North America (Part One)
 

Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 30+
 
This information duplicates items from the rest of The Factbook, selecting only those items that relate to North America. However, numbers don't mean much without a comparison to family life in other continents. And that is why we may have included a lot of information on certain issues, but it seems like we have less regional information for others. Actually, that isn't the case – we just chose what were for us notable commonalities or exceptions, cross-culturally. For further information about a particular region, see the regional studies we've referenced in the footnotes: they probably have any additional information you might need on a particular country or region.
 
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 
 

HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILY HOUSEHOLDS

 
 
 
76 million
Number of U.S. “Family Households,” in 2003. 1.
 
 
 
68 percent
in 2003 of all U.S. households are “family households” (at least two members related by birth, marriage or adoption). 2.
 
 
 
68 percent
of U.S. blacks live in family households – the same as that of the U.S. population as a whole. 3.
 
 
 
79 percent
of Pacific Islander households in the U.S. are family households – higher than the national average (68 percent). 4.
 
 
 
32
percent of U.S. households have children. 6.
 
 
 
1.3 million
new households in the U.S. have been formed each year since 2000. 8.
 
 
 

COUPLES OR HOUSEHOLD HEADS ON THEIR OWN?

 
 
 
 
57 million
Number of married-couple households residing in the United States in 2003 – 76 percent of family households. 19.
 
 
 
23 percent
of U.S. households are married couples with children. 20.
 
 
 
53 percent
of U.S. households in 2000 were married-couple households. 21.
 
 
 
32 percent
of U.S. black family households were married-couple households. 22.
 
 
 
56 percent
of Pacific Islanders households are married couple households. 23.
 
 
 
55.1 percent
of Hispanics in the U.S. in 2000 married-couple households. 24.
 
 
 
12.9 million
Number of U.S. female-maintained family households with no husband present: that’s 12.2 percent of all households. 25.
 
 
 
There are more than three times as many
married-couple households with children than there are female-headed family households with no husband but with children present. That’s 7.2 percent of all households. That is compared to 6.0 million (6.6 percent) in 1990. There are, nationally, more than three times as many married-couple households with children than there are female family households. 26.
 
 
 
At least twice as many
In every one of states in the U.S., there are at least twice the number of married-couple households with children as there are female-only headed family households. 27.
 
 
 
In Washington, DC
however, there are more female-headed only family households (25,000) than it does married couple couple households with children (21,000). 28.
 
 
 
30 percent
U.S. black family households headed with a woman, and no husband present – triple the national rate of 12 percent. 29.
 
 
 
Less than six percent
of U.S. blacks live in family households headed with by a man, with no wife present. – the same as that of the U.S. population as a whole. 30.
 
 
 
17 percent
of households in Peru, Guatemela, Mexico are headed by women. 31.
 
 
 

SINGLE PEOPLE ON THEIR OWN

 
 
 
One out of every four –
American households with just one person in 2000 – 26 percent of all households. 37.
 
 
 
 

HOUSEHOLD SIZE

 
 
Party of Two and a Half?
In 2000, more than half of the people in the U.S. lived in households of one, two, or three people. 41.
 
 
 
2.57
Average number of people in an U.S. household in 2003. 42.
 
 
 
2.72
average household size of U.S. blacks who live in family households. 43.
 
 
 
3.08
Average number of people in an Asian household in the U.S., above the U.S. national average of 2.59. 44.
 
 
 
9.8 percent
of U.S. households in 2003 contained five people or more. 45.
 
 
 
 

EXTENDED FAMILY HOUSEHOLDS

 
 
 
79 million
Number of U.S. “Family Groups,” in 2003, where one (or more subfamilies) live in a household. (e.g. A householder’s daughter has a child. The mother-child is a subfamily.) 1.
 
 
 
 
 

MULTIGENERATIONAL HOUSEHOLDS

 
 
 
Hawaii –
The U.S. state with the highest percentage of multigenerational family households: 8.2 percent of all Hawaiian households. 5.6 percent of California's households are multigenerational, while 5.2 percent of Mississippi's are as well. 14.
 
 
 
North Dakota
The U.S. state with the lowest percentage of multigenerational family households: 1.1 percent of all households. 15.
 
 
 
1.3 million
Number of U.S. multigenerational families in 2000 made up of the householder, the householder's parent or in-law, and the householder's children. That's one-third of all multigenerational families. 18.
 
 
 
2.6 million
Number of U.S. multigenerational family households in 2000 with a householder, the householder’s children, and the householder's grandchildren. That's 65 percent of multigenerational family households in the U.S. So it's twice as common for a grandparent to be the householder, who brings younger generations in the home, than for adult children to bring parents into their home. 19.
 
 
 
5.6 million
U.S. children live with a grandparent; these children comprise 8 percent of all children in the United States. Of these children, almost twice as many (3.7 million) live in their grandparent’s home, than live in their parent’s home (1.8 million). 20.
 
 
 
78,000
Number of 2000 U.S. four-generation family households — consisting of the three generations noted above plus the householder’s grandchildren; that’s only 2 percent of the identified multigenerational family households. 21.
 
 
 
3.9 million
Number of U.S. family households in 2000 in the three types of commonly encountered multigenerational households. They made up 3.7 percent of all households. 22.
 
 
 
In the U.S.:
· 24 percent of Boomers anticipate that their parents or in-laws will move in with them.
· About one-half say they would be happy to have their parents or in-laws move in.
· 51 percent say they would feel obligated to help.
· 17 percent would be “eager” to find their parents or in-laws another living arrangement.
· 8 percent of Boomers would charge their parents rent. According to a 2004 survey. 29.

 
 
 
 
 

THEORIES AND RESPONSES TO WHY WOMEN DELAY
HAVING CHILDREN AND HAVE FEWER OF THEM

 
 
 
 
In the Depression Era U.S.,
the grim economic situation and non-existent job prospects forced married couples were to postpone having children. By 1933, experts began warning that the U.S. population could see a drastic decrease in the coming decades if the trend continued – and that the U.S. population would only reach 195 million at the most. 12.
 
 
 

FERTILITY RATE

 
 
 
3.5
The U.S. TFR at the peak of the Baby Boom in the late 1950s. By the mid-1970s, the rate had fallen by half to about 1.8 births per woman. 18.
 
 
 
2.0 to 2.1
The U.S. TFR in the 1990s, slightly below the replacement rate. 19.
 
 
 
2.08
The 2005 estimated total fertility rate for the U.S. 20.
 
 
 
6.5 per 1000
The 2005 U.S. infant mortality rate – 6.5 deaths at birth for every 1000 live births. 21.
 
 
 
The U.S. and New Zealand –
two of the few developed countries in the world to be at the fertility rate replacement level. And both of those are largely due to the presence of a particular ethnic group. In the U.S., it's the Hispanic population: Hispanic women had 20 percent of all births in 2002, and were the only segment of the population to exceed the replacement rate: non-Hispanic whites only had 60 percent of births, black women, 15 percent, and Asians and Pacific Islanders, just 5 percent. Similarly, in New Zealand, it's the Maori who are keeping the fertility rate above replacement level. 22.
 
 
 
Almost 15 percent
of the U.S. births in 2004 were to mothers who were not U.S. citizens. 23.
 
 
 
 
10.9 – children? For every woman?? That's not a family – that's a baseball team. With a bench.
The highest fertility rate ever observed: 10.9 children per woman for the Hutterite community, a religious sect in the U.S., during the period of 1921–1930. Canadians in the 18th century weren't far behind, with a rate of 10.8. 31.
 
 
 
 

FAMILY SIZE AND CHILDLESSNESS

 
 
 
In 1939, Science News Letter reported studies had concluded that U.S. “Childless marriages have increased to one out of every five marriages.” 50.

 
 
In the U.S., it is as common now for a woman to have no child or one child, as it was to have four or five children 30 years ago.

20.1 percent
of U.S. women ages 40 to 44 in 1976 who had five or more children ever born, while another 15.8 percent had four children ever born. 51.
 
17.9 percent
of U.S. women ages 40 to 44 in 2002 had never had a child. Another 17.4 percent had had one child. 52.

 
 
10 percent – down from 36 percent
10 percent of U.S. families with children have four or more children – down from 36 percent of families with children in 1976. 53.
 
 
 
52 percent
of U.S. families with children have just one or two children in 2002 – an increase from 31 percent in 1976. 54.
 
 
 
44 percent
of all U.S. women of childbearing age –15 to 44 years old – are childless. Of these childless women, 71 percent are in the workforce. 55.
 
 
 
 

UNMARRIED MOTHERS

 
 
 
In the middle of the eighteenth century, over 40 percent of American women were pregnant at the time of their wedding. 59.
 
 
1.3 million
unmarried women in the U.S. gave birth in the 12-month period preceding the 2002 census, representing 33 percent of all births during this period. 62.
 
 
 
63 percent
Of U.S. births to unmarried women in 2002, 63 percent of these births were to women who did not have a high school education, while just six percent were to those with a college or post-graduate degree. 64.
 
 
 
4.1 million
total U.S. births in 2004. 65.
 
 
 
12 percent
of U.S. 2002 births to women 30-to-44 years old were births to unmarried women. 66.
 
 
 
1.5 million
of U.S. births in 2004 were to unmarried women in the U.S., a record high. That is 35.7 percent of all U.S. births that year, compared to 34.6 percent in 2003 and 33 percent in 2002. 67.
 
 
 
50 percent
of the U.S. unmarried women who gave birth in 2004 lived under the poverty level, compared to just 23 percent of all mothers and 12 percent of married mothers. 68.
 
 
 
46 percent
of births to U.S. Hispanic women in 2004 were out of wedlock, up from 36 percent in 2002, while 24.5 percent of births to non-Hispanic White women were out of wedlock. 68.
 
 
 
69.2 percent
of births to Black women in the U.S. 2004 were out of wedlock, up from 65 percent in 2002. 69.
 
 
 

DELAYING HAVING CHILDREN

 
 
 
 
22 years old
the average age at first birth for U.S. blacks and Hispanics. 77.
 
 
 
26 years old
the average age at first birth for U.S. non-Hispanic white women. 78.
 
 
 
23 years old
the average age at first birth for women living in Mississippi. 79.
 
 
 
Almost 28 years old
the average age at first birth for women living in Massachusetts. 80.
 
 
 
 
 

TEEN PREGNANCY

 
 
 
1957
The year the teenage birth rate peaked in the U.S. – 96.3 out of every 1000 births were by teen mothers. And that has not been equaled since. 86.
 
 
 



1986
The year the teenage birth rate was the lowest ever in the U.S. – 50.2 out of every 1000 births were by teen mothers.

From 1986 to 1992, teenage birth rates rose substantially (although still never approaching the record rate of the 1950s).

After 1992, the teen birth rates began to fall once more. 87.

 
 
From 1990 to 2000,
the U.S. pregnancy rate for 15 to 17 year old females decreased 33 percent, from 80.3 per 1,000 females to 53.5, a record low. During that time, their birth rate declined 42 percent, from its peak at 38.6 in 1991 to 22.4 in 2003. The induced abortion rate peaked in 1983 at 30.7 and decreased by more than half to 14.5 by 2000. 88.
 
 
 
41.2 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19
the teen birth rate for the U.S. in 2004, a record low for the nation. 89.
 
 
 
The U.S. induced-abortion rate peaked in 1983 at 30.7, but then decreased by more than half to 14.5 by 2000. 90.
 
 
 
89 percent
of U.S. births to teenagers in 2002 were out of wedlock. 91.
 
 
 
Two-thirds
According to a 1996 California Department of Health and Human Services study, "two-thirds of the state's teenage mothers were victims of child abuse. What's more, nearly a quarter said they had been raped. Among those victims, the average age of the first attack was 12, and it was committed by an assailant – sometimes a friend or family member – who was 22." 93.
 
 
 
 

POPULATION, RACE, AND ETHNICITY

 
 
Population Growth in the U.S.
 
 
 
 
296,976,031
U.S. population, August 24, 2005. 1
 
 
 
76 million
The U.S. population, in 1900. 2.
 
 
 
281 million
The U.S. population, in 2000. 3.
 
 
 
32.7 million
The growth of the U.S. population in the 1990s – the largest numerical increase of any decade in U.S. history. 4.

 
 
1900-1910
Despite the fact that the 1990s was the decade of the greatest numerical growth, it wasn't the greatest percentage growth for the U.S. population. In fact, it was the third lowest percent increase in the century at only a 13.2 percent increase. In 1900-1910, the population added 16 million – half the 1990s increase – but that meant the total population jumped up 21 percent in just ten years. 5.
 
 
 
23 Percent Larger
The estimated growth of the U.S. population in 2025, compared to 2000. 6.
 
 
 
 
6.0 percent
of the world’s population in lived in the U.S. in 1950. 7.
 
 
 
4.5 percent
of the world’s population in lived in the U.S. in 2000. The percentage of total global population living in the United States has actually declined each decade. So as much as the growth of the U.S. population has been exponential, it's comparatively dwarfed by what is going on in the rest of the world. 8.
 
 
 
 
96 males to 100 females
the ratio of males to females in the U.S. in 2000. 9.
 
 
 
More men than women -
In 2000, the U.S. male population was larger than its female population up for every age group until those aged 30 to 34. 10.
 
 
 
More women than men -
In 2000, starting with those aged 35 to 39, American women outnumbered men– a fact which gets progressively more significant as the men's and women's ages increased. At age 65 and above, there were approximately six million more older women than older men (20.6 million to 14.4 million). 11.
 
 
 
Change in the U.S. Population
 
 
 
The Typical Person in the United States at the Turn of the 20th Century
was male, under 23 years old, and White. He usually lived in a Northeastern or a Midwestern state, in a nonmetropolitan area. He rented a home. He probably lived in a household with five or more other people – since almost half of the population did so. 12.
 
 
 
The Typical Person in the United States at the Turn of the 21st Century
is female, at least 35 years old, and probably White (but much less likely to be so). She lives in a Southern or a Western states, in metropolitan area. She probably owns a home, and she either lives alone or in a household with just one or two other people. 13.
 
 
 
One out of every eight Americans
was of a race other than White at the start of the 20th century. 14.
 
 
 
One out of every four Americans
was of a race other than White by the 20th century's end. 15.
 
 
 
Less Than One Percent
of the U.S. population, from 1900 to 1960, who were people of races other than White or Black. 16.
 
 
 
1.4 Percent
of the U.S. population, in 1970, who were people of races other than White or Black. 17.
 
 
 
12.5 Percent
of the U.S. population who were people of races other than White or Black by the year 2000. 18.
 
 
 
7.9 percent
was the rate of growth for the U.S.'s White non-Hispanic population between 1980 and 2000. 19.
 
 
 
88 percent
was the combined rate of growth for the people of races other than White and people of every race who were of Hispanic origin. That is eleven times the growth of the White population. 20.
 
 
 
36.2 million
people in the U.S. – 12.9 percent of the total population – who identified themselves as Black in the 2000 Census. Of those, the vast majority – 34.4 million reported Black as their only race; the remainder said they were two or more races. 21.
 
 
 
11.9 million
Number of people – 4.2 percent of the total population – who reported that they were Asian in the U.S. 2002 Census. This includes 10.2 million (3.6 percent) who described themselves as Asian alone, and another 0.6 percent who described themselves as Asian and at least one other race. 22.
 
 
 
 
Nationalities / ethnicities with at least one percent of the Asian population in the U.S. –
Asian Indian, Cambodian, Chinese, Filipino, Hmong, Japanese, Korean, Laotian, Pakistani, Thai and Vietnamese. 23.
 
 
 
13.5 million
Number of people reported themselves to be Asian in the U.S. in 2003 – a 12.5 percent growth in three years. 24.
 
 
 
80 percent
of Asians in the U.S. are members of one of five groups: Asian Indian (16.2 percent of the Asian population), Chinese (23.8 percent of the Asian population), Filipino (18.3 percent of the Asian population), Korean (10.5 percent of the Asian population), and Vietnamese (10.9 percent of the Asian population). Each of these has a U.S. population of at least one million people. 25.
 
 
 
Almost four-fifths
of Asians in the U.S. speak a language other than English at home, but about three-fifths of them speak English “very well.” 26.
 
 
 
861,000
Number of those in the U.S. who identified themselves as Pacific Islander – such as Native Hawaiian or Guamanian – in the 2000 Census. 27.
 
 
 
Pacific Islander Men Under 35
outnumber Pacific Islander women in the U.S. 28.
 
 
 
But Pacific Islander Women Over 64
outnumber Pacific Islander men in the U.S. 29.
 
 
 
According to the U.S. federal government, "Hispanic" or "Latino" identifies someone as a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin. Therefore, it's an ethnic identification – not a racial one – so Hispanics can be of any race. 30.
 
 
 
35.2 million
Number of Hispanics in the U.S. as of 2000. That’s 12.5 percent of the total population – a "61 percent increase since 1990. Among the Hispanic or Latino groups, Mexicans were the largest with 20.9 million [59.3 percent]." 31.
 
 
 
39.9 million
Number of Hispanics in the U.S. as of July 1, 2003 – about one-half of the population's growth since 2000. 32.
 
 
 
13 percent
The growth in the Hispanic population since 2000 – while the total U.S. population only increased 3.3. percent. 33.
 
 
 
Less than 22.9 years old
Half of the U.S. population, in 1900. 34.
 
 
 
More than 35.3 years old
Half of the U.S. population, at 2000 – the highest median age in the nation's history. 35.
 
 
 
Children under the age of five
were the largest 5-year age group in the U.S. in 1900 and 1950. 36.
 
 
 
Adults aged 35 to 39 and 40 to 44
were the largest 5-year age groups in the U.S. in 2000 – those being the aging Baby Boomers. 37.
 
 
 
3.1 million
– or 4.1% of the total U.S. population – were age 65 or older in 1900. 38.
 
 
 
35.0 million
– or 12.4% of the total U.S. population – were age 65 or older in 2000. That is a ten-fold increase in the century, which far exceeds the rate of growth of the entire population – which had just tripled in size. 39.
 
 
 
About 47.0
The U.S. average life expectancy at birth in 1900. 40.
 
 
 
About 77.0
The U.S. average life expectancy at birth in 2000. 41.
 
 
 
Over 100
infants would die before their first birthday in the U.S. in 1900. 42.
 
 
 
Less than 10
infants would die before their first birthday in the U.S. in 2000. 43.
 
 
 





Having Under Five Percent of the world's population, United States ranked third in terms of total population size in 2000.

Here's a U.S. Census chart illustrating the changing distribution of the world's population over the last half of the Twentieth Century. 54.


 
Almost half of the global population increase from 1950 to 2000
came from just five countries: the United States, India, China, Nigeria, and Indonesia. 55.
 
 
 
 
Half the population, but more young children
Nigeria has a total population that is less than half of the United States. But it has a larger population of children under than age of five. 58.
 
 
 
The US Population is "Older"
When the U.S. population is described as "older" than other nations around the world, that means that it has larger percentages of people in two older age groups– those 65 or older and those 80 or older (known as the "oldest old"). 61.
 
 
 
The US Population is "Younger"
However, unlike most other developed countries, the United States also has a slightly younger population – has a greater percentage of the population of the world's youth. There are primarily two reasons for this. First, U.S. birth rates – primarily driven by the higher rates of recent Hispanic immigrants and their children – are slightly higher than those of other more developed counties . At the same time, about 10 million more people entered the United States than left the country during the 1990-2000 period, which added to the young adult age groups of our population. So, the both reasons for our nation is slightly younger are actually largely the same: immigration. 62.
 
 
 
Eight percent
of the world's elderly live in the U.S. – ranking the nation as having the third largest population of elderly in the world. 63.
 
 
 
Though the U.S. population is only one-fourth of the size of India's, the United States has more people ages 80 and over than India does. 64.
 
 
65.

 
 
 

AGING - DEMOGRAPHICS

 

Elderly in the U.S. Aging – Internationally

 
 
Elderly in the U.S.
 
 
 
35.0 million
Number of U.S. population age 65 and over in 2000, a ten-fold increase from 3.1 million in 1900. 1.
 
 
 
12.4 percent
of the U.S. total population were aged 65 or over in 2000. 2.
 
 
 
5.9 percent
of the U.S. total population were over 75 years old in 2000. 3.
 
 
 
1.5 percent
of the U.S. total population were over 85 years old in 2000. 4.
 
 
 
4.1 percent
of the U.S. total population aged 65 or over in 1900 – just a third of what it is today, and 1.9 percent less than the current population of those over 75. 5.
 
 
 
56 percent
of those in the U.S. 65 and over are married. 6.
 
 
 
Aging – Internationally
 
 
 
Over 40 percent
of the world's elderly live in the United States and other More Developed Countries. But those same nations only make up about 20 percent of world population. 9.
 
 
 
More people over 80 years old
There are more people ages 80 and over in the U.S. than there are in India, despite the fact the American population is just a quarter of India's. 10.
 
 
 
Eight percent
of the world’s elderly live in the United States. That is the third largest population of elderly in the world. 11.
 
 
 
13 percent
of the world's "oldest old" – those age 80 and older – live in the United States. 12.
 
 
 
 
 
China, India, Japan, Indonesia, and the United States
were the nations that contributed the most to the past decade's growth of the world's elderly population. This was due primarily to the countries' comparatively low mortality rates and their large overall populations. 15.
 
 
 

THE ECONOMICS OF AGING

 
 
 
From a government pamphlet written in 1937 to support passage of the U.S. Social Security Act:

"Old people, like children, have lost much of their economic value to a household. Most American families no longer live in houses where one can build on a room or a wing to shelter aging parents and aunts and uncles and cousins. They no longer have gardens, sewing rooms, and big kitchens where old people can help make the family's living.

Old people were not "dependent" upon their relatives when there was need in a household for work they could do. They have become dependent since their room and their board cost money, while they have little to give in return. Now they need money of their own to keep the dignity and independence they had when their share in work was the equivalent in money." 37.

 
 
 
Less than 50 percent
of households with a householder 65 and over received any retirement income other than Social Security. 39.
 
 
 
90 percent
of U.S. householders 65 and over receive Social Security income. 92 percent of 75 to 84 year old householders and 91 percent of those 85 and over receive Social Security. 40.
 
 
 
One out of three
households with a householder over 65 and older had earnings as a source of income. 41.
 
 
 
9.8 percent
of those 65 years old and over in the U.S. live below the poverty level – lower than the national average of 12.7 percent. 42.
 
 
 
3.5 million
of those over 65 years of age in the U.S. live below the poverty level. 43.
 
 
 
Lower
the median income for those over 65 was $31,556 for men, and $22,511 for women, compared to the median incomes of all men and women over 16 (men at $37,057 and women, $27,194). 44.
 
 
 
 

CAREGIVING FOR THE AGING

 

Who Should Be Responsible for the Elderly? Living With The Kids?

 
 
 
Who Should Be Responsible for the Elderly?
 
 
 
Four to seven percent
of the elderly of More Developed Countries live in nursing homes. In the U.S., four percent are in nursing homes. In Canada, 6.8 percent are in a nursing home; in Israel, 4.4 percent, and South Africa, 4.5 percent. 56.

 
 
Living With The Kids?
 
 
 
In the U.S., as a rule, elderly don't plan on living with their children; nor do children automatically expect it. To the point that those who do usually come from strong-family ethnic backgrounds where parents' living with children is more common. 57.
 
 
 
550,146
U.S. householders have a parent living with them. That's a 33.2 percent increase from 1990's 412,880. 61.
 
 
 
28 percent
of U.S. elders over 65 live alone. 62.
 
 

ELDERS AT RISK

 
 
32 percent
of the U.S. population aged 65 to 74 in 2000 had a long-lasting condition or a disability. 72.
 
 
 
72 percent
of the U.S. population aged 85 and over in 2000 had a long-lasting condition or a disability. 73.
 
 
 
36 percent
of U.S. nursing-home nursing and general staff in a survey reported having witnessed at least one incident of physical abuse by other staff members in the preceding year. Ten percent of those surveyed admitted to having committed at least one act of physical abuse themselves. 75.
 
 
 
82 percent
of U.S. nursing-home nursing and general staff in a survey reported having witnessed at least one incident of psychological abuse by other staff members in the preceding year. 40 percent of those surveyed admitted to having committed at least one act of psychological abuse themselves. 76.
 
 
 
At the hands of their children, caregivers or partners during the previous 5 years –
seven percent of Canadian elderly have suffered some form of emotional abuse; one percent have endured financial abuse, and one percent were the victims of physical abuse or sexual assault. 77.
 
 
 

A QUICK OVERVIEW OF WOMEN'S LEGAL STATUS IN THE U.S.

 
 
 
During Colonial times, and up until the 1800s, the legal concept was that status-wise, yes, women were property. And in some ways, they were property in the same sense as those who were slaves, but in others, it was a more complicated status. The principle, called coverture, was that, since a marriage makes a husband and wife into one person, the wife – considered an inferior being – basically ceased to exist as a separate individual, even in a legal context. Therefore, the wife had no legal rights – because how can a person that doesn't exist have rights or do anything? Of course, they don't have rights at all. They can't do anything. Trust us: it made sense at time.
 
 
 
Anyway, so coverture meant that women had no rights. And by that, we mean that it went far beyond women not having the vote. A husband would get to make all the decisions for her. She could not own land. She could not keep salary she earned. If her husband died, she did not get to decide who got custody of her children. Anything that she owned prior to marriage – from property ownership to inheritance – instantly become her husband's once the vows were said. All of that was under the control of her husband. In exchange for all of these rights, and with the understanding that she could no longer do anything for herself, the husband would be responsible for provide his wife and their children with “necessities” (or he could pay someone else to provide them, if doing it himself proved too inconvenient). He would provide for them in the same way he did any of his other possessions. If he was a particularly good guy, the husband would include her in his will, leaving her what was known as "a dower," – approximately 1/3 of his land to live on if she outlived him. He had to do that, because she wouldn't automatically inherit any of it – so she and the children could have been kicked out of her own home at his death. 1.
 
 
 
In the mid-1800s, within the larger women’s rights/suffragette movement, women began to demand rights until, on a state by state basis, laws known as the Married Women’s Property Acts began to be passed. (Similar movements were also going on in the U.K. at this time as well.) Gradually, women were being given rights to hold property, make contracts, keep the salary she earned, etc. 2.
 
 
 
The MWPA’s and achievement of women's suffrage did not resolve, however, other social/legal manifestations of women’s status. You could still legally discriminate for jobs, salary, etc. It wasn’t until Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that job discrimination and other related forms of gender-based discrimination were outlawed. Defining what that law meant took years. 3.
 
 
 
Many other societal/legal barriers existed. It wasn’t until the 1970s and 1980s that these other manifestations began to be challenged (e.g. different rates for government benefits, state child support statutes had different cut-offs for boys (21 years) than girls (18), to different gender/age drinking laws, to of course, job discrimination in hiring, hours, and wages).
 
 
 
Traditionally, the law considered that marriage meant a woman had given husband her irrevocable consent to sex. Men could have sex with their wives any time they wished – since she was "his" (they wisely used Biblical quotes, instead of saying property), she couldn't object. There was no such thing as rape within a marriage. (Or spousal abuse, for that matter) Under the coverture logic, you and your wife are a single individual, and you can't rape yourself. If women were seen as property, men had the right to do what they wanted with their property – including beat and rape it. (And in fact, back in the day, it used to be that rape by someone other than a spouse was not a crime against the wife, herself, but was actually a crime against the husband – i.e. the property owner.). Any way you looked at it, women had no recourse. There was little if any discussion considering otherwise. It wasn't until the 1970s that people even considered that there was such a crime as marital rape. 4.
 
 
 
And lest you think that is just as far in our past as coverture, think again. The first U.S. marital rape laws weren't passed until the 1970s. It wasn't until July 1993 that marital rape became a crime in all 50 states – and over 30 of them have exceptions that allow for nonconsensual sex in particular circumstances (e.g. if she's incapable of consent because she's unconscious). 5.
 
 
 
Even in 2000s, some states are still trying to sort out things like a husband’s liability to his wife for a tortious injury (like a car accident) or joint liability for contracts (e.g. where he is liable for both of their contracts automatically but she may not be). 6.
 
 
 

MOTHERS' ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

 
 
82.5 million
Estimated number of mothers in the United States. 7.
 
 
 
About 5.4 million
In 2003, out of the 7 million married women in couples-households who were not in the labor force for the entire preceding year, 6 million of them (88%) said that the primary reason that they weren't working was to take care of their home and family. 5.4 million of them had husbands who were in the workforce that entire year, and are thus the classic "stay at home mom." These stay-at-home moms took care of almost 11 million children – almost 25 percent of all children living with in a married couple household. 8.
 
 
 
These stay-at-home moms took care of almost 11 million children – almost 25 percent of all children under 15 years old and living in a married couple household. 9.
 
 
 
Five percent
of American mothers of children under the age of 12 in 1950 had a college degree. 10.
 
 
 
Over 18 percent
of American mothers of children under the age of 12 in 1990 had a college degree. 11.
 
 
 
 
Well, there's theory, and then there's reality –
While research in Western nations supports the idea that mothers are the primary socializing agents for their daughters, in rapidly developing Islamic populations, mothers may be acting less so – even though that's their traditional role there, as well. The problem is that some of Islamic world has utterly transformed into a modern society within a decade or two. The ideas the mothers were raised with may be not just irrelevant, but even damaging to young women who are growing up in a modernized world. 13.
 
 
 
In cross-cultural comparisons of Japanese and American mothers, researchers found marked differences in their perceptions in their roles as mothers. American mothers saw their responsibilities as primarily raising the child through adolescence. They saw that they need to provide physical care for the child, but that the father should aid them in this. And they felt no particular duty to raise the child in relationship to its lineage. Japanese mothers saw themselves as having a life-long responsibility for their children. They believed that they were a part of their husband's lineage, and that their role in that was to raise their children to be respectful, cooperative, and highly achievement-oriented. 14.
 
 
 

DAUGHTERS' ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

 
 
85 percent
of American mothers in 1962 believed married couples should have children. 22.
 
 
 
40 percent
of American mothers in 1982 believed that married couples should have children. 23.
 
 
 
One in five
of American daughters in 1993 believed that married couples should have children. 24.
 
 
 
 

FACTS ABOUT FATHERS AND SONS

 
 
 
 
66.3 million
Estimated number of fathers in the United States. 1.
 
 
 
26.5 million
Number of fathers in the United States, raising children in married-couple families. 2.
 
 
 
393,000
Number of single fathers in the United States in 1970. 3.
 
 
 
2.3 million
Number of single fathers in the United States in 2005. While that's almost 5.6 times the number there were 35 years ago – it's still just 18 percent of all single-parent families. 4.
 
 
 
And 84 percent –
of those – 4.6 million – who are paying child support are – you guessed it – men. It isn't that much they're paying either: the annual median child support payment is $3,600. 5.
 
 
 
He's the breadwinner –
Of the 6 million households with married mothers who stayed home in 2003 specifically to take care of the home and kids, 5 million of them have a husband who was in the workforce for the entire preceding year. 6.
 
 
 
 
 

STAY AT HOME DADS IN THE U.S.

 
 
There are many news reports and books floating out there that census has 2 to 2.5 million men are stay-at-home dads – the primary caregivers when mom was at work -- but do not be fooled. Yes, they're responsible for the kids, but that isn't the only thing they're doing – 1.4 million of those men had jobs of their own. The argument some advocates are making is that these men should be included; however, if that were the case, then similarly employed mothers should also be included – and then the numbers of stay-at-home mothers would really seem small by comparison. 23.
 
 
 
And 84 percent –
of those who are paying child support are – you guessed it – men. It isn't that much they're paying either: the annual median child support payment is $3,600. 24.
 
 
 
It might be the economy, not the cherubic smiles of their kids, that really sends fathers home . . . .
 

105,000
Estimated number of stay at home dads in the U.S. in 2002. They took care of 189,000 children – just 0.5 percent of the children under 15 living with two married parents. 25.
 
 
 
98,000
Estimated number of stay at home dads in the U.S. in 2003. 26.
 
 
 
56 times more likely
For a child in the U.S. in 2002 with a stay at home parent, it was 56 times more likely that the parent staying at home was his mother, than it was his father. 27.
 
 
 
160,000
In 2003, out of the 1 million married men in couples-households who were not in the labor force for the entire preceding year, just 160,000 said that the primary reason that they weren't working was to take care of their home and family. 28.
 
 
 
That's 18 percent

That is just a small fraction compared to 88 percent of the married women who stayed home to take care of the family. But for a real comparison consider that –
 
45 percent of these men – 2.5 times that amount – were staying home not because of the kids, but because they were ill or disabled.
 
A higher amount – 19.6 percent – were staying home and out of the labor force because they were either retired or going to school.
 
And 11 percent said they weren't working because they couldn't find a job. 29.

 
 
Why Stay At Home Dads chose that route:
 
One scholar reported studies indicated two reasons why stay-at-home dads became the major caregiver:

(1) the parents' perceptions of the fathering they had experienced as children and
 
(2) financial-employment factors, especially problems in the fathers obtaining jobs and the mothers working or having career aspirations. 30.

 
 
It's exactly what you predicted . . . or completely the opposite –
Studies show that stay-at-home fathers became more involved with their children when their own fathers were not involved in their upbringing. 31.
 
 
 
The real struggle isn't with the laundry – it's with identity . . . .
 

Stay-at-home fathers must deal with challenges to gender identity. Since the usual construct in American society is that the male is the family breadwinner, stay-at-home dads have reported that they are seen less than masculine as their working-father peers. And that judgment isn't just by men, but women – even the stay-at-home fathers themselves. 32.
 
 
 
Stay-at-home fathers have also reported that they're viewed suspiciously, since they aren’t supposed to be nurturing; the perception is that they don’t (and maybe shouldn’t) cuddle, kiss, be affectionate. Some even report that they've dealt with suspicions that they were considered to possibly be homosexual, because they'd decided to be the nurturer of the family. 33.
 
 
 
They also may confront social isolation. They obviously don't have work colleagues any longer, but they don't relate to the stay at home moms, either. 34.
 
 
 
There’s also issues as to if dad’s contribution is “fair” -- what sort of gratitude is there? Should there be? They may be overly idealized as “wonderful” for being a stay-at-home dad, when no such credit would be given to the mom had she done it. 35.
 
 
 
It can be crushing to his self-esteem (hers, too): they may try to continue to foster an illusion that mom is really still the primary parent and that working is just because she has to (but it’s a family myth; mom frequently likes the job and wants to keep working). 36.

 
 

GRANDPARENTS – DEMOGRAPHICS AND ROLES

 
 
 
One in four
children born in 1900 would have had all four grandparents alive at the time of their birth. 1.
 
 
 
One in fifty
children born in 1900 would have had all four grandparents live until they'd reached the age of 15. 2.
 
 
 
And most would not see old age themselves –
Of American children born in 1900-1902, only about 39 percent of men and 43 percent of women would survive to age 65. 3.
 
 
 
One-third
of American children born in the late 1970s had all four grandparents alive. 4.
 
 
 
Approximately 70 percent
of American children born in the late 1970s had at least two of their grandparents still alive when they reached adulthood. 5.
 
 
 
Approximately 35 percent
of U.S. grandparents work more than 30 hours a week. 8.
 
 
 
Approximately 35 percent
of U.S. grandparents are married. 9.
 
 
 
Approximately 34 percent
of U.S. grandparents have living parents. 10.
 
 
 
5.5 million
Number of U.S. grandparents living with one or more of their grandchildren under 18 years old – 5.6 million grandkids in all (eight percent of all children in the U.S.). By and large, the kids are living in their grandparent's house: 4.2 million grandparents are the householder. 11.
 
 
 
2.6 million
Number of U.S. family households where the grandparent is the householder, and their children and grandchildren live with them. 12.
 
 
 
Four percent
of Americans age 30 and over live with grandchildren. 13.
 
 
 
Twice that –
Eight percent of Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, and Alaska natives, age 30 and over live with grandchildren – twice the national rate. And for Pacific Islanders, it's ten percent. 14.
 
 
 
60 percent
of the American grandparents living with their grandchildren are under 60 years old. 15.
 
 
 
Ambiguous –
the role of the modern American grandparent, who's torn between maintaining their own autonomy and a desire to be involved with their grandchildren's lives. 16.
 
 
 
"Remote"
29 percent of American grandparents are "remote" – emotionally and / or geographically – from their grandchildren. 17.
 
 
 
"Companionate"
55 percent of American grandparents are "companionate"; they love their grandchildren and enjoy being around them, but have no real responsibility for them. 18.
 
 
 
"Involved"
16 percent of American grandparents are "involved" – spending a substantial amount of time with their grandchildren and exercise a form of parental influence over them. 19.
 
 
 
"The exception, not the rule"
for American grandparents to provide their grandchildren with intensive caregiving. 20.
 
 
 
“. . . black grandparents, on average, were more deeply involved in their grandchildren’s lives than were white grandparents. . . . Moreover, the greater involvement of black grandmothers seemed to hold at all income levels, a finding consistent with reports of the importance of extended kin in black middle-class families.” 54.
 
 
 
Mind watching the kids? Well, maybe –
In a survey of U.S, baby boomers, the majority look forward to having grandchildren – but they don't necessarily want to be responsible for them. 38 percent would be happy to baby-sit for more than 2 weeks, but 28 percent would be unhappy. And don't worry about knowing which grandparent you've got: they'll tell you. Of those who would be unhappy, the majority will tell that to their children. 21.
 
 
 
Filipino American grandparents, on the other hand –
view the grandparenting caregiving role as normal, not than a burden, and may act as surrogate parents and homemakers when parents are absent. This perspective comes from a cultural belief that the family is responsible for caring for its own, from cradle to grave. And the needs of the family come before the needs of a single individual. To the point that Filipino grandparents will even emigrate to America if their children need help raising the kids. 22.
 
 
 
 

GRANDPARENTS – AS CHILD CARE PROVIDERS

 
 
 
20.8 percent
Grandparents are the primary source of child care for 20.8 percent of American preschoolers with mothers who are working or are in school. 30.
 
 
 
 

GRANDPARENTS – RAISING THE GRANDKIDS

 
 
 
2.3 million grandparents – 1.5 million grandmothers and 860,000 grandfathers –
43 percent of the American grandparents who live with their grandchildren – are responsible for providing their grandchildren's basic needs (i.e., food, shelter, and clothing). 37.
 
 
 
It's Because of A Crisis

 
– An American study found that grandparents frequently are responsible for their grandchildren because of a serious problem with the parents which makes them incapable of caring for their children – such as a parent's drug addition or imprisonment. 39.
 

 
 
34 percent
of U.S. grandparent caregivers are in “skipped generation” households – meaning neither parent of the grandchild lives in the home. 41.
 
 
 
 
38.5 percent
of the U.S. grandparents who are primary caregivers for their grandchildren have been responsible for the children for at least five years. 43.
 
 
 
18.8 percent
of the U.S. grandparents who are primary caregivers for their grandchildren are in poverty. 44.
 
 
 
52 percent
of black U.S. grandparents living with their grandchildren are responsible for their care. Similarly, 56 percent of American Indian and Alaska native coresident grandparents are the primary caregiver. Both are higher rates than those of other racial or ethnic groups. 45.
 
 
 
1.4 million
U.S. grandparents are working and are responsible for their grandchildren. 46.
 
 
 
50 percent
of American grandparents under 50 years of age and living with their grandchildren are responsible for those children's welfare. 47.
 
 
 
Seven percent
of U.S. grandparent caregivers are in their 30s. 48.
 
 
 
35 percent
of U.S. grandparent caregivers are in their 50s. 49.
 
 
 
One percent
of U.S. grandparent caregivers are age 80 and over. 50.
 
 
 
18 percent
of American grandparents age 75 to 84 act as caregivers for coresident grandchildren. 51.
 
 
 
Nine percent
of American Grandparents age 85 and older acting as caregivers for coresident grandchildren. 52.
 
 
 
31 percent
of American grandparents 60 years old and older living with their grandchildren are responsible for those children. 53.
 
 
 
____________________________________________________
 
 
 
1. Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 6. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
2. Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 1-2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
3. As of 2000. Jesse D. McKinnon and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Blacks in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-25. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-25.pdf
4. Philip M. Harris and Nicholas A. Jones, "We the People: Pacific Islanders in the United States," Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-26. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov./prod/2005pubs/censr-26.pdf
5. ________, "Living Arrangements: Changing Families," Australian Social Trends: Family and Community, Australian Bureau of Statistics (April 22, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/abs@.nsf/94713ad445ff1425ca25682000192af2/ea563423fdbffd30ca256d39001bc33c!OpenDocument on August 13, 2005.
6. As of 2003. Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
8. ________, The State of the Nation’s Housing, 2004, Report by the Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University (2004), p. 11. Accessed at: http://www.jchs.harvard.edu/publications/markets/son2004.pdf on August 15, 2005.
19. Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
20. As of 2003. Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
21. Reneé Spraggins, We the People: Women and Men in the United States, Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-20. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-20.pdf
22. As of 2000. Jesse D. McKinnon and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Blacks in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-25. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-25.pdf
23. Philip M. Harris and Nicholas A. Jones, "We the People: Pacific Islanders in the United States," Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-26. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov./prod/2005pubs/censr-26.pdf
24. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
25. Tavia Simmons and Grace O'Neill, Households and Families: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-8. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2001), p.2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf; and Reneé Spraggins, We the People: Women and Men in the United States, Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-20. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-20.pdf
26. Tavia Simmons and Grace O'Neill, Households and Families: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-8. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2001), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf
27. Tavia Simmons and Grace O'Neill, Households and Families: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-8. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2001), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf
28. Tavia Simmons and Grace O'Neill, Households and Families: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-8. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2001), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf
29. As of 2000. Jesse D. McKinnon and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Blacks in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-25. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-25.pdf
30. As of 2000. Jesse D. McKinnon and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Blacks in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-25. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-25.pdf
31. Elizabeth Fussell and Alberto Palloni, "Persistent Marriage Regimes in Changing Times," Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 66, pp. 1201-1213 (December 2004), p. 1209.
32. Elizabeth Fussell and Alberto Palloni, "Persistent Marriage Regimes in Changing Times," Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 66, pp. 1201-1213 (December 2004), p. 1209 (citation omitted).
33. Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 51. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
34. Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 51. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
35. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 4-5. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
36. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 4-5. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
37. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 137. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
41. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
42. Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
43. As of 2000. Jesse D. McKinnon and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Blacks in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-25. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-25.pdf
44. Terrance J. Reeves and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Asians in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-17. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-17.pdf
45. Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
1. Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 6. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
14. Tavia Simmons and Grace O'Neill, Households and Families: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-8. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2001), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf
15. Tavia Simmons and Grace O'Neill, Households and Families: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-8. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2001), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf
16. Tavia Simmons and Grace O'Neill, Households and Families: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-8. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2001), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf
18. Tavia Simmons and Grace O'Neill, Households and Families: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-8. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2001), pp. 7-8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf
19. Tavia Simmons and Grace O'Neill, Households and Families: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-8. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2001), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf and ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/002319.html
20. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/002319.html
21. Tavia Simmons and Grace O'Neill, Households and Families: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-8. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2001), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf
22. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/002319.html
* _________, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision, Highlights, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations (February 24, 2005), p. vii. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/WPP2004/2004Highlights_finalrevised.pdf
** None of this is new, by the way. In 1910, just a fraction of U.S. women with college degrees ever got married and had children, while, for those without degrees, both were nearly universal. See Claudia Goldin, "The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family," The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 596, No. 1, pp. 20-35 (November 2004). Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4D578A32F89DF9F38829
4. See, for example, Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
8. _______, Wall Chart, "World Fertility Patterns – 2004," Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York, New York (2004). Available at: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/Fertilitypatterns_chart/WallChart_Fert2004_web.pdf
9. Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of Low Fertility and Ageing Prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p. 63. Archived at: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
12. Andrew J. Cherlin, Marriage, Divorce, Remarriage, Revised and Enlarged Ed., Harvard University Press, USA (1992), p. 31. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/067455082X/ref=sib_rdr_dp/104-0887680-4192712?%5Fencoding=UTF8&no=283155&me=ATVPDKIKX0DER&st=books
14. Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 28 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
15. See, for example, Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf and Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 5. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf and Walter Bien, The Situation of Families in Germany, 2000-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_germany_bien_en.pdf Spain is another European nation already struggling with this issue. Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf
16. _________, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision, Highlights, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations (February 24, 2005), p. 6. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/WPP2004/2004Highlights_finalrevised.pdf
17. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
18. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
19. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
20. ________, United States, The CIA World Factbook (2005). Online edition at: http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/us.html
21. ________, United States, The CIA World Factbook (2005). Online edition at: http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/us.html
22. Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), pp. 7-8. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf and ________, "Percentage of Childless Women 40 to 44 Years Old Increases Since 1976, Census Bureau Reports," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 23, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/fertility/001491.html on August 15, 2005. See also Gordon A. Carmichael, "Taking Stock at the Millennium: Family Formation in Australia," Journal of Population Research (September 1, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:105657377 and "Table 1. Total births and percentage of births with selected demographic characteristics, by race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, final 2003 and preliminary 2004," Brady E. Hamilton, Stephanie J. Ventura, Joyce A. Martin, and Paul D. Sutton, Preliminary Births for 2004, Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. Report accessed at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/prelim_births/prelim_births04.htm#Figure%201 and Tables at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/prelimbirth04_tables.pdf on November 1, 2005.
23. Tallese Johnson and Jane Dye, Indicators of Marriage and Fertility in the United States from the American Community Survey: 2000 to 2003, U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division,Fertility & Family Statistics Branch, (Created: August 10, 2005 Last Revised: October 13, 2005). Abstract, Slides 36, 38. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/fertility/mar-fert-slides.html
31. Table 5, Demographic Indicators, ________, "State of the World's Children 2003, Statistical Tables," UNICEF. Archived at: http://www.unicef.org/sowc03/tables/index.html
32. Table 5, Demographic Indicators, ________, "State of the World's Children 2003, Statistical Tables," UNICEF. Archived at: http://www.unicef.org/sowc03/tables/index.html
33. Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 3. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
50. ________, “More Childless Marriages; Fewer Large Families,” Science News Letter, p. 30 (January 14, 1939).
51. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
52. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
53. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
54. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
55. As of 2002. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
57. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
59. ________, "Family Structures," Encyclopedia of American Social History. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, Reproduced in the History Resource Center, Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. Archived at: http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC Document No. BT2313027032 (1993).
62. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
64. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), pp. 5-6. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
65. ________, "Percentage of Childless Women 40 to 44 Years Old Increases Since 1976, Census Bureau Reports," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 23, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/fertility/001491.html on August 15, 2005 and Brady E. Hamilton, Stephanie J. Ventura, Joyce A. Martin, and Paul D. Sutton, Preliminary Births for 2004, Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/prelim_births/prelim_births04.htm#Figure%201 on November 1, 2005.
66. ________, "Percentage of Childless Women 40 to 44 Years Old Increases Since 1976, Census Bureau Reports," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 23, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/fertility/001491.html on August 15, 2005.
67. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf and "Table 1. Total births and percentage of births with selected demographic characteristics, by race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, final 2003 and preliminary 2004," Brady E. Hamilton, Stephanie J. Ventura, Joyce A. Martin, and Paul D. Sutton, Preliminary Births for 2004, Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. Report accessed at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/prelim_births/prelim_births04.htm#Figure%201 and Tables at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/prelimbirth04_tables.pdf on November 1, 2005.
68. Tallese Johnson and Jane Dye, Indicators of Marriage and Fertility in the United States from the American Community Survey: 2000 to 2003, U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division,Fertility & Family Statistics Branch, (Created: August 10, 2005 Last Revised: October 13, 2005). Abstract, Slides 36, 38. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/fertility/mar-fert-slides.html
68. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf and "Table 1. Total births and percentage of births with selected demographic characteristics, by race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, final 2003 and preliminary 2004," Brady E. Hamilton, Stephanie J. Ventura, Joyce A. Martin, and Paul D. Sutton, Preliminary Births for 2004, Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. Report accessed at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/prelim_births/prelim_births04.htm#Figure%201 and Tables at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/prelimbirth04_tables.pdf on November 1, 2005.
69. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 6. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf and "Table 1. Total births and percentage of births with selected demographic characteristics, by race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, final 2003 and preliminary 2004," Brady E. Hamilton, Stephanie J. Ventura, Joyce A. Martin, and Paul D. Sutton, Preliminary Births for 2004, Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. Report accessed at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/prelim_births/prelim_births04.htm#Figure%201 and Tables at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/prelimbirth04_tables.pdf on November 1, 2005.
77. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
78. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
79. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
80. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
82. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
83. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
86. Stephanie J. Ventura, T. J. Mathews, and Sally C. Curtin, "Declines in Teenage Birth Rates, 1991–97: National and State Patterns," National Vital Statistics Reports Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (1998), p. 2. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr47/nvs47_12.pdf and Stephanie Coontz, "The American Family and The Nostalgia Trap," Phi Delta Kappan (March 1, 1995). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:16765761
87. Stephanie J. Ventura, T. J. Mathews, and Sally C. Curtin, "Declines in Teenage Birth Rates, 1991–97: National and State Patterns," National Vital Statistics Reports Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (1998), p. 2. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr47/nvs47_12.pdf
88. _______, "QuickStats: Pregnancy, Birth, and Abortion Rates* for Teenagers Aged 15--17 Years --- United States, 1976--2003." MMWR Weekly, 54(04);100 (February 4, 2005). http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5404a6.htm
89. Brady E. Hamilton, Stephanie J. Ventura, Joyce A. Martin, and Paul D. Sutton, Preliminary Births for 2004, Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/prelim_births/prelim_births04.htm#Figure%201 on November 1, 2005.
90. _______, "QuickStats: Pregnancy, Birth, and Abortion Rates* for Teenagers Aged 15--17 Years --- United States, 1976--2003." MMWR Weekly, 54(04);100 (February 4, 2005). http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5404a6.htm
91. ________, "Percentage of Childless Women 40 to 44 Years Old Increases Since 1976, Census Bureau Reports," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 23, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/fertility/001491.html on August 15, 2005.
93. Dave Lesher, "State Faces Tough Battle Against Teen Pregnancy," Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles, CA, p. A-1 (January 30, 1996). See also Mike Males, "School-age pregnancy: why hasn't prevention worked?" Journal of School Health; 12/1/1993 citing Boyer D, Fine D. Sexual abuse as a factor in adolescent pregnancy and child maltreatment. Fam Plann Perspect. 1992;24(4): 4-11,19. http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:14983077 regarding a study of 500 teenage mothers, two-thirds had histories of sexual and physical abuse, primarily by adult men averaging age 27.
* ________, "Decrease in Births Alarms Physicians; In Six States, Dr. Guilfoy Tells St. Luke Society, the Rate Is Lower Than in France," New York Times, New York, NY,  p. 9 (April 7, 1912).  Archived at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=100358756&sid=6&Fmt=2&clientId=63432&RQT=309&VName=HNP
1. Internet Staff (Population Division), Population Clocks, U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division, Information & Research Services, Accessed at http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html on 8/24/2005
2. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
3. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
4. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), pp. 1, 13. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
5. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 13. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
6. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2002), p. 10 (internal citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf .
7. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
8. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
9. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2002), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
10. Reneé Spraggins, We the People: Women and Men in the United States, Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-20. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2005), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-20.pdf (PDF file)
11. Reneé Spraggins, We the People: Women and Men in the United States, Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-20. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2005), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-20.pdf (PDF file)
12. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
13. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
14. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 71. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
15. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 71. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
16. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 76. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
17. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 76. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
18. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 76. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
19. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 80. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
20. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 80. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
21. Jesse D. McKinnon and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Blacks in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-25. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-25.pdf
22. Terrance J. Reeves and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Asians in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-17. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-17.pdf
23. Asian Indian, Cambodian, Chinese, Filipino, Hmong, Japanese, Korean, Laotian, Pakistani, Thai and Vietnamese. 4. Terrance J. Reeves and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Asians in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-17. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-17.pdf
24. Number of people reported themselves to be Asian in the U.S. in 2003 – a 12.5 percent growth in three years. 2. ________, "Hispanic and Asian Americans Increasing Faster Than Overall Population," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. Accessed at: (June 14, 2004) on August 15, 2005. http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/race/001839.html
25. Terrance J. Reeves and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Asians in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-17. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-17.pdf
26. Terrance J. Reeves and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Asians in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-17. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 11. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-17.pdf
27. Philip M. Harris and Nicholas A. Jones, "We the People: Pacific Islanders in the United States," Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-26. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov./prod/2005pubs/censr-26.pdf
28. Philip M. Harris and Nicholas A. Jones, "We the People: Pacific Islanders in the United States," Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-26. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov./prod/2005pubs/censr-26.pdf
29. Philip M. Harris and Nicholas A. Jones, "We the People: Pacific Islanders in the United States," Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-26. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov./prod/2005pubs/censr-26.pdf
30. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
31. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 1, 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
32. ________, "Hispanic and Asian Americans Increasing Faster Than Overall Population," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. Accessed at: (June 14, 2004) on August 15, 2005. http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/race/001839.html
33. ________, "Hispanic and Asian Americans Increasing Faster Than Overall Population," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. Accessed at: (June 14, 2004) on August 15, 2005. http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/race/001839.html
54. Source for text: Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2002), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf Source of Chart: Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
55. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2002), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
57. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2002), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
61. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2002), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
62. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2002), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
63. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2002), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
64. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2002), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
65. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2002), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
1. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
2. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 59. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
3. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 59. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
4. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 59. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
5. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 59. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
6. Yvonne J. Gist and Lisa I. Hetzel, We the People: Aging in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-19. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-19.pdf
9. Thomas M. McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
10. Thomas M. McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
11. Thomas M. McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
12. Thomas M. McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
13. Thomas M. McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
14. Thomas M. McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
15. Thomas M. McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
16. Thomas M. McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
17. Thomas M. McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
37. Mary Ross, "Why Social Security?" Publication No. 15, Bureau of Research and Statistics, Social Security Board, Washington, DC (1937). Available at http://www.ssa.gov/history/whybook.html
38. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 126. Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
39. Yvonne J. Gist and Lisa I. Hetzel, We the People: Aging in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports CENSR-19. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-19.pdf (PDF file).
40. Yvonne J. Gist and Lisa I. Hetzel, We the People: Aging in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports CENSR-19. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-19.pdf (PDF file).
41. Yvonne J. Gist and Lisa I. Hetzel, We the People: Aging in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports CENSR-19. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-19.pdf
42. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
43. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
44. Based on 1999 numbers. Yvonne J. Gist and Lisa I. Hetzel, We the People: Aging in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports CENSR-19. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-19.pdf
56. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (2002), pp. 129. Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
57. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
61. Frank Hobbs, Examining American Household Composition: 1990 and 2000. US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-24, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-24.pdf
62. Yvonne J. Gist and Lisa I. Hetzel, We the People: Aging in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-19. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p.3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-19.pdf
65. Claude Martin, "Families in France: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters, (2004), p. 19. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_France.pdf
66. Claude Martin, "Families in France: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters, (2004), p. 19. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_France.pdf
67. Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 5. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf
68. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998) (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
72. Yvonne J. Gist and Lisa I. Hetzel, We the People: Aging in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports CENSR-19. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-19.pdf
73. Yvonne J. Gist and Lisa I. Hetzel, We the People: Aging in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports CENSR-19. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-19.pdf
74. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (2002), p. 125. Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
75. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (2002), p. 130 (citation omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
76. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (2002), p. 130 (citation omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
77. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (2002), p. 129 (citation omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
1. Claudia Zaher, When a Woman's Marital Status Determined Her Legal Status: A Research Guide on the Common Law Doctrine of Coverturne, Chase College of Law Library, Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights, Kentucky, American Association of Law Libraries (2002). Archived at: http://www.aallnet.org/products/2002-28.pdf; Isabel Marcus, "Coverture," The Reader's Companion to American History, Houghton Mifflin Co. Archived at: http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/women/html/wh_008900_coverture.htm; and Rick Geddes and Dean Lueck, The Gains From Self-Ownership and the Expansion of Women's Rights, John M. Olin Program in Law and Economics, Working Paper No. 181, Stanford Law School (August 2000). Archived at: http://papers.ssrn.com/paper.taf?abstract_id=236012
2. ________, "Married Women's Property Acts," The Reader's Companion to American History, Houghton Mifflin Co. Archived at: http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/rcah/html/rc_056700_marriedwomen.htm and Eileen Connell, ed., "The Woman Question: Overview," The Victorian Age: Topics, The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Norton Topics Online, W.W. Norton and Co. (2003-2005). Archived at: http://www.wwnorton.com/nael/victorian/topic_2/welcome.htm
3. Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Melvin L. Wulf, Brenda Feigen Fasteau, Marc Feigen Fasteau, Amicus Curiae Brief of American Civil Liberties Union for Frontiero v. Laird, American Civil Liberties Union, New York, New York (1972), Section I and Section II(D)(1-3). Archived at: http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/curiae/html/411-677/005.htm
4. See, for example, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Melvin L. Wulf, Brenda Feigen Fasteau, Marc Feigen Fasteau, Amicus Curiae Brief of American Civil Liberties Union for Frontiero v. Laird, American Civil Liberties Union, New York, New York (1972), Section I and Section II(D)(1-3). Archived at: http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/curiae/html/411-677/005.htm and Jill Elaine Hasday, "Contest and Consent: A Legal History of Marital Rape," Occasional Paper 41, University of Chicago Law School (May 2000). Archived at: http://www.law.uchicago.edu/academics/maritalrape.html
5. See, for example, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Melvin L. Wulf, Brenda Feigen Fasteau, Marc Feigen Fasteau, Amicus Curiae Brief of American Civil Liberties Union for Frontiero v. Laird, American Civil Liberties Union, New York, New York (1972), Section I and Section II(D)(1-3). Archived at: http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/curiae/html/411-677/005.htm and Jill Elaine Hasday, "Contest and Consent: A Legal History of Marital Rape," Occasional Paper 41, University of Chicago Law School (May 2000). Archived at: http://www.law.uchicago.edu/academics/maritalrape.html and Raquel Kennedy Bergen, "Marital Rape," Domestic Violence Applied Research Documents, VAWNet, National Resource Center on Domestic Violence Harrisburg, PA (March 1999). Accessed at: http://www.vawnet.org/DomesticViolence/Research/VAWnetDocs/AR_mrape.php on August 15, 2005. and ________, "State Law Chart," National Clearinghouse on Marital & Date Rape (June 1998). Accessed at: http://members.aol.com/ncmdr/state_law_chart.html on October 24, 2005.
6. Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Melvin L. Wulf, Brenda Feigen Fasteau, Marc Feigen Fasteau, Amicus Curiae Brief of American Civil Liberties Union for Frontiero v. Laird, American Civil Liberties Union, New York, New York (1972), Section I and Section II(D)(1-3). Archived at: http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/curiae/html/411-677/005.htm
7. ________, "Facts for Features: Women's History Month (March)," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 22, 2005)(citing an unpublished report). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/003897.html
8. Jason Fields, Children and their Living Arrangements and Characteristics: March 2002, Current Population Reports P20-547, US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-547.pdf
9. Jason Fields, Children and their Living Arrangements and Characteristics: March 2002, Current Population Reports P20-547, US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-547.pdf
10. John F. Sandberg and Sandra L. Hofferth, Changes in Children's Time with Parents, U.S. 1981-1997, PSC Research Report, Report No. 01-475, Population Studies Center at the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (May 2001), p. 5 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr01-475.pdf
11. John F. Sandberg and Sandra L. Hofferth, Changes in Children's Time with Parents, U.S. 1981-1997, PSC Research Report, Report No. 01-475, Population Studies Center at the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (May 2001), p. 5 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr01-475.pdf
12. Anne R. Roschelle, Maura I. Toro-Morn, Elisa Facio, "Families in Cuba: From Colonialism to Revolution," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 414-439 (2005), pp. 425-426. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
13. Paul L. Schvaneveldt, Jennifer L Kerpelman and Jay D Schvaneveldt, "Generational and Cultural Changes in Family Life in the United Arab Emirates," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 1; Research Library Core, p. 77 et seq. (Winter 2005), p. 80.
14. Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Family And Human Development Across Cultures: A View From The Other Side, Lea / Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Mahwah, New Jersey (1996), p. 31 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0805820760/qid=11237769December sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
22. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., Sheela Kennedy, Vonnie C. Mcloyd, Rubén G. Rumbaut and Richard A. Settersten, Jr., "Growing Up is Harder to Do," Contexts, Amer. Sociological Assoc., Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 33-41 (Summer 2004), p. 35.
23. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., Sheela Kennedy, Vonnie C. Mcloyd, Rubén G. Rumbaut and Richard A. Settersten, Jr., "Growing Up is Harder to Do," Contexts, Amer. Sociological Assoc., Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 33-41 (Summer 2004), p. 35.
24. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., Sheela Kennedy, Vonnie C. Mcloyd, Rubén G. Rumbaut and Richard A. Settersten, Jr., "Growing Up is Harder to Do," Contexts, Amer. Sociological Assoc., Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 33-41 (Summer 2004), p. 35.
1. ________, "Facts for Features: Father's Day, June 19," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (June 10, 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2003/cb03-ff08.html
2. ________, "Facts for Features: Father's Day, June 19," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (June 10, 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2003/cb03-ff08.html
3. ________, "Facts for Features: Father's Day, June 19," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (June 10, 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2003/cb03-ff08.html
4. ________, "Facts for Features: Father's Day, June 19," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (June 10, 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2003/cb03-ff08.html
5. ________, "Facts for Features: Father's Day, June 19," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (June 10, 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2003/cb03-ff08.html
6. Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 11-12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
22. Edward K. Mburugu and Bert N. Adams, "Families in Kenya," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 3-24 (2005), p. 20. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
23. _____, "Facts for Features: Father's Day, June 19," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (June 10, 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2003/cb03-ff08.html
24. ________, "Facts for Features: Father's Day, June 15," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (June 2, 2003). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2003/cb03-ff08.html
25. ________, "Facts for Features: Father's Day, June 15," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (June 2, 2003). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2003/cb03-ff08.html and Jason Fields, Children and their Living Arrangements and Characteristics: March 2002, Current Population Reports P20-547, US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), pp. 9-11. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-547.pdf
26. Stay at home married parents are defined by the U.S. Census those who reported that they are home primarily to care for the home and children for the preceding year, and have a married spouse who is in the workforce that year as well. ________, "Facts for Features: Father's Day 2005: June 19," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (June 10, 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/004706.html
27. Jason Fields, Children and their Living Arrangements and Characteristics: March 2002, Current Population Reports P20-547, US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-547.pdf
28. Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 11-12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
29. Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 11-12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
30. ________, Abstract of N. Radin's "Primary-Caregiving Fathers in Intact Families," A. E. Gottfried & A. W. Gottfried (Eds.), Redefining Families: Implications for Children's Development (pp. 11-54). New York: Plenum Press (1994). Accessed via: http://fatherfamilylink.gse.upenn.edu on September 18, 2005.
31. ________, Abstract of N. Radin's "Primary-Caregiving Fathers in Intact Families," A. E. Gottfried & A. W. Gottfried (Eds.), Redefining Families: Implications for Children's Development (pp. 11-54). New York: Plenum Press (1994). Accessed via: http://fatherfamilylink.gse.upenn.edu on September 18, 2005.
32. See Francine M. Deutsch, "Traditional Ideologies, Nontraditional lives," Sex Roles: A Journal of Research (March 1998). Archived at: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_n5-6_v38/ai_20749193/print
33. See Francine M. Deutsch, "Traditional Ideologies, Nontraditional lives," Sex Roles: A Journal of Research (March 1998). Archived at: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_n5-6_v38/ai_20749193/print
34. See Francine M. Deutsch, "Traditional Ideologies, Nontraditional lives," Sex Roles: A Journal of Research (March 1998). Archived at: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_n5-6_v38/ai_20749193/print
35. See Francine M. Deutsch, "Traditional Ideologies, Nontraditional lives," Sex Roles: A Journal of Research (March 1998). Archived at: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_n5-6_v38/ai_20749193/print
36. See Francine M. Deutsch, "Traditional Ideologies, Nontraditional lives," Sex Roles: A Journal of Research (March 1998). Archived at: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_n5-6_v38/ai_20749193/print
1. Yoshinori Kamo and Chizuko Wakabayashi, "Grandparenthood," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Ponzetti, James J. (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA (2002), p. 760 . Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
2. Yoshinori Kamo and Chizuko Wakabayashi, "Grandparenthood," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Ponzetti, James J. (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA (2002), p. 760. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
3. Yoshinori Kamo and Chizuko Wakabayashi, "Grandparenthood," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Ponzetti, James J. (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA (2002), p. 760. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
4. Yoshinori Kamo and Chizuko Wakabayashi, "Grandparenthood," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Ponzetti, James J. (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA (2002), p. 760 . Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
5. Yoshinori Kamo and Chizuko Wakabayashi, "Grandparenthood," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Ponzetti, James J. (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA (2002), p. 760 . Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
6. Sirpa Taskinen, "Families in Finland: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 6 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Finland.pdf
7. Sirpa Taskinen, "Families in Finland: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 6 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Finland.pdf
8. Yoshinori Kamo and Chizuko Wakabayashi, "Grandparenthood," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Ponzetti, James J. (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA (2002), p. 763 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
9. Yoshinori Kamo and Chizuko Wakabayashi, "Grandparenthood," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Ponzetti, James J. (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA (2002), p. 763 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
10. Yoshinori Kamo and Chizuko Wakabayashi, "Grandparenthood," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Ponzetti, James J. (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA (2002), p. 763 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
11. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2005: Sept. 11," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (July 11, 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
12. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
13. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
14. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
15. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
16. Discussing a report by Andrew Cherlin and Frank Furstenberg, Jr. Liselotte Wilk, “Intergenerational Relationships: Grandparents and Grandchildren,” Family issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report, Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies (May 2000), p. 28 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
17. Shampa Mazumdar, "Kinkeeping and Caregiving: Contributions of Older People in Immigrant Families," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302756
18. Shampa Mazumdar, "Kinkeeping and Caregiving: Contributions of Older People in Immigrant Families," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302756
19. Shampa Mazumdar, "Kinkeeping and Caregiving: Contributions of Older People in Immigrant Families," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302756
20. Shampa Mazumdar, "Kinkeeping and Caregiving: Contributions of Older People in Immigrant Families," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004) (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302756
21. _______, Del Webb 2004 Baby Boomer Survey, "Empty Nester Syndrome: When the Kids Go Away Will Boomers Play?' (2004) p. 15. Accessed at http://www.pulte.com/pressroom/2004BabyBoomer/BabyBoomerDetailReport.pdf on August 15, 2005. _______, Del Webb 2004 Baby Boomer Survey Press Release, "Baby Boomers Reclaim Independence in the Empty Nest But Del Webb Survey Shows ‘Boomerang’ Kids May Re-feather Their Future," Del Webb Website (June 29, 2004). Accessed at http://www.pulte.com/pressroom/2004BabyBoomer/BabyBoomerNesters.pdf on August 15, 2005.
22. Marian Yoder, "Grandparent Caregiving Role in Filipino American Families," Journal of Cultural Diversity (September 22, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:125337672
30. ________, "Historical Table. Primary Child Care Arrangements Used by Employed Mothers of Preschoolers: 1985 to 1999." U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/child/ppl-168/tabH-1.pdf
35. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915 . See also Cordón, Juan Antonio Fernández, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 4. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf and Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, "Families in Spain: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 8. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Spain.pdf
37. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2005: Sept. 11," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (July 11, 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
39. Shampa Mazumdar, "Kinkeeping and Caregiving: Contributions of Older People in Immigrant Families," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004) (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302756
41. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
43. Based on 2000 census data. Tavia Simmons and Jane Lawler Dye, Grandparents Living With Grandchildren: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR-31. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2003), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf
44. Based on 1999 numbers and 2000 Census data. Tavia Simmons and Jane Lawler Dye, Grandparents Living With Grandchildren: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR-31. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2003), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf
45. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
46. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2005: Sept. 11," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (July 11, 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
47. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
48. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
49. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
50.________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
51. Yvonne J. Gist and Lisa I. Hetzel, We the People: Aging in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-19. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-19.pdf
52. Yvonne J. Gist and Lisa I. Hetzel, We the People: Aging in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-19. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-19.pdf
53. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
54. Andrew J. Cherlin, Marriage, Divorce, Remarriage, Revised and Enlarged Ed., Harvard University Press, USA (1992), p. 108 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/067455082X/ref=sib_rdr_dp/104-0887680-4192712?%5Fencoding=UTF8&no=283155&me=ATVPDKIKX0DER&st=books