions, Special Issue of The Annals of the Amer. Acad. of Political and Social Science (Vol. 596) p. 63 (11/2004)
Pamela Stone and Meg Lovejoy, Fast Track Women and the “Choice” to Stay Home, Mommies and Daddies on the Fast Track: Success of Parents in Demanding Professions, Special Issue of The Annals of the Amer. Acad. of Political and Social Science (Vol. 596) p. 63 (11/2004
Pamela Stone and Meg Lovejoy, Fast Track Women and the “Choice” to Stay Home, Mommies and Daddies on the Fast Track: Success of Parents in Demanding Professions, Special Issue of The Annals of the Amer. Acad. of Political and Social Science (Vol. 596) p. 64 (11/2004)
Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 27 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
Shanfa Yu, "A Cross-national Comparative Study of Work–Family Stressors, Working Hours, and Well-being: China and Latin America versus the Anglo World," Personnel Psychology (March 22, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:114785362
Shanfa Yu, "A Cross-national Comparative Study of Work–Family Stressors, Working Hours, and Well-being: China and Latin America versus the Anglo World," Personnel Psychology (March 22, 2004)(citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:114785362
Janice Fanning Madden, Preface, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 596, No. 1, pp. 6-18 (November 2004), p. 7. Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4534898792C12B9608F1
Janice Fanning Madden, Preface, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 596, No. 1, pp. 6-18 (November 2004), p. 7. Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4534898792C12B9608F1
Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 20 (quoting from Female Careers Between Employment and Children). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 20 (quoting from Female Careers Between Employment and Children). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 20 (quoting from Female Careers Between Employment and Children). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 20 (quoting from Female Careers Between Employment and Children). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 20 (quoting from Female Careers Between Employment and Children). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 20 (quoting from Female Careers Between Employment and Children). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 20 (quoting from Female Careers Between Employment and Children). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), pp. 6-7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), pp. 6-7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
________, "Percentage of Childless Women 40 to 44 Years Old Increases Since 1976, Census Bureau Reports," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 23, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/fertility/001491.html on August 15, 2005.
Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 11-12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 11-12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 11-12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 11-12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
Shanfa Yu, "A Cross-national Comparative Study of Work–Family Stressors, Working Hours, and Well-being: China and Latin America versus the Anglo World," Personnel Psychology (March 22, 2004)(citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:114785362
________, "24/7 Economy’s Work Schedules Are Family Unfriendly and Suggest Needed Policy Changes," Amer. Sociological Assoc. Press Release (May 25, 2004).
________, "24/7 Economy’s Work Schedules Are Family Unfriendly and Suggest Needed Policy Changes," Amer. Sociological Assoc. Press Release (May 25, 2004).
________, "24/7 Economy’s Work Schedules Are Family Unfriendly and Suggest Needed Policy Changes," Amer. Sociological Assoc. Press Release (May 25, 2004).
________, "24/7 Economy’s Work Schedules Are Family Unfriendly and Suggest Needed Policy Changes," Amer. Sociological Assoc. Press Release (May 25, 2004).
________, "24/7 Economy’s Work Schedules Are Family Unfriendly and Suggest Needed Policy Changes," Amer. Sociological Assoc. Press Release (May 25, 2004).
________, "24/7 Economy’s Work Schedules Are Family Unfriendly and Suggest Needed Policy Changes," Amer. Sociological Assoc. Press Release (May 25, 2004).
________, "24/7 Economy’s Work Schedules Are Family Unfriendly and Suggest Needed Policy Changes," Amer. Sociological Assoc. Press Release (May 25, 2004).
Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 27 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 27 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
Xiaohe Xu, "Convergence or Divergence: The Transformation of Marriage and Relationships in Urban America and Urban China," Journal of Asian and African Studies (May 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:20980086
Kimberly Abshoff and Mira J. Hird, "Women Without Children: A Contradiction In Terms?" Journal of Comparative Family Studies (June 22, 2000)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:68535835
Kimberly Abshoff and Mira J. Hird, "Women Without Children: A Contradiction In Terms?" Journal of Comparative Family Studies (June 22, 2000)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:68535835
Kimberly Abshoff and Mira J. Hird, "Women Without Children: A Contradiction In Terms?" Journal of Comparative Family Studies (June 22, 2000)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:68535835
Kimberly Abshoff and Mira J. Hird, "Women Without Children: A Contradiction In Terms?" Journal of Comparative Family Studies (June 22, 2000)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:68535835
Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
________, "Percentage of Childless Women 40 to 44 Years Old Increases Since 1976, Census Bureau Reports," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 23, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/fertility/001491.html on August 15, 2005.
Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 6. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
________, "Percentage of Childless Women 40 to 44 Years Old Increases Since 1976, Census Bureau Reports," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 23, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/fertility/001491.html on August 15, 2005.
________, "Percentage of Childless Women 40 to 44 Years Old Increases Since 1976, Census Bureau Reports," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 23, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/fertility/001491.html on August 15, 2005.
Alice Parsons Beal, “Four Ways to Support a Family: IV. The Parent’s Wages,” The Survey, p. 284, et seq. (December 1, 1926), p. 284.
Alice Parsons Beal, “Four Ways to Support a Family: IV. The Parent’s Wages,” The Survey, p. 284, et seq. (December 1, 1926), p. 284.
Alice Parsons Beal, “Four Ways to Support a Family: IV. The Parent’s Wages,” The Survey, p. 284, et seq. (December 1, 1926), p. 284.
 
Melissa A. Milkie, Robin W. Simon, Brian Powell, "Through the Eyes of Children: Youths' Perceptions and Evaluations of Maternal and Paternal Roles," Social Psychology Quarterly, Vol. 60, No. 3, pp. 218-237 (September 1997), pp. 226-228. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0190-2725%28199709%2960%3A3%3C218%3ATTEOCY%3E2.0.CO%3B2-2
Melissa A. Milkie, Robin W. Simon, Brian Powell, "Through the Eyes of Children: Youths' Perceptions and Evaluations of Maternal and Paternal Roles," Social Psychology Quarterly, Vol. 60, No. 3, pp. 218-237 (September 1997), pp. 226, 228. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0190-2725%28199709%2960%3A3%3C218%3ATTEOCY%3E2.0.CO%3B2-2
Melissa A. Milkie, Robin W. Simon, Brian Powell, "Through the Eyes of Children: Youths' Perceptions and Evaluations of Maternal and Paternal Roles," Social Psychology Quarterly, Vol. 60, No. 3, pp. 218-237 (September 1997), pp. 226, 228. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0190-2725%28199709%2960%3A3%3C218%3ATTEOCY%3E2.0.CO%3B2-2
Melissa A. Milkie, Robin W. Simon, Brian Powell, "Through the Eyes of Children: Youths' Perceptions and Evaluations of Maternal and Paternal Roles," Social Psychology Quarterly, Vol. 60, No. 3, pp. 218-237 (September 1997), p. 228. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0190-2725%28199709%2960%3A3%3C218%3ATTEOCY%3E2.0.CO%3B2-2
Melissa A. Milkie, Robin W. Simon, Brian Powell, "Through the Eyes of Children: Youths' Perceptions and Evaluations of Maternal and Paternal Roles," Social Psychology Quarterly, Vol. 60, No. 3, pp. 218-237 (September 1997), pp. 226-228. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0190-2725%28199709%2960%3A3%3C218%3ATTEOCY%3E2.0.CO%3B2-2
Melissa A. Milkie, Robin W. Simon, Brian Powell, "Through the Eyes of Children: Youths' Perceptions and Evaluations of Maternal and Paternal Roles," Social Psychology Quarterly, Vol. 60, No. 3, pp. 218-237 (September 1997), p. 228. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0190-2725%28199709%2960%3A3%3C218%3ATTEOCY%3E2.0.CO%3B2-2
Melissa A. Milkie, Robin W. Simon, Brian Powell, "Through the Eyes of Children: Youths' Perceptions and Evaluations of Maternal and Paternal Roles," Social Psychology Quarterly, Vol. 60, No. 3, pp. 218-237 (September 1997), p. 228. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0190-2725%28199709%2960%3A3%3C218%3ATTEOCY%3E2.0.CO%3B2-2
Melissa A. Milkie, Robin W. Simon, Brian Powell, "Through the Eyes of Children: Youths' Perceptions and Evaluations of Maternal and Paternal Roles," Social Psychology Quarterly, Vol. 60, No. 3, pp. 218-237 (September 1997). Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0190-2725%28199709%2960%3A3%3C218%3ATTEOCY%3E2.0.CO%3B2-2
Melissa A. Milkie, Robin W. Simon, Brian Powell, "Through the Eyes of Children: Youths' Perceptions and Evaluations of Maternal and Paternal Roles," Social Psychology Quarterly, Vol. 60, No. 3, pp. 218-237 (September 1997). Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0190-2725%28199709%2960%3A3%3C218%3ATTEOCY%3E2.0.CO%3B2-2
Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 478 (citing Hochschild's 1997 The Time Bind.). Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 483. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 483. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 483. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 483. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 483. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 483. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 483. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 483. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 483. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 483. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 483. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 483. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 483. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 483. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 483. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), pp. 483, 480. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 483. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 483. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 488. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 488. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 488. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 488. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 488. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 488. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
According to a study of responses to the 1996 General Social Survey. Melissa A. Milkie and Pia Peltola, "Playing All the Roles: Gender and the Work-Family Balancing Act," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 476-490 (May 1999), p. 488. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2445%28199905%2961%3A2%3C476%3APATRGA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
Shanfa Yu, "A Cross-national Comparative Study of Work–Family Stressors, Working Hours, and Well-being: China and Latin America versus the Anglo World," Personnel Psychology (March 22, 2004)(citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:114785362.
________, "Family Structures," Encyclopedia of American Social History. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, Reproduced in the History Resource Center, Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. Archived at: http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC Document No. BT2313027032 (1993).
Mary Ross, “Shall We Join the Gentlemen?,” The Survey, p. 263, et seq. (December 1, 1926) p. 263.
Mary Ross, “Shall We Join the Gentlemen?,” The Survey, p. 263, et seq. (December 1, 1926) p. 264.
Mary Ross, “Shall We Join the Gentlemen?,” The Survey, p. 263, et seq. (December 1, 1926) p. 264.
Mary Ross, “Shall We Join the Gentlemen?,” The Survey, p. 263, et seq. (December 1, 1926) p. 265.
Helen Glenn Tyson, "Mothers Who Earn" The Survey, Vol. LVII no. 5, pp. 265-279 (December 1, 1926) p. 275.
Alice Beal Parsons, “Four Ways to Support a Family: IV. The Parent’s Wages,” The Survey, p. 284, et seq. (December 1, 1926)p. 284.
Frances Frisbie O'Donnell, “The War Needs Women,” Parents’ Magazine, Vol. 18, pp. 24-36 et seq. (September 1943) p. 25.
Anne Meis Knupfer, Toward A Tenderer Humanity and Nobler Womanhood: African American Women's Women's Clubs in Turn-of-the-Century Chicago, New York University Press, New York, New York (1996), p. 42.
Anne Meis Knupfer, Toward A Tenderer Humanity and Nobler Womanhood: African American Women's Women's Clubs in Turn-of-the-Century Chicago, New York University Press, New York, New York (1996), p. 42.
Anne Meis Knupfer, Toward A Tenderer Humanity and Nobler Womanhood: African American Women's Women's Clubs in Turn-of-the-Century Chicago, New York University Press, New York, New York (1996), p. 42.
Mary Pattillo-McCoy, "Black Middle Class," Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History, Jack Salzman et al., eds., Macmillian Library Reference, U.S.A (1996), p. 23. Available at: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0028654412/104-4683855-3160754?v=glance&n=283155&s=books&v=glance
Mary Pattillo-McCoy, "Black Middle Class," Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History, Jack Salzman et al., eds., Macmillian Library Reference, U.S.A (1996), p. 23. Available at: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0028654412/104-4683855-3160754?v=glance&n=283155&s=books&v=glance
As of 2000. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
* John F. Sandberg and Sandra L. Hofferth, Changes in Children's Time with Parents, U.S. 1981-1997, PSC Research Report, Report No. 01-475, Population Studies Center at the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (May 2001), p. 4-5 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr01-475.pdf
1. Anne H. Gauthier and Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Working More, Playing Less: Changing Patterns of Time Use Among Young Adults," Network On Transitions to Adulthood Policy Brief, Issue 5 (October 2004), Archived at: http://www.transad.pop.upenn.edu/news/chap%205-formatted.pdf
2. Kerry Daly, "It Keeps Getting Faster: Changing Patterns of Time in Families," The Vanier Institute of the Family, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (2000). Archived at: http://www.vifamily.ca/library/cft/faster.html
3. Anne H. Gauthier and Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Working More, Playing Less: Changing Patterns of Time Use Among Young Adults," Network On Transitions to Adulthood Policy Brief, Issue 5 (October 2004), Archived at: http://www.transad.pop.upenn.edu/news/chap%205-formatted.pdf
4. Kerry Daly, "It Keeps Getting Faster: Changing Patterns of Time in Families," The Vanier Institute of the Family, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (2000). Archived at: http://www.vifamily.ca/library/cft/faster.html
5. Michael Bittman, Paula England, Nancy Folbre, and George Matheson, When Gender Trumps Money: Bargaining and Time in Household Work, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University (April 2001).
6. Michael Bittman, Paula England, Nancy Folbre, and George Matheson, When Gender Trumps Money: Bargaining and Time in Household Work, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University (April 2001).
7. Kerry Daly, "It Keeps Getting Faster: Changing Patterns of Time in Families," The Vanier Institute of the Family, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (2000). Archived at: http://www.vifamily.ca/library/cft/faster.html
8. Michael Bittman, Paula England, Nancy Folbre, and George Matheson, When Gender Trumps Money: Bargaining and Time in Household Work, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University (April 2001).
9. ________, 2002 UK Time Use Survey, Housework / Work, National Statistics Online, National Statistics, United Kingdom (October 2, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/timeuse/summary_results/housework_work.asp#ch on August 27, 2005.
12. Kerry Daly, "It Keeps Getting Faster: Changing Patterns of Time in Families," The Vanier Institute of the Family, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (2000). Archived at: http://www.vifamily.ca/library/cft/faster.html
13. Kerry Daly, "It Keeps Getting Faster: Changing Patterns of Time in Families," The Vanier Institute of the Family, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (2000). Archived at: http://www.vifamily.ca/library/cft/faster.html
16. Liana C. Sayer, Anne H. Gauthier, Frank F. Furstenberg, "Educational Differences in Parents’ Time with Children: Cross-national Variations," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 66, No. 5 (December 2004), p. 1153. Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=48909E6B003467D67130
17. ________, How Do Children Spend Their Time? Children’s Activities, School Achievement, and Well-Being, Research on Today's Issues Series, Issue No. 11 Population Reference Bureau for the Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Center for Population Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (August 2000), p. 1 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/about/cpr/dbs/pubs/ti11.pdf
18. ________, How Do Children Spend Their Time? Children’s Activities, School Achievement, and Well-Being, Research on Today's Issues Series, Issue No. 11 Population Reference Bureau for the Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Center for Population Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (August 2000), p. 1 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/about/cpr/dbs/pubs/ti11.pdf
19. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
20. Liana C. Sayer, Anne H. Gauthier, Frank F. Furstenberg, "Educational Differences in Parents’ Time with Children: Cross-national Variations," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 66, No. 5 (December 2004), pp. 1153-1154. Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=48909E6B003467D67130
21. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291 See also John F. Sandberg and Sandra L. Hofferth, Changes in Children's Time with Parents, U.S. 1981-1997, PSC Research Report, Report No. 01-475, Population Studies Center at the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (May 2001), p. 4 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr01-475.pdf
22. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291 See also John F. Sandberg and Sandra L. Hofferth, Changes in Children's Time with Parents, U.S. 1981-1997, PSC Research Report, Report No. 01-475, Population Studies Center at the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (May 2001), p. 4 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr01-475.pdf
22. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
23. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
24. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
25. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
26. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
27. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
28. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
29. Note that the Canadian results “cannot be generalized to all industrialized countries,” but the “historical trends for Canada appear to be in line with those observed in other industrialized countries." Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
30. Note that the Canadian results “cannot be generalized to all industrialized countries,” but the “historical trends for Canada appear to be in line with those observed in other industrialized countries." Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
31. Note that the Canadian results “cannot be generalized to all industrialized countries,” but the “historical trends for Canada appear to be in line with those observed in other industrialized countries." Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
32. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
33. Liana C. Sayer, Anne H. Gauthier, Frank F. Furstenberg, "Educational Differences in Parents’ Time with Children: Cross-national Variations," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 1152-1169 (December 2004), p. 1152 (citations omitted) . Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=48909E6B003467D67130 See also John F. Sandberg and Sandra L. Hofferth, Changes in Children's Time with Parents, U.S. 1981-1997, PSC Research Report, Report No. 01-475, Population Studies Center at the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (May 2001), p. 4 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr01-475.pdf
34. Liana C. Sayer, Anne H. Gauthier, Frank F. Furstenberg, "Educational Differences in Parents’ Time with Children: Cross-national Variations," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 1152-1169 (December 2004), p. 1154 (citations omitted) . Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=48909E6B003467D67130 See also John F. Sandberg and Sandra L. Hofferth, Changes in Children's Time with Parents, U.S. 1981-1997, PSC Research Report, Report No. 01-475, Population Studies Center at the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (May 2001), p. 4 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr01-475.pdf
35. Liana C. Sayer, Anne H. Gauthier, Frank F. Furstenberg, "Educational Differences in Parents’ Time with Children: Cross-national Variations," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 1152-1169 (December 2004), p. 1154 (citations omitted) . Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=48909E6B003467D67130 See also John F. Sandberg and Sandra L. Hofferth, Changes in Children's Time with Parents, U.S. 1981-1997, PSC Research Report, Report No. 01-475, Population Studies Center at the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (May 2001), p. 4 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr01-475.pdf
36. Note that the Canadian results “cannot be generalized to all industrialized countries,” but the “historical trends for Canada appear to be in line with those observed in other industrialized countries." Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
37. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
38. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
42. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
43. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
44. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
45. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
46. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
47. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
48. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
49. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
50. Liana C. Sayer, Anne H. Gauthier, Frank F. Furstenberg, "Educational Differences in Parents’ Time with Children: Cross-national Variations," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 66, No. 5, (December 2004), p. 1160 (citation omitted) . Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=48909E6B003467D67130
51. Liana C. Sayer, Anne H. Gauthier, Frank F. Furstenberg, "Educational Differences in Parents’ Time with Children: Cross-national Variations," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 66, No. 5, (December 2004), p. 1160 (citations omitted) . Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=48909E6B003467D67130
52. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
53. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
54. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
* Hans-Joachim Schulze, General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004). p. 10. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Netherlands.pdf
1. Shannon N. Davis and Theodore N. Greenstein. "Cross-national Variations in the Division of Household Labor," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 1260-1271 (December 2004). Available at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4DBEBB15FCDFA6098EC5
2. Shannon N. Davis and Theodore N. Greenstein. "Cross-national Variations in the Division of Household Labor," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 1260-1271 (December 2004). Available at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4DBEBB15FCDFA6098EC5
3. Xiaohe Xu, "Convergence or Divergence: The Transformation of Marriage and Relationships in Urban America and Urban China," Journal of Asian and African Studies (May 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:20980086
4. Xiaohe Xu, "Convergence or Divergence: The Transformation of Marriage and Relationships in Urban America and Urban China," Journal of Asian and African Studies (May 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:20980086
5. Karin Wall, The Situation of Families in Portugal in the Late 1990s, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_portugal_wall_en.pdf
8. That excludes shopping and child care. ________, "Jobs About the House," National Statistics Online, National Statistics, United Kingdom (January 30. 2003). Accessed at: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=288 on August 26, 2005.
9. That excludes shopping and child care. ________, "Jobs About the House," National Statistics Online, National Statistics, United Kingdom (January 30. 2003). Accessed at: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=288 on August 26, 2005.
10. Suzanne M. Bianchi, Melissa A. Milkie, Liana C. Sayer, and John P. Robinson, "Is Anyone Doing the Housework? Trends in the Gender Division of Household Labor" Social Forces, Vol. 79, No. 1, pp. 191-228 (September 2000). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:66274516
11. Suzanne M. Bianchi, Melissa A. Milkie, Liana C. Sayer, and John P. Robinson, "Is Anyone Doing the Housework? Trends in the Gender Division of Household Labor" Social Forces, Vol. 79, No. 1, pp. 191-228 (September 2000). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:66274516
12. Suzanne M. Bianchi, Melissa A. Milkie, Liana C. Sayer, and John P. Robinson, "Is Anyone Doing the Housework? Trends in the Gender Division of Household Labor" Social Forces, Vol. 79, No. 1, pp. 191-228 (September 2000). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:66274516
13. Suzanne M. Bianchi, Melissa A. Milkie, Liana C. Sayer, and John P. Robinson, "Is Anyone Doing the Housework? Trends in the Gender Division of Household Labor" Social Forces, Vol. 79, No. 1, pp. 191-228 (September 2000). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:66274516
16. Note that this isn't really who is doing it, but who they perceive to be doing it. Shannon N. Davis and Theodore N. Greenstein. "Cross-national Variations in the Division of Household Labor," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 1260-1271 (December 2004). Available at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4DBEBB15FCDFA6098EC5
17. Note that this isn't really who is doing it, but who they perceive to be doing it. Shannon N. Davis and Theodore N. Greenstein. "Cross-national Variations in the Division of Household Labor," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 1260-1271 (December 2004). Available at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4DBEBB15FCDFA6098EC5
22. Source of American data for comment and chart: Suzanne M. Bianchi, Melissa A. Milkie, Liana C. Sayer, and John P. Robinson, "Is Anyone Doing the Housework? Trends in the Gender Division of Household Labor" Social Forces, Vol. 79, No. 1, pp. 191-228 (September 2000)(citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:66274516. For The Netherlands information, see Hans-Joachim Schulze, General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004). p. 10. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Netherlands.pdf
23. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1/2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
24. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1/2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
25. Note that this isn't really who is doing it, but who they perceive to be doing it. Shannon N. Davis and Theodore N. Greenstein. "Cross-national Variations in the Division of Household Labor," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 1260-1271 (December 2004). Available at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4DBEBB15FCDFA6098EC5
26. According to studies in the US and Australia. Michael Bittman, Paula England, Nancy Folbre, and George Matheson, When Gender Trumps Money: Bargaining and Time in Household Work, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University (April 2001).
27. According to studies in the US and Australia. Michael Bittman, Paula England, Nancy Folbre, and George Matheson, When Gender Trumps Money: Bargaining and Time in Household Work, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University (April 2001).
28. According to studies in the US and Australia. Michael Bittman, Paula England, Nancy Folbre, and George Matheson, When Gender Trumps Money: Bargaining and Time in Household Work, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University (April 2001).
29. Michael Bittman, Paula England, Nancy Folbre, and George Matheson, When Gender Trumps Money: Bargaining and Time in Household Work, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University (April 2001). Cross-National Variations in the Division of Household Labor, Journal of Marriage and Family 66 (Dec. (2004)(PDF file) See also Shannon N. Davis and Theodore N. Greenstein, "Cross-national Variations in the Division of Household Labor," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 1260-1271 (December 2004). Available at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4DBEBB15FCDFA6098EC5
30. Shannon N. Davis and Theodore N. Greenstein. "Cross-national Variations in the Division of Household Labor," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 1260-1271 (December 2004). Available at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4DBEBB15FCDFA6098EC5
31. Suzanne M. Bianchi, Melissa A. Milkie, Liana C. Sayer, and John P. Robinson, "Is Anyone Doing the Housework? Trends in the Gender Division of Household Labor" Social Forces, Vol. 79, No. 1, pp. 191-228 (September 2000). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:66274516
32. Suzanne M. Bianchi, Melissa A. Milkie, Liana C. Sayer, and John P. Robinson, "Is Anyone Doing the Housework? Trends in the Gender Division of Household Labor" Social Forces, Vol. 79, No. 1, pp. 191-228 (September 2000). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:66274516
33. Suzanne M. Bianchi, Melissa A. Milkie, Liana C. Sayer, and John P. Robinson, "Is Anyone Doing the Housework? Trends in the Gender Division of Household Labor" Social Forces, Vol. 79, No. 1, pp. 191-228 (September 2000). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:66274516
34. Suzanne M. Bianchi, Melissa A. Milkie, Liana C. Sayer, and John P. Robinson, "Is Anyone Doing the Housework? Trends in the Gender Division of Household Labor" Social Forces, Vol. 79, No. 1, pp. 191-228 (September 2000). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:66274516
1. Regular was defined as at least once a week. Based on a study of what was a typical week in Winter 2002. Julia Overturf Johnson, Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Winter 2002, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-101. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), pp. 2-3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-101.pdf
2. Regular was defined as at least once a week. Based on a study of what was a typical week in Winter 2002. Julia Overturf Johnson, Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Winter 2002, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-101. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), pp. 2-3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-101.pdf
3. Based on a study of what was a typical week in Winter 2002. Julia Overturf Johnson, Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Winter 2002, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-101. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), pp. 2-3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-101.pdf
4. Based on a study of what was a typical week in Winter 2002. Based on a study of what was a typical week in Winter 2002. Julia Overturf Johnson, Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Winter 2002, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-101. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), pp. 2-3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-101.pdf
5. Based on a study of what was a typical week in Winter 2002. Julia Overturf Johnson, Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Winter 2002, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-101. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), pp. 2-3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-101.pdf
6. Regular was defined as at least once a week. Based on a study of what was a typical week in Winter 2002. Julia Overturf Johnson, Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Winter 2002, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-101. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), pp. 2-3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-101.pdf
7. As of 2002. Julia Overturf Johnson, Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Winter 2002, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-101. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), pp. 2-3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-101.pdf
8. As of 2002. Julia Overturf Johnson, Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Winter 2002, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-101. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), pp. 2-3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-101.pdf
9. Julia Overturf Johnson, Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Winter 2002, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-101. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), pp. 2-3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-101.pdf
10. _______, "24/7 Economy’s Work Schedules Are Family Unfriendly and Suggest Needed Policy Changes," Amer. Sociological Assoc. Press Release (May 25, 2004).
16. Carol D. H. Harvey, "Families in Canada," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 539-559, 543 (2005)(citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
27. ________, "Nearly 3 Out of 4 Young Children with Employed Mothers are Regularly in Child Care," Urban Institute (April 28, 2004). Available at: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=900706.
1. ________, Levy v. Louisiana, 391 U.S. 68 (1968). Archived at: http://laws.findlaw.com/us/391/68.html and ________, Stanley v. Illinois, 405 U.S. 645, 651 (1972). Archived at: http://laws.findlaw.com/us/405/645.html
2. ________, Parham v. J.R., 442 U.S. 584 (1979). Archived at: http://laws.findlaw.com/us/442/584.html
3. ________, Reno v. Flores, 507 U.S. 292, 303-304 (1993)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://laws.findlaw.com/us/507/292.html
 
4. ________, R.C.N. v. State, 141 Ga. App. 490, 491, 233 S.E.2d 866, 867 (1977).
5. ________, Bellotti v. Baird, 443 U.S. 622, 633-634 (1979). Archived at: http://laws.findlaw.com/us/443/622.html
6. ________, How Do Children Spend Their Time? Children’s Activities, School Achievement, and Well-Being, Research on Today's Issues Series, Issue No. 11 Population Reference Bureau for the Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Center for Population Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (August 2000), p. 1 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/about/cpr/dbs/pubs/ti11.pdf
7. Thomas Juster, F., Hiromi Ono and Frank P. Stafford, Changing Times of American Youth: 1981-2003, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (November 2004), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.umich.edu/news/Releases/2004/Nov04/teen_time_report.pdf
8. Sandra L. Hofferth and John F. Sandberg, How American Children Spend their Time, prerelease of paper to be published in the Journal of Marriage and the Family, vol. 63(2) (May 2001). University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (April 17, 2000), p. 21. Archived at: http://ceel.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/papers/ceel012-00.pdf
9. Thomas Juster, F., Hiromi Ono and Frank P. Stafford, Changing Times of American Youth: 1981-2003, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (November 2004), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.umich.edu/news/Releases/2004/Nov04/teen_time_report.pdf See also ________, How Do Children Spend Their Time? Children’s Activities, School Achievement, and Well-Being, Research on Today's Issues Series, Issue No. 11 Population Reference Bureau for the Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Center for Population Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (August 2000), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/about/cpr/dbs/pubs/ti11.pdf
10. Thomas Juster, F., Hiromi Ono and Frank P. Stafford, Changing Times of American Youth: 1981-2003, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (November 2004), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.umich.edu/news/Releases/2004/Nov04/teen_time_report.pdf See also ________, How Do Children Spend Their Time? Children’s Activities, School Achievement, and Well-Being, Research on Today's Issues Series, Issue No. 11 Population Reference Bureau for the Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Center for Population Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (August 2000), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/about/cpr/dbs/pubs/ti11.pdf
11. Mead T. Cain, "The Economic Activities of Children in a Village in Bangladesh," Population and Development Review, Vol. 3, No. 3. pp. 201-227(September 1977), p. 217. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0098-7921%28197709%293%3A3%3C201%3ATEAOCI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-D
12. Mead T. Cain, "The Economic Activities of Children in a Village in Bangladesh," Population and Development Review, Vol. 3, No. 3. pp. 201-227(September 1977), p. 217. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0098-7921%28197709%293%3A3%3C201%3ATEAOCI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-D
13. As of 2002-2003. Thomas Juster, F., Hiromi Ono and Frank P. Stafford, Changing Times of American Youth: 1981-2003, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (November 2004), p. 6. Archived at: http://www.umich.edu/news/Releases/2004/Nov04/teen_time_report.pdf
14. According to a study. Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Family And Human Development Across Cultures: A View From The Other Side, Lea / Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Mahwah, New Jersey. (1996), p. 26 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0805820760/qid=11237769December sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
15. Thomas Juster, F., Hiromi Ono and Frank P. Stafford, Changing Times of American Youth: 1981-2003, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (November 2004), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.umich.edu/news/Releases/2004/Nov04/teen_time_report.pdf See also ________, How Do Children Spend Their Time? Children’s Activities, School Achievement, and Well-Being, Research on Today's Issues Series, Issue No. 11 Population Reference Bureau for the Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Center for Population Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (August 2000), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/about/cpr/dbs/pubs/ti11.pdf
16. Thomas Juster, F., Hiromi Ono and Frank P. Stafford, Changing Times of American Youth: 1981-2003, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (November 2004), p. 6. Archived at: http://www.umich.edu/news/Releases/2004/Nov04/teen_time_report.pdf
17. Sandra L. Hofferth and John F. Sandberg, How American Children Spend their Time, prerelease of paper to be published in the Journal of Marriage and the Family, vol. 63(2) (May 2001). University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (April 17, 2000), p. 21. Archived at: http://ceel.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/papers/ceel012-00.pdf
18. Thomas Juster, F., Hiromi Ono and Frank P. Stafford, Changing Times of American Youth: 1981-2003, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (November 2004), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.umich.edu/news/Releases/2004/Nov04/teen_time_report.pdf See also ________, How Do Children Spend Their Time? Children’s Activities, School Achievement, and Well-Being, Research on Today's Issues Series, Issue No. 11 Population Reference Bureau for the Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Center for Population Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (August 2000), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/about/cpr/dbs/pubs/ti11.pdf
19. ________, How Do Children Spend Their Time? Children’s Activities, School Achievement, and Well-Being, Research on Today's Issues Series, Issue No. 11 Population Reference Bureau for the Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Center for Population Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (August 2000), p. 1 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/about/cpr/dbs/pubs/ti11.pdf
20. ________, How Do Children Spend Their Time? Children’s Activities, School Achievement, and Well-Being, Research on Today's Issues Series, Issue No. 11 Population Reference Bureau for the Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Center for Population Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (August 2000), p. 1 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/about/cpr/dbs/pubs/ti11.pdf See also Sandra L. Hofferth and John F. Sandberg, How American Children Spend their Time, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (April 17, 2000), pp. 10, 15. Archived at: http://ceel.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/papers/ceel012-00.pdf and Sandra L. Hofferth and Sally C. Curtin, Leisure Time Activities in Middle Childhood, Paper prepared for the Positive Outcomes Conference, Washington, DC, March 12-13, 2003, Child Trends, Washington DC (July 11, 2003) p. 3. Archived at: http://www.childtrends.org/Files/HofferthCurtinPaper.pdf
21. Sandra L. Hofferth and Sally C. Curtin, Leisure Time Activities in Middle Childhood, Paper prepared for the Positive Outcomes Conference, Washington, DC, March 12-13, 2003, Child Trends, Washington DC (July 11, 2003) p. 15. Archived at: http://www.childtrends.org/Files/HofferthCurtinPaper.pdf
22. Sandra L. Hofferth and Sally C. Curtin, Leisure Time Activities in Middle Childhood, Paper prepared for the Positive Outcomes Conference, Washington, DC, March 12-13, 2003, Child Trends, Washington DC (July 11, 2003) p. 15. Archived at: http://www.childtrends.org/Files/HofferthCurtinPaper.pdf
23. Sandra L. Hofferth and Sally C. Curtin, Leisure Time Activities in Middle Childhood, Paper prepared for the Positive Outcomes Conference, Washington, DC, March 12-13, 2003, Child Trends, Washington DC (July 11, 2003) p. 3. Archived at: http://www.childtrends.org/Files/HofferthCurtinPaper.pdf
24. Sandra L. Hofferth and Sally C. Curtin, Leisure Time Activities in Middle Childhood, Paper prepared for the Positive Outcomes Conference, Washington, DC, March 12-13, 2003, Child Trends, Washington DC (July 11, 2003) p. 3. Archived at: http://www.childtrends.org/Files/HofferthCurtinPaper.pdf
25. David A. Kinney, Janet S. Dunn, Sandra L. Hofferth, Family Strategies for Managing the Time Crunch (March 2004), p. 3.
26. David A. Kinney, Janet S. Dunn, Sandra L. Hofferth, Family Strategies for Managing the Time Crunch (March 2004), p. 3.
27. Michelle Slatalla, "Overscheduled?," Time Magazine (July 24, 2000). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:63545415 See also J.M. Lawrence, "Structured to the max – Children see less TV, but sacrifice time at home," Boston Herald, Boston, MA (December 14, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:56343567
28. Sandra L. Hofferth and John F. Sandberg, How American Children Spend their Time, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (April 17, 2000), pp. 20-22, 24. Archived at: http://ceel.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/papers/ceel012-00.pdf
29. Sandra L. Hofferth and John F. Sandberg, How American Children Spend their Time, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (April 17, 2000), p. 24. Archived at: http://ceel.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/papers/ceel012-00.pdf
30. Sandra L. Hofferth and John F. Sandberg, How American Children Spend their Time, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (April 17, 2000), pp. 20-22, 24. Archived at: http://ceel.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/papers/ceel012-00.pdf and ________, How Do Children Spend Their Time? Children’s Activities, School Achievement, and Well-Being, Research on Today's Issues Series, Issue No. 11 Population Reference Bureau for the Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Center for Population Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (August 2000), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/about/cpr/dbs/pubs/ti11.pdf
31. Sandra L. Hofferth and John F. Sandberg, How American Children Spend their Time, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (April 17, 2000), p. 24. Archived at: http://ceel.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/papers/ceel012-00.pdf and ________, How Do Children Spend Their Time? Children’s Activities, School Achievement, and Well-Being, Research on Today's Issues Series, Issue No. 11 Population Reference Bureau for the Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Center for Population Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (August 2000), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/about/cpr/dbs/pubs/ti11.pdf
32. ________, How Do Children Spend Their Time? Children’s Activities, School Achievement, and Well-Being, Research on Today's Issues Series, Issue No. 11 Population Reference Bureau for the Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Center for Population Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (August 2000), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/about/cpr/dbs/pubs/ti11.pdf and Sandra L. Hofferth and John F. Sandberg, How American Children Spend their Time, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (April 17, 2000), p. 21. Archived at: http://ceel.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/papers/ceel012-00.pdf
33. J.M. Lawrence, "Structured to the max – Children see less TV, but sacrifice time at home," Boston Herald, Boston, MA (December 14, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:56343567 See also Sandra L. Hofferth and John F. Sandberg, How American Children Spend their Time, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (April 17, 2000). Archived at: http://ceel.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/papers/ceel012-00.pdf and Sandra L. Hofferth and John F. Sandberg, How American Children Spend their Time, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (April 17, 2000), p. 22. Archived at: http://ceel.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/papers/ceel012-00.pdf
34. John F. Sandberg and Sandra L. Hofferth, Changes in Children's Time with Parents, U.S. 1981-1997, PSC Research Report, Report No. 01-475, Population Studies Center at the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (May 2001), p. 4 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr01-475.pdf
35. Sandra L. Hofferth and John F. Sandberg, How American Children Spend their Time, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (April 17, 2000), pp.15, 16. Archived at: http://ceel.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/papers/ceel012-00.pdf
36. Sandra L. Hofferth and John F. Sandberg, How American Children Spend their Time, prerelease of paper to be published in the Journal of Marriage and the Family, vol. 63(2) (May 2001). University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (April 17, 2000), p. 20. Archived at: http://ceel.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/papers/ceel012-00.pdf
37. Sandra L. Hofferth and John F. Sandberg, How American Children Spend their Time, prerelease of paper to be published in the Journal of Marriage and the Family, vol. 63(2) (May 2001). University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (April 17, 2000), p.15. Archived at: http://ceel.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/papers/ceel012-00.pdf
38. Sandra L. Hofferth and John F. Sandberg, How American Children Spend their Time, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (April 17, 2000), pp. 15, 22. Archived at: http://ceel.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/papers/ceel012-00.pdf
39. Sandra L. Hofferth and John F. Sandberg, How American Children Spend their Time, prerelease of paper to be published in the Journal of Marriage and the Family, vol. 63(2) (May 2001). University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (April 17, 2000), p.15. Archived at: http://ceel.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/papers/ceel012-00.pdf
40. Sandra L. Hofferth and John F. Sandberg, How American Children Spend their Time, prerelease of paper to be published in the Journal of Marriage and the Family, vol. 63(2) (May 2001). University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (April 17, 2000), p. 15. Archived at: http://ceel.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/papers/ceel012-00.pdf
41. Sandra L. Hofferth and John F. Sandberg, How American Children Spend their Time, prerelease of paper to be published in the Journal of Marriage and the Family, vol. 63(2) (May 2001). University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (April 17, 2000), p.15. Archived at: http://ceel.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/papers/ceel012-00.pdf
42. Sandra L. Hofferth and John F. Sandberg, How American Children Spend their Time, prerelease of paper to be published in the Journal of Marriage and the Family, vol. 63(2) (May 2001). University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (April 17, 2000), pp.21, 22. Archived at: http://ceel.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/papers/ceel012-00.pdf
43. Sandra L. Hofferth and John F. Sandberg, How American Children Spend their Time, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (April 17, 2000), p.15. Archived at: http://ceel.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/papers/ceel012-00.pdf
44. Sandra L. Hofferth and John F. Sandberg, How American Children Spend their Time, prerelease of paper to be published in the Journal of Marriage and the Family, vol. 63(2) (May 2001). University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (April 17, 2000), p. 21. Archived at: http://ceel.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/papers/ceel012-00.pdf
45. Sandra L. Hofferth and John F. Sandberg, How American Children Spend their Time, prerelease of paper to be published in the Journal of Marriage and the Family, vol. 63(2) (May 2001). University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (April 17, 2000), p. 21. Archived at: http://ceel.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/papers/ceel012-00.pdf
46. Thomas Juster, F., Hiromi Ono and Frank P. Stafford, Changing Times of American Youth: 1981-2003, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (November 2004). Archived at: http://www.umich.edu/news/Releases/2004/Nov04/teen_time_report.pdf
47. Thomas Juster, F., Hiromi Ono and Frank P. Stafford, Changing Times of American Youth: 1981-2003, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (November 2004). Archived at: http://www.umich.edu/news/Releases/2004/Nov04/teen_time_report.pdf
48. Thomas Juster, F., Hiromi Ono and Frank P. Stafford, Changing Times of American Youth: 1981-2003, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (November 2004). Archived at: http://www.umich.edu/news/Releases/2004/Nov04/teen_time_report.pdf
49. Thomas Juster, F., Hiromi Ono and Frank P. Stafford, Changing Times of American Youth: 1981-2003, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (November 2004). Archived at: http://www.umich.edu/news/Releases/2004/Nov04/teen_time_report.pdf
50. Thomas Juster, F., Hiromi Ono and Frank P. Stafford, Changing Times of American Youth: 1981-2003, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (November 2004). Archived at: http://www.umich.edu/news/Releases/2004/Nov04/teen_time_report.pdf
51. Julia Overturf Johnson, Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Winter 2002, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-101. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), pp. 6-7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-101.pdf
52. Julia Overturf Johnson, Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Winter 2002, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-101. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), pp. 6-7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-101.pdf
53. Julia Overturf Johnson, Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Winter 2002, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-101. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-101.pdf
54. Julia Overturf Johnson, Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Winter 2002, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-101. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-101.pdf
55. Hannele Forsberg, "Finland's Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 262-282 (2005), p. 267. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
56. Julia Overturf Johnson, Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Winter 2002, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-101. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-101.pdf
57. Alexandra Rockey Fleming, "Parents try to find answers . . . ," The Washington Times, Washington, DC (March 6, 2001). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:71249373
58 Julia Overturf Johnson, Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Winter 2002, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-101. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-101.pdf
59. As of 2002. Julia Overturf Johnson, Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Winter 2002, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-101. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-101.pdf
60. As of 2002. Julia Overturf Johnson, Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Winter 2002, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-101. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-101.pdf
61. As of 2002. Julia Overturf Johnson, Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Winter 2002, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-101. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-101.pdf
62. As of 2002. Julia Overturf Johnson, Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Winter 2002, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-101. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-101.pdf
63. As of 2002. Julia Overturf Johnson, Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Winter 2002, Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, P70-101. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2005), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-101.pdf
64. Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Family And Human Development Across Cultures: A View From The Other Side, Lea / Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Mahwah, New Jersey. (1996), p. 26 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0805820760/qid=11237769December sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
65. According to a study. Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Family And Human Development Across Cultures: A View From The Other Side, Lea / Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Mahwah, New Jersey. (1996), p. 43 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0805820760/qid=11237769December sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
66. Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Family And Human Development Across Cultures: A View From The Other Side, Lea / Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Mahwah, New Jersey. (1996), p. 31 (citations omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0805820760/qid=11237769December sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
67. Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Family And Human Development Across Cultures: A View From The Other Side, Lea / Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Mahwah, New Jersey. (1996), pp. 36-37 (citations omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0805820760/qid=11237769December sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
68. Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Family And Human Development Across Cultures: A View From The Other Side, Lea / Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Mahwah, New Jersey. (1996), pp. 36-37 (citations omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0805820760/qid=11237769December sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
69. Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Family And Human Development Across Cultures: A View From The Other Side, Lea / Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Mahwah, New Jersey. (1996), p. 44. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0805820760/qid=11237769December sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
70. Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Family And Human Development Across Cultures: A View From The Other Side, Lea / Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Mahwah, New Jersey. (1996), p. 44 (citations omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0805820760/qid=11237769December sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
71. Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Family And Human Development Across Cultures: A View From The Other Side, Lea / Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Mahwah, New Jersey. (1996), pp. 45-46 (citations omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0805820760/qid=11237769December sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
72 According to a study. Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Family And Human Development Across Cultures: A View From The Other Side, Lea / Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Mahwah, New Jersey. (1996), pp. 45-46 (citations omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0805820760/qid=11237769December sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
73. Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Family And Human Development Across Cultures: A View From The Other Side, Lea / Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Mahwah, New Jersey. (1996), p. 46 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0805820760/qid=11237769December sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
74. Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Family And Human Development Across Cultures: A View From The Other Side, Lea / Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Mahwah, New Jersey. (1996), p. 47. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0805820760/qid=11237769December sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
1. ________, How Many Children Were Adopted in 2000 and 2001? Washington, DC: National Adoption Information Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.(2004). Available at http://naic.acf.hhs.gov/pubs/s_adopted/index.cfm.
2. ________, "Preliminary FY 2003 Estimates as of April 2005 (10)," The AFCARS Report. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau (4/2005), p. 4. Accessed at: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/publications/afcars/report10.pdf on 8/16/2005.
3. These numbers are those as of September 2003, the most current data available as of August 2005. ________, "Preliminary FY 2003 Estimates as of April 2005 (10)," The AFCARS Report. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau (4/2005), p. 4. Accessed at: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/publications/afcars/report10.pdf on 8/16/2005.
4. These numbers are those as of September 2003, the most current data available as of August 2005. ________, "Preliminary FY 2003 Estimates as of April 2005 (10)," The AFCARS Report. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau (4/2005), p. 4. Accessed at: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/publications/afcars/report10.pdf on 8/16/2005.
5. These numbers are those as of September 2003, the most current data available as of August 2005. ________, "Preliminary FY 2003 Estimates as of April 2005 (10)," The AFCARS Report. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau (4/2005), p. 4. Accessed at: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/publications/afcars/report10.pdf on 8/16/2005.
6. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 3 (internal citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
7. Jason Fields, Children and their Living Arrangements and Characteristics: March 2002, Current Population Reports P20-547, US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 2 . Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-547.pdf
8. ________, "Facts for Features: National Adoption Month," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (9/20/2004). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/002683.html on 8/15/2005.
9. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 18. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
10. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 18. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
11. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), pp. 18-19. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
12. ________, "Facts for Features: National Adoption Month," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (9/20/2004). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/002683.html on 8/15/2005.
13. ________, "Facts for Features: National Adoption Month," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (9/20/2004). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/002683.html on 8/15/2005.
14. ________, "Facts for Features: National Adoption Month," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (9/20/2004). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/002683.html on 8/15/2005.
15. ________, "Facts for Features: National Adoption Month," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (9/20/2004). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/002683.html on 8/15/2005.
16. ________, "Facts for Features: National Adoption Month," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (9/20/2004). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/002683.html on 8/15/2005.
17. ________, "Facts for Features: National Adoption Month," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (9/20/2004). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/002683.html on 8/15/2005.
18. ________, "Facts for Features: National Adoption Month," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (9/20/2004). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/002683.html on 8/15/2005.
19. ________, "Facts for Features: National Adoption Month," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (9/20/2004)(citation omitted). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/002683.html on 8/15/2005.
20. ________, "Facts for Features: National Adoption Month," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (9/20/2004). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/002683.html on 8/15/2005.
21. Both the facts and chart originate from ________, "Voluntary Relinquishment for Adoption: Numbers and Trends," National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information, National Adoption Information Clearinghouse (3/2005). Archived at: http://naic.acf.hhs.gov/pubs/s_place.cfm
22. ________, How Many Children Were Adopted in 2000 and 2001? Washington, DC: National Adoption Information Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, (2004), p. 1. Available at http://naic.acf.hhs.gov/pubs/s_adopted/index.cfm.
23. ________, "Facts for Features: National Adoption Month," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (9/20/2004). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/002683.html on 8/15/2005.
24. ________, "Facts for Features: National Adoption Month," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (9/20/2004). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/002683.html on 8/15/2005.
25. ________, "Facts for Features: National Adoption Month," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (9/20/2004). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/002683.html on 8/15/2005.
26. ________, "Facts for Features: National Adoption Month," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (9/20/2004). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/002683.html on 8/15/2005.
27. ________, "Persons Seeking to Adopt: Numbers and Trends," National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information National Adoption Information Clearinghouse (3/2005), p. 2. Accessed at: http://naic.acf.hhs.gov/pubs/s_seek.cfm on 8/13/2005.
1. Jason Fields, Children and their Living Arrangements and Characteristics: March 2002, Current Population Reports P20-547, US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-547.pdf
2. ________, "Preliminary FY 2003 Estimates as of April 2005 (10)," The AFCARS Report. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau (4/2005), p. 4. Accessed at: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/publications/afcars/report10.pdf on 8/16/2005.
3. ________, "Preliminary FY 2003 Estimates as of April 2005 (10)," The AFCARS Report. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau (4/2005), p. 4. Accessed at: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/publications/afcars/report10.pdf on 8/16/2005.
4. ________, "Preliminary FY 2003 Estimates as of April 2005 (10)," The AFCARS Report. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau (4/2005), p. 5. Accessed at: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/publications/afcars/report10.pdf on 8/16/2005.
5. Jason Fields, Children and their Living Arrangements and Characteristics: March 2002, Current Population Reports P20-547, US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 3 (internal citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-547.pdf
6. Jason Fields, Children and their Living Arrangements and Characteristics: March 2002, Current Population Reports P20-547, US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-547.pdf
1. ________, "Childhood Index," Press Kit for State of the World's Children, 2005, UNICEF. Accessed at http://www.unicef.org/sowc05/english/press_childhood_index.html on October 18, 2005.
2. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
3. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
4. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
5. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
6. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
7. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
8. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
9. _________, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision, Highlights, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations (February 24, 2005), p. 13. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/WPP2004/2004Highlights_finalrevised.pdf
10. _________, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision, Highlights, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations (February 24, 2005), p. 13. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/WPP2004/2004Highlights_finalrevised.pdf
11. ________, "Key Facts on Conflict," Press Kit for State of the World's Children, 2005, UNICEF. Accessed at http://www.unicef.org/sowc05/english/press_facts2.html on September 18, 2005.
12. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
13. Note that the child may also be living with a step or adoptive parent in addition to the householder, but this data was not collected. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
14. Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf T
15. ________, "Facts for Features: Back to School," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 15, 2005) (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005225.html
16. Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
17. Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
18. Based on surveys. Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
19. Based on surveys. Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
20. Based on surveys. Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
21. According to a study. Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 27 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
22. Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
23. Maggie Martin, "Reinventing Adolescence: New Rules for the Changing Family," Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association (June 22, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:119114082
24. Anne C. Jones, "Reconstructing the Stepfamily: Old Myths, New Stories," Social Work. (April 1, 2003)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:100767739
25. Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
26. Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
27. Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
28. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
29. Note that the child may also be living with a step or adoptive parent in addition to the householder, but this data was not collected. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
30. Note that the child may also be living with a stepparent in addition to the householder, but this data was not collected. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
31. Tavia Simmons and Grace O'Neill, Households and Families: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-8. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2001), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf
32. Tavia Simmons and Grace O'Neill, Households and Families: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-8. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2001), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf
33. Anne C. Jones, "Reconstructing the Stepfamily: Old Myths, New Stories," Social Work. (April 1, 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:100767739
34. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2003), p. 18. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
35. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2003), p. 18. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
36. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2003), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
37. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2003), p. 18. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
38. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2003), p. 18. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
39. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2003), pp. 18-19. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
40. As of 2003. 61 U.S. Census Dept Press Release on Children’s Living Arrangements, 6/12/2003. U.S. Census Dept Press Release Facts for Features, Grandparents Day, 7/29/2004
41. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
42. Gail Hunt, Carol Levine, and Linda Naiditch, Young Caregivers in the U.S.: Findings from a National Survey, National Alliance for Caregiving in collaboration with United Hospital Fund (September 2005), p. 1, 17, . Archived at: http://www.caregiving.org/data/youngcaregivers.pdf and http://www.uhfnyc.org/usr_doc/youngcaregivers.pdf
66. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2003), p. 17. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
67. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
69. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2003), p. 17. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
70. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
71. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
72. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
73. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 14-16. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf