Central and South America / the Caribbean
 
Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 31
 
 
 
This information duplicates items from the rest of The Factbook, selecting only those items that relate to Central and South America, as well as the Caribbean. However, numbers don't mean much without a comparison to family life in other continents. And that is why we may have included a lot of information on certain issues, but it seems like we have less regional information for others. Actually, that isn't the case – we just chose what were for us notable commonalities or exceptions, cross-culturally. For further information about a particular region, see the regional studies we've referenced in the footnotes: they probably have any additional information you might need on a particular country or region.
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 
 
 

COUPLES OR HOUSEHOLD HEADS ON THEIR OWN?

 
 
 
 
In South America, nuclear households are "the most widespread form of residence." 16.
 
 
 
But just 11.7 percent
of urban households in Argentina are "nuclear families" – mom, dad, and kids. 17.
 
 
 
31.8 percent
of urban households in Venezuela are "nuclear families." 18.
 
 
 
17 percent
of households in Peru, Guatemela, Mexico are headed by women. 31.
 
 
 
25 percent
of households in Chile during the 1990s were headed by women. 32.
 
 
 
22.2 percent
of the richest households in Uruguay are married-couple households without children. 35.
 
 
 
4.4 percent
Of the poorest households in Uruguay are married-couple households without children. 36.
 
 
 
 

SINGLE PEOPLE ON THEIR OWN

 
 
 
 
 
In South America, "There is a clear class difference in the prevalence of one or another form of household. Singleperson households are a chosen form for the upper strata and are almost non-existent among the poorest sectors of society." 38.
 
 
 
32.4 percent
of the richest households in Uruguay are single-person households. 39.
 
 
 
2.7 percent
Of the poorest households in Uruguay are single-person households. 40.
 
 

EXTENDED FAMILY HOUSEHOLDS

 
 
 
 
11.7 percent
of households in Argentina are extended family households. 6.
 
 
 
31.8 percent
of households in Venezuela are extended family households. 7.
 
 
 
On the increase –
extended families in Brazil and Colombia. In 1999, 16.8 percent of Brazilian households are extended families – up from 11.2 in 1986 – and Colombia's extended family households rose from 18.8 percent in 1986 to 1999's 25.2 percent. 10.
 
 
 
On the decline –
extended families in Paraguay, Chile, and Uruguay. 11.
 
 
 
With the exception of Bolivia, throughout South America, extended and composed forms of households are more prevalent among low-income households than those with higher-incomes. This may be due to poorer families' pooling their resources to meet their needs. 12.
 
 
 
 

MULTIGENERATIONAL HOUSEHOLDS

 
 
 
7.4 percent
of Puerto Rico's households are multigenerational. 16.
 
 
 
At least 80 percent
of the elderly in urban Central America live in multigenerational households. In those, at least half of them contributed less than a quarter of the total household income. How much they contribute is an indication of their own poverty and that of their family. 25.
 
 
 
In South America, the three-generational household was a traditional expression of the society's patriarchal structure: it was the way to transmit power and wealth to the younger generations, while still providing for older widows and widowers. Now, however, older couples may live by themselves, or with other members of their generation (such as two elderly sisters). Widows may live alone (if they can afford it) or in non-nuclear households (elderly sisters living together, for instance). 28.
 
 
Multiple generation household structures also persist in a patriarchical societies, such as the Indo-Caribbean countries such as Trinidad and Tobago: the fathers and eldest sons wield a heavy hand in those families. 30.
 
 
 
On the other hand,
in many lower class Afro-Caribbean families, it is the elderly females who are the central figures in multi-generational households, whether or not male household heads are present. 31.
 
 
 
 

THEORIES AND RESPONSES TO WHY WOMEN DELAY
HAVING CHILDREN AND HAVE FEWER OF THEM

 
 
 
 
Similarly, the general theory is that a rise of women's educational attainment will delay the women's age at first childbirth. The women will put off starting a family because they are in school or in work, or perhaps it is just because the education included lessons about contraception. But literacy rates in Cuba are some of the highest in the world. And while Cuba's fertility rate is one of the lowest in the world, the increased literacy hasn't seemed to have any other effect. Conversely, the age at which women are having children is declining, when it would usually be expected to be rising. In a study of employed Cuban women, all of whom had easily available birth control and abortions, 50 percent of them had had a child before the age of 20. 3.
 
 
 
 

UNMARRIED MOTHERS

 
 
 
 
The percentage of births to Cuban single mothers skyrocketed from 39 percent to 61 percent in a span of 15 years, from 1973 to 1989. 63.
 
 
 
72 percent
of Cuban new single mothers in 1989 were under the age of 25. 70.
 
 
 
 

TEEN PREGNANCY

 
 
 
38 percent
Cuban single women giving birth in 1989 were under the age of 20. 92.
 
 
 
 





Having Under Five Percent of the world's population, United States ranked third in terms of total population size in 2000.

Here's a U.S. Census chart illustrating the changing distribution of the world's population over the last half of the Twentieth Century. 54.

 
 
Aging – Internationally
 
 
 
12.5 percent
of Argentina's total population aged 60 and older, in 1980. 33.
 
 
 
13.3 percent
of Argentina's total population aged 60 and older, in 2000. 34.
 
 
 
5.2. percent
of Bolivia's total population aged 60 and older, in 1980. 35.
 
 
 
6.2 percent
of Bolivia's total population aged 60 and older, in 2000. 36.
 
 

THE ECONOMICS OF AGING

 
 
 

Who Should Be Responsible for the Elderly? Living With The Kids?

 
 
 
Who Should Be Responsible for the Elderly?
 
 
Daughters and other relatives
were traditionally responsible for the elderly of South America. But the growth of state-run welfare services, including retirement benefits, has lessened the burden on families, especially the acute care needed to those over 80 years old. 55.
 
 
 
 

ELDERS AT RISK

 
 
 
51 percent
of older persons in a study in Argentina, who reported that they had been the targets of verbal aggression by their family members. 79.
 
 
 
11 percent
of older persons in a study in Argentina, who reported that they had been the targets of family members' physical aggression. 80.
 
 

MOTHERS' ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

 
 
 
In a national study, 27 percent of all Cuban mothers didn't have any relationship with their child's fathers. 12.
 
 
 
 

DAUGHTERS' ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

 
 
 
 
South American Daughters –
and others in the family – have traditionally been responsible for taking care of the families' elders. But their duty to care for them has becoming gradually lessened with the creation of state-run welfare-services. 29.
 
 

FACTS ABOUT FATHERS AND SONS

 
 
 
 
 
85 percent
Of children in Cuba being raised by single mothers, 85 percent of the children's fathers were either completely or partially estranged from the mother and child, according to a 1980s study. 14.
 
 
 
56 percent
In that same study, 56 percent of the Cuban single mothers did not know where the father of their children lived. 66 percent could not identify where the father worked. 15.
 
 
 

SINGLE PARENT FAMILIES DEMOGRAPHICS

 
 
 
 
44.7 percent
of households in Jamaica that were female-headed in 2001. St. Lucia and Haiti had similar rates – 42.8 percent and 42.7 percent, respectively. 36.
 
 
 
10 percent
of households in Trinidad and Tobago are headed by single mothers. 37.
 
 
 

SAME SEX COUPLES – INTERNATIONALLY

 
 
 
 
2003
The year same-sex unions became (controversially) recognized in Buenos Aires, Argentina. 54.
 
 
 

CAREGIVERS IN THE WORKFORCE

 
 
 
22.3 percent –
of women in Argentina were working in 1950.
 
 
 
38.4 percent –
of women in Argentina were working in the year 2000.
 
 
 
14.5 percent –
of women in Brazil were working in 1950.
 
 
 
41.0 percent –
of women in Brazil were working in the year 2000.
 
 
 
17.6 percent –
of women in Colombia were working in 1950.
 
 
 
37.1 percent –
of women in Colombia were working in the year 2000.
 
 
 
 
17.0 percent
of women in Latin American were in the labor force in 1950.
 
 
 
27.5 percent
of women in Latin America were estimated to be in the labor force in the year 2000.
 
 

FOSTER CHILDREN

 
 
 
"Child-shifting"
Known as "child-shifting," it is fairly common for families to send children to live – temporarily or even permanently – with neighbors or relatives. Reasons for child-shifting vary, but usually arise out of the mother's belief that the foster parent will be able to provide a better home for the child. An estimated 15 to 30 percent of Caribbean children will grow up in a household without their parents. 7.
 
 
 

CHILDREN

 
 
Chart of Top 10 Countries By Under 5
8.

 
 

VIOLENCE COMMITTED AGAINST CHILDREN

 
 
 
 
"A legitimate means to solve conflicts" and a "highly valued" way to socialize children
Violence. As perceived in South American nations, according to a United Nations report. 37.
 
 
 
"Very widespread"
– the prevalence of child beating and child abuse in South America, according to a United Nations report. 38.
 
 
 
 

CHILD LABOR

 
 
 
"Child prostitution and sicarios (children who are informal “soldiers” of drug rings or of paramilitary forces in Colombia and among the drug-rings of Brazil, for instance) are perhaps the most horrifying scenes of life in several South American cities." 62.
 
 
 
 

CHILD POVERTY

 
 
15,000-30,000
Estimated number of children living on the streets of Colombia. 90.
 
 
 
200,000
Estimated number of children living on the streets of Brazil. 93.
 
 
 

CHILDREN IN ANCIENT HISTORY

 
 
“For the most part, [Ancient Mayan] children’s lives were uneventful–agrarian and domes-tic in preparation for marriage and family. There were children, however, who were pressed into slavery and ritually sacrificed. A child could become a slave if born to a slave, if orphaned, or if purchased for that purpose. Orphans also could be purchased for sacrifice. A small boy would cost five to ten stone beads and could be sacrificed in two different ways: by cardioectomy or by drowning. Bows and arrows were reserved for the ceremonial sacrifice of adults.” 20.
 
 
 
Ancient Mayan “Babies were nursed only three times a day. At feeding time, mothers placed their babies on the ground and bent over them. Once the cradle was outgrown, babies were transferred to a kind of playpen–a hole dug deep enough to keep them from mischief or harm in which rags and toys were placed.” 21.
 
 
 

WHO'S THE LUCKY GUY (GIRL)?

 
 
 
"Recycled" Men
According to one study in Brazil, there is a shortage of marriageable men, due to the fact that men tend to marry women significantly younger than they are, and that there 's a larger populations in younger birth cohorts – meaning there are more young women. The men have "solved" the problem by having one marriage, and then, later in life, having a consensual, but unmarried relationship with someone else. 43.
 
 
 

UNMARRIED PARTNERS / PERCEPTIONS AND LEGAL STATUS

 
 
 
When divorce wasn't allowed
In nations of South America that did not allow divorce, couples lived together and didn't get married, or, after a failed marriage, left their spouse and established a new, unmarried household with another partner. This was particularly the case in rural areas. But recently, cohabitation has been on the rise in urban sectors. 17.
 
 
 
Economics –
In South America, living together as unmarried couples was something just done by the poorer sectors of the community. However, the middle class has now begun to follow this pattern as well. 18.
 
 
 

UNMARRIED PARTNERS / PREVALANCE

 
 
 
 
1.5 percent
of couples in Buenos Aires in 1960 were consensual (unmarried). 35.
 
 
 
13.6 percent
of couples in Buenos Aires in 1991 were consensual (unmarried). 36.
 
 
 
21 percent
of couples in Buenos Aires in 2001 were consensual (unmarried). 37.
 
 
 
Seven percent
National percentage of consensual (unmarried) couples in Argentina in 1960. 38.
 
 
 
18 percent
National percentage of consensual (unmarried) couples in Argentina in 1991. 39.
 
 
 
116,000
In 2003, the number of consensual (unmarried) couples in Argentina out of 548,000 total couples recorded. 40.
 
 
 
1.5 percent
National percentage of consensual (unmarried) couples in Brazil in 1960. 41.
 
 
 
21 percent
National percentage of consensual (unmarried) couples in Brazil in 2001. 42.
 
 

WHAT HAS CHANGED FAMILY STRUCTURES

 
 
In South America, "With rising instability of conjugal unions and patterns of remarriage and formation of new unions, there is a large increase in “re-assembled” households – those made up by a (new) couple and children from previous unions. Current statistical data gathering techniques, however, are not prepared to sort out different types of family processes in household formation. They capture synchronic data, and not the history of family formation behind it, and thus they appear under the “complete” nuclear or extended categories." 69.
 
 
In South America, "It is likely that as a response to processes of impoverishment and unemployment in urban areas, extended family household arrangements have been on the rise among lower-income families as a strategy to pool resources and to face their unmet needs, especially regarding shelter. Often these extended households incorporate close relatives with their children (for instance, daughters and grandchildren) who are unable to establish independent households due to economic hardship. Yet there are no in-depth studies of these issues, studies that would allow a deeper understanding of the links between family responsibilities and everyday domestic arrangements in times of crisis." 70.
 
 
 
In South America, "The 1960s marked the beginning of a time of major changes in the region, which included not only an increase in participation in the labor force by young, single women, but also of married women and married women with children. The moment of establishing a new household through marriage or cohabitation used to be a turning point in the work history of women, who then became housewives and spouses, and then mothers. Recent trends show that workforce participation rates of women increase in all age groups, and that women tend not to leave the labor force when they marry or have children. This means a shift in the organization of complete nuclear households, towards situations where both members of the conjugal couple work (Arriagada, 2001; for a detailed study in Argentina, Wainerman, 2003). This tends to be more common among higher educated social groups, and involves a higher income (which may be in part the result of more adult members of the household working)." 71.
 
 
 
In South America, "A shift towards women participating in the labor force, however, does not entail a parallel change in the sharing of household and domestic responsibilities, which remain predominantly in the hands of women. Changes in this regard are very slow, although there are increasing pressures on men to participate more actively in domestic tasks. Younger cohorts probably will show signs of change in this direction." 72.
 
 
 
In South America, "One prevailing trend in the last two decades in the region has been the impoverishment of broad sectors of the population as a consequence of economic recession or very slow growth, and of the crisis in the labor market. The difficulties faced by males in the labor market, associated with a strong expectation of being the main economic support and the “head of the family”, have been reflected in the family sphere. The obstacles faced in trying to satisfy this role expectation have put pressure on couples, and challenged them to develop new strategies. Sometimes, this failure to meet social expectations has led to a higher rate of dissolution of the conjugal union. Other times, families have faced these critical situations by developing strategies where additional members participate in the labor market. These additional members are primarily married women and children." 73.
 
 
 

POVERTY – INTERNATIONAL

 
 
39 percent
of households in Latin America and the Caribbean live below the absolute poverty line. And while the number of those in poverty is increasing, the per capita GDP has been shrinking. By 1989, the per capita GDP had fell to what was equivalent to a 1977 level. 28.
 
 
 

URBANIZATION BY THE NUMBERS

 
 
 
 


On the left is our chart illustrating the change in urbanization, by continent. The red column is the urbanized population in 1950, the blue is today's percentage, and the green is the United Nations's projected percentages by the year 2030.

By this, you can see that the percentage of those living in urban environments has more than doubled in Africa and Asia in the past 50 years, and Latin America's is almost double.

Already comparatively urbanized, Europe and North American urbanization is continuing, but at a less dramatic rate. 20.

 
Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru –
All went from having a majority of their populations living in rural areas, to a majority living in urban areas, within the last 50 years (1950-2000). 22.
 
 
 
35.3 percent
of Peru's population lived in urban areas in 1950. 34.
 
 
71.9 percent
of Peru's population lived in urban areas in 2000. 35.
 
 
 
28.5 percent
of Ecuador's population lived in urban areas in 1950. 36.
 
 
 
62.7 percent
of Ecuador's population lived in urban areas in 2000. 37.
 
 
 
36.5 percent
of Brazil's population lived in urban areas in 1950. 38.
 
 
 
79.9 percent
of Brazil's population lived in urban areas in 2000. 39.
 
 
 
78 percent
of the Uruguayan population lived in urban areas in 1950. 40.
 
 
 
92.6 percent
of the Uruguayan population lived in urban areas in 2000. 41.
 
 
 

WHO IS MIGRATING?

 
 
 
More than 60 million
people emigrated from Europe between 1800 and 1960. more than 60 million people emigrated from Europe to another continent. About 40 million people left for North America; and another 20 million, to South America, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand or the Asian parts of Russia. 29.
 
 
 

WHERE ARE THEY GOING?

 
 
 
 
South Americans have tended to emigrate within the region –
During the economic turmoil of 1990s, South Americans have increasingly chose the U.S., Europe, and to a lesser extent, Japan, for their countries of destination. But usually, South Americans have tended to emigrate to other countries within the region. Paraguayans move to Argentina and Brazil; Ecuadorians go to Colombia, Bolivians head to Argentina, Chile and Brazil, while Chileans and Uruguayans go to Argentina. 57.
 
 

WHY MIGRATE?

 
 
 
 
 
 
To find peace and stability –
 


450,000-600,000
Estimated number of those in Peru who were displaced due to the military repression and strife with civilian “self-defense” and paramilitary forces during the 1980s, during a conflict between a guerrilla group, Sendero Luminoso. (Additionally, an estimated 30,000 died during this period.) Then, in the early 1990s, a new Peruvian government implemented a program of resettlement, sending hundreds of thousands of peasants back to the villages they had abandoned. 74.
 
 
 
More than 2 million
Estimated number of persons were displaced during the last fifteen years in Colombia because of political conflict (which includes military, drug juntas, etc). 78.
 
 
 

 

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF MIGRATION

 
 
 
 
"In all cases [of South American migration], but more so when the migratory flow is to the economic North, remittances are part of the picture, although among the countries in South America, the economic significance of remittances is not as high as in Central America, the Caribbean and Mexico." 166.
 
 
 
$300 Million
Estimated remittances from abroad to relatives in Argentina during 2002. In the 1990s, Argentina had been an importer of workers from other South American countries, but then during its financial crisis, and the subsequent devaluing of its peso in 2002, the migrant workers went home – and it was the Argentines who were now migrating in search of work. 168.
 
 
 
Up 17.6 percent –
the growth in remittances in Latin America during 2002 – which is expected to continue to grow. 169.
 
 
 
10 percent
of Ecuador’s GNP is remittances from abroad. 170.
 
 
 
43.7 percent
of Lesotho’s GNP, in 1990, that was remittances from abroad. 171.
 
 
 
$2 billion
the amount of money sent home by Egyptian workers abroad as early as early as 1979. That is approximately the same amount the nation earned from earnings from cotton exports, Suez Canal transit fees, and tourism, combined. Amount in U.S. Dollars. 172.
 
 
 
12.1 percent
of Egypt’s GNP in 1984/1985, that was remittances from abroad. 173.
 
 
 

FAMILY VIOLENCE (INTERNATIONAL)
Prevalence of Violence, Internationally Social Justification for Abuse

 
 
Prevalence of Violence, Internationally
 
 
 
 
80 percent
of women in two municipalities in Mendoza, Argentina, reported that they had been victims of physical or emotional violence in their lives. And 70 percent of time, the perpetrator of the violence was the women's current husband or partner. 48.
 
 
 
More than Half
of women surveyed in Metropolitan Lima, Peru who reported having at one point suffered physical or sexual violence by their partners. Rural areas of Peru, as many as 70 percent of the women reported having been abused. While half of the affected women in Lima were from low-income backgrounds, 36 percent were from middle and lower middle incomes, and 13 percent were from upper middle and upper sectors of the population. 49.
 
 
 
Almost 40 percent
of upper class families in Uruguay report a history of violence in the family: “Violence was an everyday affair among close to 40 percent of upper class families, more than 50 percent of middle class families, and close to 50 percent of lower income families.” 50.
 
 
 
40 percent
of Uruguayan households have some history of violence. 51.
 
 
 
Social Justification for Abuse
 
 
 
 
They think it's justified for a husband to beat his wife if . . .


. . . she neglects her housework or children
. . . according to: one percent of men in New Zealand; 15 percent of women in urban Nicaragua; and 61 percent of women in rural Egypt. 54.

. . . the husband suspects her of having an affair
. . . according to: five percent of men in New Zealand; 19 percent of men in Brazil; 33 percent of men in Singapore; 32 percent of women in rural Nicaragua; 14 percent of women in Colombia; and 71 percent of Palestinian men. 55.

. . . she goes out of the house without telling her husband
. . . according to: 11 percent of women in urban Nicaragua. 56.

 
. . . talks back or disobeys her husband
. . . according to: one percent of men in New Zealand; four percent of men in Singapore; 10 to 50 percent of men in Uttar Pradesh, India; 32 percent of women in rural Egypt; 14 percent of women in Colombia; and 57 percent of Palestinian men. 58.


 
 

DIVORCE (INTERNATIONAL)

 
 
 
Maria Victoria Torres
was the first person ever to file for divorce in Chile: she did so on November 18, 2004. 41.
 
 
 
1987
The year divorce became legal in Argentina. The result was not just a five-year boom in divorces, but also a growth in marriages – apparently because separated couples could divorce and then marry those they were actually living with. 42.
 
 
 

WHAT THE EXPERTS ARE SAYING

 
 
According to a United Nations' report on families in South America, "there have been some discussions claiming that we are witnessing a process of family “disintegration”. Actually, what is going on is a process of crisis of the patriarchal model of the family, a model that involved strong authoritarian tendencies. From the perspective of the patriarchal nuclear family, the decline in nuptiality and the increase in divorce rates, as well as the increase in the labor force participation of women - with the “danger” that they abandon their traditional (“naturalized”) roles of housewives, wives and mothers - can be interpreted as abnormal and expressing a situation of crisis. In such a situation, some voices express the urgency to intervene and “save” the family from the crisis. These voices are usually those of tradition and religion, with a strong sense of morally policing private life, and asking for ways to “strengthen” the family. For these voices, there is only one family to be strengthened: the monogamous heterosexual couple and their children, established once and for all. Other models of families are seen as deviations that point to the crisis. Such a simplified view of reality, however, has to be changed. New family forms are to be seen in part as the expression of choice and of more freedom on the part of the traditionally subordinate members of families, and it is their freedom and principles of democratic equality that have to be strengthened." 7.
 
 
 

SELECTED DEMOGRAPHICS OVER TIME – INTERNATIONAL

 
 
On the rise –
living alone in South America. From 1986 to 1999, the percent of those living alone increased from 11.3 percent to 15.5 percent in Argentina, from 11.9 to 16.6 in Uruguay, from 6,9 to 8,7 in Brazil and from 6.4 to 7.5 in Chile. Some of this may be due to an increasing population of elderly who live alone: Argentina and Uruguay have higher percentages of elderly than in other South American countries. 68.
 
 
 
____________________________________________________
 
16. Note that this means that both parents are present; it does not indicate whether or not the couple is married. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
17. Note that this means that both parents are present; it does not indicate whether or not the couple is married. Elizabeth Fussell and Alberto Palloni, "Persistent Marriage Regimes in Changing Times," Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 66, pp. 1201-1213 (December 2004), p. 1208.
18. Note that this means that both parents are present; it does not indicate whether or not the couple is married.Elizabeth Fussell and Alberto Palloni, "Persistent Marriage Regimes in Changing Times," Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 66, pp. 1201-1213 (December 2004), p. 1208 (citation omitted).
31. Elizabeth Fussell and Alberto Palloni, "Persistent Marriage Regimes in Changing Times," Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 66, pp. 1201-1213 (December 2004), p. 1209.
32. Elizabeth Fussell and Alberto Palloni, "Persistent Marriage Regimes in Changing Times," Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 66, pp. 1201-1213 (December 2004), p. 1209 (citation omitted).
35. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 4-5. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
36. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 4-5. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
38. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 4-5. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
39. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 4-5. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
40. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 4-5. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
6. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
7. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
10. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 4-5. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
11. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 4-5. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
12. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 4-5. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
16. Tavia Simmons and Grace O'Neill, Households and Families: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-8. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2001), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf
25. Godfrey St. Bernard, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central America and the Caribbean," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 23, 2003), p. 17. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbernard.pdf and Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbtables.pdf
28. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 10 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
30. Godfrey St. Bernard, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central America and the Caribbean," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 23, 2003), p. 18. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbernard.pdf and Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbtables.pdf
31. Godfrey St. Bernard, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central America and the Caribbean," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 23, 2003), pp. 17-18 (citation omitted). Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbernard.pdf and Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbtables.pdf
63. Anne R. Roschelle, Maura I. Toro-Morn, Elisa Facio, "Families in Cuba: From Colonialism to Revolution," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 414-439 (2005), pp. 425-426. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
70. Anne R. Roschelle, Maura I. Toro-Morn, Elisa Facio, "Families in Cuba: From Colonialism to Revolution," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 414-439 (2005), pp. 425-426. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
71. According to a survey. Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 9. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
92. Anne R. Roschelle, Maura I. Toro-Morn, Elisa Facio, "Families in Cuba: From Colonialism to Revolution," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 414-439 (2005), pp. 425-426. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
54. Source for text: Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2002), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf Source of Chart: Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
33. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 29 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
34. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 29 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
35. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 29 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
36. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 29 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
55. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
79. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 15. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
80. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 15. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
12. Anne R. Roschelle, Maura I. Toro-Morn, Elisa Facio, "Families in Cuba: From Colonialism to Revolution," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 414-439 (2005), pp. 425-426. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
29. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
14. Anne R. Roschelle, Maura I. Toro-Morn, Elisa Facio, "Families in Cuba: From Colonialism to Revolution," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 414-439 (2005), p. 426 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
15. Anne R. Roschelle, Maura I. Toro-Morn, Elisa Facio, "Families in Cuba: From Colonialism to Revolution," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 414-439 (2005), p. 426 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
36. Godfrey St. Bernard, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central America and the Caribbean," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 23, 2003), p. 11. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbernard.pdf and Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbtables.pdf
37. Godfrey St. Bernard, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central America and the Caribbean," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 23, 2003), p. 11. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbernard.pdf and Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbtables.pdf
54. Elizabeth Jelin, "The Family in Argentina: Modernity, Economic Crisis, and Politics," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 391-413 (2005). pp. 394, 404. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
Sherri Grasmuck, "Gender, Households and Informal Entrepreneurship in the Dominican Republic," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 1997). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:20355395
Sherri Grasmuck, "Gender, Households and Informal Entrepreneurship in the Dominican Republic," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 1997). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:20355395
Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 22, Table 2. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 22, Table 2. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 22, Table 2. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 22, Table 2. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 22, Table 2. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 22, Table 2. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
7. Winston Seegobin, "Caribbean Families," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Ponzetti, James J. (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA (2002), p. 209. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
8. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
37. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 14 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
38. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 15. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
62. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 15 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
90. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 4 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
93. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 4 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
20. A.R. Colón with P.A. Colón, A History of Children: A Socio-cultural Survey Across Millennia, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT (2001), p. 164 (endnotes omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0313315744/qid=1123775672/sr=8-2/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i2_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
21. A.R. Colón with P.A. Colón, A History of Children: A Socio-cultural Survey Across Millennia, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT (2001), p. 166. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0313315744/qid=1123775672/sr=8-2/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i2_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
43. Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856
17. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 6. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
18. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 6. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
35. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 7. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
36. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 7. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
37. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 7. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
38. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 7. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
39. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 7. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
40. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 7. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
41. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 7. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
42. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 7. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
69. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 6. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
70. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) pp. 4-5. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
71. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 20. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
72. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 20. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
73. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) pp. 20-21. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
28. Sherri Grasmuck, "Gender, Households and Informal Entrepreneurship in the Dominican Republic," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 1997) (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:20355395
20. Source of Data: Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision. Accessed at: http://esa.un.org/unpp on November 9, 2005.
22. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
34. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
35. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
36. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
37. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
38. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
39. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
40. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
41. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
42. Godfrey St. Bernard, "Table 9: Percentage of Population Living In Urban Areas – Central America and the Caribbean," Major Trends Affecting Families in Central America and the Caribbean," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 23, 2003)(citation omitted). Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbtables.pdf
43. Godfrey St. Bernard, "Table 9: Percentage of Population Living In Urban Areas – Central America and the Caribbean," Major Trends Affecting Families in Central America and the Caribbean," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 23, 2003)(citation omitted). Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbtables.pdf
28. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 9. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
29. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 4. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
57. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 19. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
75. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) pp. 18-19. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
79. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 19. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
138. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 17 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 50. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
139. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 17 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 50. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
140. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 17 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 50. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
142. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 17 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 50. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
143. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 21 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf and Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 24 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
144. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 20. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
145. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 23 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
146. Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 52. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
150. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 17. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf and Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 50. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
154. See Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 19 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf;
155. See Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 19 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf; Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf; relating to language acquisition of emigrants in the U.S. and their educational attainment, see Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf and A. Dianne Schmidley and Campbell Gibson, Profile of the Foreign-Born Population in the United States: 1997, U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, Series P23-195, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1999). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/99pubs/p23-195.pdf and personal observations of Ashley Merryman.
164. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) pp. 17-18. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
166. Amount in U.S. Dollars, according to a study. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 18 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
167. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) pp. 17-18 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
168. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) pp. 17-18. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
45. Based on a 1995 survey of women 15 years old and over. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 90 (citation omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
46. Based on a 1993 survey of women. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 90 (citation omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
47. Based on a 1982 survey of women 18 and over. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 90 (citation omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
48. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 13-14 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
49. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 14 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
50. According to a study. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 14 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
51. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
54. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 94 (citations omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
55. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 94 (citations omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
56. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 94 (citation omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
58. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 94 (citations omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
41. ________, "First Chileans File For Divorce," Associated Press, CBSNews.com (November 18, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/November 18/world/main656528.shtml on August 13, 2005.
42. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 7, note 4. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
7. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 21. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
68. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf