Hispanic-American Families
 
Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 6
 
TOPICS COVERED: This is a brief overview of key facts we've collected on Hispanics living in the United States, including information about their growing numbers, immigration, education and income, as well as family structure. But we have much, much more elsewhere in The Factbook.
 
 
This information duplicates items from the rest of The Factbook. However, numbers don't mean much without a comparison to family life in other contexts. And that is why we may have included a lot of information on certain issues, but it seems like we have less regional information for others. Actually, that isn't the case – we just chose what were for us notable commonalities or exceptions, cross-culturally. For further information, see the studies we've referenced in the footnotes: they probably have any additional information you might need.
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 
 
According to the U.S. federal government, "Hispanic" or "Latino" identifies someone as a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin. Therefore, it's an ethnic identification – not a racial one – so Hispanics can be of any race. 1.
 
 
 
35.2 million
Number of Hispanics in the U.S. as of 2000. That’s 12.5 percent of the total population – a 61 percent increase since 1990. Among the Hispanic or Latino groups, Mexicans were the largest with 20.9 million [59.3 percent]. 2.
 
 
 
39.9 million
Number of Hispanics in the U.S. as of July 1, 2003 – about one-half of the population's growth since 2000. 3.
 
 
 
13 percent
The growth in the Hispanic population since 2000 – while the total U.S. population only increased 3.3. percent. 4.
 
 
 
40 percent
of Hispanics in the U.S. were foreign born. About 71 percent – 7 out of every 10 Hispanics residing in the United States – were either native or naturalized citizens, compared with 93.4 percent – over 9 out of every 10 people – in the total population. 5.
 
 
 
Between 1990 and 2000 –
About 46 percent of foreign-born – or 2 out of 5 – Hispanics entered the United States between 1990 and 2000. 6.
 
 
 
20.9 million
Number of Mexicans in the U.S. as of 2000 – making them more than half of all U.S. Hispanics (59.3 percent). 7.
 
 
 
Over 300,000
The average net number of those who immigrated from Mexico every year from 1995-2000. During the same period, the average annual net out-migration was 30,000 in Guatemala, 12,000 in Nicaragua, and 8,000 in El Salvador. 8.
 
 
 
Almost US $7 billion
The amount that, upon his election in 2000, Mexican President Vicente Fox said Mexicans in the United States remitted annually to their families in Mexico. 9.
 
 
 
$34,241 –
Median household income for U.S. Hispanics in 2004 – which was just 70 percent of the median for non-Hispanic White households ($48,977).10.
 
 
 
$21,600
The median income for a Hispanic woman in the U.S., compared to the national median of $27,200. 11.
 
 
 
$25,400
The median income for a Hispanic man in the U.S., compared to the national median of $37,100. 12.
 
 
 
$34,000
The median income for a U.S. Hispanic family in 1999. 13.
 
 
 
14.6 percent
of Hispanic men in the U.S. are in management, professional, and related occupations, behind the U.S. total population (31.4 percent). 14.
 
 
 
22.9 percent
of Hispanic women in the U.S. are in management, professional, and related occupations, behind the U.S. national rate (36.2 percent). 15.
 
 
 
52 percent
of the U.S. Hispanic population aged 25 and over have at least a high school diploma – significantly less than the overall national rate of 80.4 percent having completed high school. Of the largest Hispanic group, Mexicans, only 45.8 percent of the 20.9 million had at least a high school diploma, and just 7.5 percent had a Bachelor’s degree or higher. 16.
 
 
 
Approximately one in 10
of the U.S. Hispanic population have a bachelor’s degree or higher (10 percent) – less than half of the national rate of 24.4 percent. Of the largest Hispanic group, Mexicans, just 7.5 percent had a Bachelor’s degree or higher. 17.
 
 
 
Over 75 percent
of [U.S.]Hispanics speak a language other than English at home. Almost all of them - 99 percent – speak Spanish. 18.
 
 
 
9.1 million
Hispanics in the U.S. are in poverty. 19.
 
 
 
22.6 percent
of the Hispanic population in the United States was in poverty in 1999, compared with 12.4 percent for the total population. Among Latino groups, the poverty rate ranged from a high of 27.5 percent among Dominicans to lows of 14.6 percent for Cubans and 12.8 percent for Spaniards. 20.
 
 
 
27.8 percent
of Hispanics under 18 years of age were in poverty in 1999. Young Hispanics were more likely to live in poverty in 1999 than all those in the U.S. under 18 —over 1 in 4 [27.8 percent] compared with 1 in 6 [16.6 percent]. About 1 in 3 Dominicans and Puerto Ricans under 18 lived below the poverty level in 1999. 21.
 
 
 
19.6 percent
of the Hispanic population 65 years and over was in poverty in 1999 – compared with 9.9 percent of the total older population. 28.6 percent of Dominicans over the age of 65 were in poverty, while the rate fell to 16.4 percent for South Americans and 12.0 percent for Spaniards. 22.
 
 
 
54 percent
of Hispanics in the U.S. are renters, compared with the national average of 34 percent. 23.
 
 
 
Hispanic Female-Householders –

Between 1850 and 1880, between 25 and 38 percent of Spanish-surnamed households in Los Angeles, California, Santa Fe, New Mexico, and Tucson, Arizona were headed by women – when just four to nine percent of White Non-Hispanic households had a female head. This was due to a high mortality rate for Mexican-American men – twice that of women. 24.
 
In 2000, 17.3 percent of Hispanic households had a female head, compared to 11.8 percent of the total population. 25.

 
 
Hispanic Extended Family Households –

In 1850, due in part to a willingness to care for others' children, 13 percent of Mexican-American households in the urban Southwest were extended-family households – more than twice the rate for White households (5.7 percent). 26.
 
In 2000, eight percent of U.S. Hispanics people age 30 and over live with grandchildren – twice the national rate, but the same percentage as that of American Indians, Alaska natives, and blacks. 27.
 
7.4 percent of Puerto Rico's households in 2000 were multigenerational households. 28.

 
 
55.1 percent
of Hispanics in the U.S. in 2000 married-couple households. 29.
 
 
 
51.3 percent
of Hispanics in the U.S. who are married, slightly less than the national rate of 54.4. percent. 30.
 
 
 
14.1 percent
of Hispanics in the U.S. in 2000 who were separated, widowed, or divorced, less than the national total of 18.5 percent. 31.
 
 
 
Five percent
of Hispanics women are separated. Hispanic women are more likely to remain separated without getting a legal divorce than are women of most other groups. 32.
 
 
 
20 percent of all U.S. births in 2002
were to U.S. Hispanic women. 33.
 
 
 
Out of the U.S. women 40 to 44 years old in 2002, only Hispanic women – with an average of 2.4 births per woman – had more than the level required for the natural replacement of the population – about 2.1 births per woman. 34.
 
 
 
36 percent
of births to U.S. Hispanic women in 2002 were out of wedlock, compared to 25 percent for non-Hispanic White women. 35.
 
 
____________________________________________________
 
 
1. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
2. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 1, 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
3. ________, "Hispanic and Asian Americans Increasing Faster Than Overall Population," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. Accessed at: (June 14, 2004) on August 15, 2005. http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/race/001839.html
4. ________, "Hispanic and Asian Americans Increasing Faster Than Overall Population," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. Accessed at: (June 14, 2004) on August 15, 2005. http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/race/001839.html
5. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
6. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
7. Roberto R. Ramirez, , We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 1, 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
8. Godfrey St. Bernard, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central America and the Caribbean," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 23, 2003), p. 13. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbernard.pdf and Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbtables.pdf
9. Godfrey St. Bernard, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central America and the Caribbean," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 23, 2003), p. 15. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbernard.pdf and Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbtables.pdf
10. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
11. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 15. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
12. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 15. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
13. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
14. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 13. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
15. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 13. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
16. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 1, 11. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
17. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 1, 11. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
18. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
19. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 11. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
20. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 16. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
21. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 16. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
22. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 17. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
23. ________, "Family Structures," Encyclopedia of American Social History. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, Reproduced in the History Resource Center, Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. Archived at: http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC Document No. BT2313027032 (1993).
24. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
25. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
26. ________, "Family Structures," Encyclopedia of American Social History. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, Reproduced in the History Resource Center, Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. Archived at: http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC Document No. BT2313027032 (1993).
27. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2004: Sept. 12," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 8, 2004) (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/002319.html
28. Tavia Simmons, and Grace O'Neill, Households and Families: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-8. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2001), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf
29. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
30. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 6. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
31. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 6. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
32. Rose M. Kreider, Marital Status: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR-30. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 24 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/c2kbr-30.pdf
33. ________, "Percentage of Childless Women 40 to 44 Years Old Increases Since 1976, Census Bureau Reports," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 23, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/fertility/001491.html on August 15, 2005.
34. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
35. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf