Europe (Part One)
 
Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 30+
 
 
This information duplicates items from the rest of The Factbook, selecting only those items that relate to Europe. However, numbers don't mean much without a comparison to family life in other continents. And that is why we may have included a lot of information on certain issues, but it seems like we have less regional information for others. Actually, that isn't the case – we just chose what were for us notable commonalities or exceptions, cross-culturally. For further information about a particular region, see the regional studies we've referenced in the footnotes: they probably have any additional information you might need on a particular country or region.
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 
 

COUPLES OR HOUSEHOLD HEADS ON THEIR OWN?

 
 
 
86 percent
of families in the United Kingdom are "nuclear families." 15.
 
 
 
 

EXTENDED FAMILY HOUSEHOLDS

 
 
 
 
One in five
Czech families live with a second family – either parents, relatives or non-relatives. For half of them, it isn't by choice. It's a severe housing shortage. 3.
 
 
 
 
One percent
of households in the U.K. were extended family households in 1998. 5.
 
 
 
 

MULTIGENERATIONAL HOUSEHOLDS

 
 
 
 
Just one percent
of U.K households contain three-generation households. As of 2001 – an estimated 1 percent of all households in spring 2001. 23.
 
 
 
Four to five percent
of Germans live in a three-generation household, if it is defined as a single dwelling. If, however, the definition is under the same roof, but not the same dwelling, but if we the number doubles to about 11–12 percent. 24.
 
 
 
In Greece, the proportion of the elderly population who live in their son’s or daughter’s home is still very high compared to the EU average or even to other European nations known to have strong family ties. Nevertheless, it's still on the decline. 27.
 
 
 
 

THEORIES AND RESPONSES TO WHY WOMEN DELAY
HAVING CHILDREN AND HAVE FEWER OF THEM

 
 
 
"Kinder statt Inder"
Roughly translated as, "Children, not Indians," "Kinder statt Inder" is the name of the contentious German campaign encouraging native Germany citizens have children to provide for its future work force, rather than relying on a supply of Indian immigrants. Germany is not alone in struggling with whether immigration will have to be the answer to its shrinking population. Conversely, experts warns that efforts like that are just examples of the political struggles that are yet to come in all of the more developed nations. Ironically, there would probably a similar controversy in the U.S., but the fact that its fertility rate is falling is masked by the influx of young immigrants who have larger families. And, therefore, the political issue in the U.S. that draws all of the attention is immigration – not the fact that these immigrants are propping up the native-born populations' decreasing birth rates. 15.
 
 
 

FERTILITY RATE

 
 
In 49 developing countries around the world, the women of childbearing age today are having half as many children as their mothers had. In another 72 developing nations, their fertility rates have decreased by 20 percent in the past 30 years. 16.
 
 
 
Not one
of the 42 countries of Europe has a fertility rates above replacement level of 2.1 children per woman. And 24 of the countries have fertility levels of 1.5 or even lower. 24.
 
 
 
"Too Low"
39 European governments' self-critical assessment by their own nations' fertility rates. 25.
 
 
 
In 24 European countries,

one generation will only be replaced by two-thirds as many people or less. 26.

and they have fertility levels of 1.5 or even lower. 27.

 
 
0.72
An estimate on the lowest the fertility rate can go. That’s an estimate that would mean 20-30 percent of women are permanently childless, and those who have children only have one child. 28.
 
 
 
0.77
Lowest fertility rate observed: Eastern Germany in 1994. Close behind, 0.80 for the Italian province of Ferrara. 29.
 
 
 
Spain, Bulgaria, Latvia –
Countries with the lowest national fertility rate in the world in 2001 – 1.1. 32.
 
 
Below One –
The fertility rate in some Italian regions. 33.
 
 
 
In Portugal, fertility rates from 3.0 in 1970 to 1.6 in 1990, but it remained comparatively stable in the 1990s: 1.5 in 1993, 1.4 in 1996, 1.5 in 1999. 34.
 
 
 
In 2000, fewer children were born in Finland than in any other of the past 70 years. Although its fertility rate is relatively high compared to most other European countries, it is slowly declining – from 48.5 per 1,000 women to 47.3 in 1999. 35.
 
 
Around 1.4
Germany's fertility rate. 36.
 
 
 
1.5
Total fertility rate in Sweden in late 1990s-2000. 48.
 
 
 
1.89
Total fertility rate in Ireland at the turn of the Twenty-First Century. There has been, however a slight increase in births by childless women (and a decrease in additional births by women who already have children) in recent years. 49.
 
 
 

FAMILY SIZE AND CHILDLESSNESS

 
 
 
 
Almost One-Third
of women and men born after 1960 in Western Germany are expected to be permanently childless. 57.
 
 
 

UNMARRIED MOTHERS

 
 
 
 
Shotgun wedding, anyone?

Nine out of Ten
children were born to married parents in 1980s Czechoslovakia. 60.
 
 
But, for first children,
half of those Czech babies were born in the 1980s, were born less than eight months after the wedding. 61.
 

 
58 percent
of young women in Sweden were cohabiting at the birth of their first child. 71.
 
 
 
One-fourth
of unmarried mothers giving birth in the Czech Republic were divorced women. 72.
 
 
 
25 percent
of Czech births in 2002 were to unmarried mothers, a five-fold increase since 1975. The number of pregnant brides has dropped by a fifth in the past decade, but that isn't because of a drop in unmarried pregnancies, but because societal pressure has lessened; being unmarried with children is more acceptable now. 73.
 
 
 
11 percent
of Czech births in 2002 were to unmarried mothers who had university degrees, while 70 percent of unmarried mothers had just an elementary education. 74.
 
 
 

DELAYING HAVING CHILDREN

 
 
 
28 years old
the median age at first birth for women in Sweden. 81.
 
 
 
25 to 29 years old –
the current age for a woman's first birth in Western Europe, but most couples have their last child before 35 years of age." 82.
 
 
 
by before 35 years old –
Despite the late start, most Western European couples have their last child before 35 years of age. 83.
 
 

POPULATION – INTERNATIONAL DEMOGRAPHICS

 
 
 
 
Two-thirds As Many People
Because of dramatically falling birth rates, in 24 European countries, one generation will be replaced by two-thirds as many people – or less. 51.
 
 
 
 
 
 
65.

 
 

Aging – Internationally

 
 
 
2.5 months every year –
what the population of the European Union ages every year — two years each decade. And this trend is likely to continue well into the next century. The proportion of the population below age 20 is likely to decline further from more than 23 percent to 19 percent, while the proportion above age 60 will increase from 21 percent to 34 percent. Simultaneously, the mean age of the European population, presently at around 39 years, is likely to reach 45 years by the year 2030. 7.
 
 
 
 
45 years old
what the mean age of the European population will be by the year 2030 – an increase by six years from 2000's mean age of 39. 8.
 
 
 
1996
The year in which Italy became the first and only country in the world in which the number of older people exceeded that of the young. 18.
 
 
 
About 53 percent
of Austria's public who believe that the elderly should "renounce their rights and interests and to make way for young people." That is 18 percent higher a response than was surveyed in 1989. 19.
 
 
 
1.2 million
The increase in the number of those living in France who are now 60 years old or older in just nine years – 1990 to 1999. 12.5 million are now at least 60. 4.5 million are over 75. 20.
 
 
 
 

THE ECONOMICS OF AGING

 
 
 
Almost one in four
elderly people in Spain are financially helping out their children or other relatives. 45.
 
 
 
2.7 percent
of elderly people in Spain are financially depending on their children or others. 46.
 
 
 
14.5 percent
of the elderly in Spain live below the poverty line – which is less than the proportion who live in poverty for all other Spanish age groups. 47.
 
 
 

CAREGIVING FOR THE AGING

 

Who Should Be Responsible for the Elderly? Living With The Kids?

 
 
 
Who Should Be Responsible for the Elderly?
 
 
 
37 percent
of those surveyed in the European Union, who – when asked, “Who has to bear the burden of looking after dependent old people?” answered "their children." 49.
 
 
 
48 percent
of Italians who – when asked, “Who has to bear the burden of looking after dependent old people?”answered "their children." 50.
 
 
 
Over 60 percent
of those in Greece, Spain and Portugal – when asked, “Who has to bear the burden of looking after dependent old people?”answered "their children." 51.
 
 
 
Two percent
of Italians surveyed think elderly parents should be cared for in an old folk’s home. 52.
 
 
 
12.6 percent
is the average in the European Union of those who think elderly parents should be cared for in an old folk’s home. 53.
 
 
 
Adult children and others
were traditionally solely responsible for the elderly of Italy. But families are increasingly relying on paid care and assistance. The number of families getting help with care of an elderly relative –both informally and formally – at least once grew by almost ten percent between 1983 and 1998. 54.
 
 
 
 
 
Living With The Kids?
 
 
 
 
 
25 percent
of the elderly surveyed in Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Great Britain, and the Netherlands, said that they'd rather live with their children than have any other arrangement. 58.
 
 
 
74 percent
of the elderly surveyed in Spain, Portugal, and Italy, said that they'd rather live with their children than have any other arrangement. 59.
 
 
 
91 percent
of elderly surveyed in Greece said that they'd rather live with their children than have any other arrangement. 60.
 
 
 
More than half
of the people in France who live alone are 60 years old or older. 65.
 
 
 
80+ and still on their own –

– in France – 40 percent are living alone. 66.
 
–and in Spain. In the past 20 years, the percentage of those over 80 and living with their children has dropped. Men are living with a partner; women are living by themselves. 67.

 
 
But they're still in regular contact –
The majority of Spanish elderly and their children are still in regular contact: it's a social and familial obligation expected both by society and the family members themselves. 68.
 
 
 
 

ELDERS AT RISK

 
 
 
 
"Granny Battering"
the term in British scientific journals first used to describe elder abuse. 74.
 
 

FACTS ABOUT FATHERS AND SONS

 
 
 
 
 
New Man of the Year, 2001

a regional government prize awarded in Belgium, praising a husband’s performance in running the household so that his wife may advance her career.  This arose out of attempts to public relations campaigns asking, “The new man? Does he exist or not?” which focused on the relationship of the man to his spouse, as supposed to the 1980s-1990s campaigns for “the new father” and “new fatherhood.” 8.
 
 
Despite the social campaigns arguing otherwise, Belgian fathers still see their role in the family as the breadwinner – even though less than 25 percent of couples in Belgium actually follow that traditional model. 9.
 
And while Belgian fathers are becoming more emotionally involved and expressive with their children, only a minority are actually take an equal or more share in actually raising the child. 10.

 
 
 

GRANDPARENTS – DEMOGRAPHICS AND ROLES

 
 
 
47.5 percent
of Finnish children born in 1998 had all four of their grandparents still alive at their birth. 6.
 
 
 
12.5 percent
of Finnish teenagers in 1998 had still had all of their grandparents; 15.6 percent of them had no surviving grandparents. 7.
 
 
 
 
75 percent
of Austrian men and women over 60 have a grandchild. 16 percent of the men and 23 percent of the women are great-grandparents. 25.
 
 
 
90 percent
of all pre-school children in Austria have at least one living grandparent, and 45 percent have four grandparents. Children are on average 11 years old when their grandfather dies, and 23 years old when their grandmother dies. Of all people aged 60 to 74, 62 percent have at least one grandchild. 26.
 
 
 
"Very Close"
In an Austrian survey, three out of four grandparents reported that they were very close to their grandchildren. Another 12 percent were "quite close." Only five percent thought that they weren't close with them. 27.
 
 
 
Good News -
British grandparents have an important role in their grandchildren's lives – which continues even if the parents separate or divorce. And grandmothers' ties may be important help for children going through such a transition. 28.
 
 
 
– and Bad News
A substantial minority of young British grandmothers (those under 54 years old) struggle between having their own careers and caring for other family members. It's particularly difficult since British grandparents see providing at least occasional child-care as part of their role as a grandparent. 29.
 
 
 

GRANDPARENTS – AS CHILD CARE PROVIDERS

 
 
 
 
Important –
Grandparents are an important source of childcare for working parents in the U.K. 31.
 
 
 
31 percent
of parents in Ireland rely on non-paid relatives – mostly grandparents – for child care. 32.
 
 
 
46 percent
of Spanish maternal grandmothers who live in the same city as their preschool grandchildren care for the children while their mother is at work. 33.
 
 
 
38 percent
of Spanish maternal grandmothers who live in the same city as their school-age grandchildren care for the children after school. 34.
 
 
 
Very Important –
In Spain, while it isn't regularly acknowledged, grandparent-provided child care has been one of the main reasons that women have been able to enter the work force in such large numbers in the past few decades. Without it, it likely would not have occurred. 35.
 
 
 
Becoming less available –
Fewer grandmothers in Greece can be a regular source of child care for working parents: grandparents can't watch the children because more of them are working, or live too far away to help out. 36.
 
 
 
 

GRANDPARENTS – RAISING THE GRANDKIDS

 
 
 
 
It's Because of A Crisis

– A British government report found that when grandparents assume full responsibility for raising a grandchild, it's usually the result of a family crisis. 38.
 
 
 

STEPFAMILIES

 
 
Six percent
of all families with dependent children in the U.K. are stepfamilies – most of which include a mother and her biological children, since mothers are usually the custodial parent. 25.
 
 
 

SINGLE PARENT FAMILIES DEMOGRAPHICS

 
 
 
" [S]ociological studies show that, at least in some [Western European] countries . . . single motherhood is only a temporary, transitional stage in the union formation. Many unmarried mothers, in other words, are not necessarily to be considered as lone parents. Single motherhood by choice, more particularly among older, better-educated, working women, also seems to be on the rise . . . , but this phenomenon is not yet well documented. Contrary to all the former categories of one-parent families, widowed lone-parent families are, as a result of decreases in mortality, strongly declining." 1.
 
 
 
"As the divorce rate soared after 1960, three other major trends started to emerge that were part of the 20th century's transformation in pair-bonding in the Western world: the rate of marriage decreased, while the rates of cohabitation without marriage and nonmarital births increased. . . . This nonmarital birthrate increase is particularly impressive because it occurred at the same time that women in the West had more contraceptive choice than ever before in the history of the human species." 2.
 
 
 
 
In the U.S. and Western Europe, "It is likely that the frequency of one-parent families, at least as a transitional family stage in the life course, will increase or remain high. These families are highly vulnerable, since most are headed by women, whose social position is still relatively weaker than that of men. These women have to cope with the existing incompatibilities between gainful employment and family life, especially child care." 4.
 
 
 
13 percent
of all British families that were lone-parent families, compared to British-Caribbean households of which were 42 percent were lone-parent, British Indians’s 9 percent , British Pakistanis’ 12 percent , and British Bangladeshis’ 13 percent. 13.
 
 
 
In the U.K., in 2001, "Clause 108 of the Bill has also changed the law in relation to the rights of unmarried fathers. Registration as the father of a child will now grant full parental responsibility, with associated rights to be involved in decisions about the child’s education, health or even living arrangements." 14.
 
 
 
Nine percent
of all lone mothers in Britain between 1991-1993 who continued to live with their parents. 16 percent of never-married mothers continued to live with their parents. 15.
 
 
 
30 percent
of all Spanish lone mothers, in 1991, (independent of their marital status) with children under age 18 coresided with their own mothers, as did slightly less than half of all mothers with children under six. 16.
 
 
 
10 percent
of households in the U.K. were single-parent families in 1998. 31.
 
 
 
11 percent
of households in Ireland contain single parents with children. 33.
 
 
 
"In 1990/91 lone-parent families represented 8.6 percent of all families with children under 18 years of age in Spain, in contrast to 11.9 percent in France, 15.7 percent in Germany, 16.8 percent in Canada, 18.1 percent in the Netherlands, 22.0 percent in Denmark, 22.3 percent in Sweden, and 23.5 percent in the United States." 38.
 
 
 
 

SINGLE PARENT FAMILY EFFECTS AND ECONOMICS

 
 
 
 
" . . . over half (63 percent) of all [U.K.] lone parents live in poverty. In fact, the government presents the increase in the number of these families, which has taken place over the past 20 years, as one of the major reasons for the growth in child poverty." 52.
 
 
 
63 percent
of U.K. lone parents live in poverty. The British government believes that the increase in single parent households over the past 20 years has been one of the major reasons for the growth in child poverty. 53.
 
 
 
45 percent
of poor children in the U.K. live in a one parent family. 54.
 
 
 
40.3 percent
of British children living with a single mother lived in poverty in 1995, compared to 17.5 percent of those living in a two-parent family. 55.
 
 
 
In the U.K., "data concerning household expenditure shows that the average weekly spending by lone parent families is less than half of the amount spent by two-parent households, and even lower than some pensioner couples. And, it seems that although they are more likely to spend a greater proportion of their income on food than higher income families, the actual amount is far less in real terms." 56.
 
 
 
In the U.K., "Lone parents are the family type at greatest risk of poverty, and figures for 1997/98 show that while only 8 percent of the total population were members of this type of family, they made up 14 percent of households with below half-average income. More recent statistics suggest that the relationship between poverty and lone parenthood remains strong, because nearly half (45 percent ) of poor children live in a one parent family, and over half (63 percent ) of all lone parents live in poverty. In fact, the government presents the increase in the number of these families, which has taken place over the past 20 years, as one of the major reasons for the growth in child poverty." 57.
 
 
 
Less than half
in the U.K., "the average weekly spending by lone parent families is less than half of the amount spent by two-parent households, and even lower than some pensioner couples. And, it seems that although they are more likely to spend a greater proportion of their income on food than higher income families, the actual amount is far less in real terms." 58.
 
 
 
14 percent
British households of single parent families had incomes that were below half-the average income. That is almost twice the rate of the total population (eight percent). 59.
 
 
 
47 percent
of British single mothers were employed in the mid 1990s. 60.
 
 
 
42 percent
of British single mothers were employed in the end of the 1970s. 61.
 
 
 
In the U.K., "the proportion of employed lone mothers actually fell between the end of the 1970s and the mid 1990s (from 47 percent to 42 percent ), and although there has been some increase more recently, the majority of these women still do not work outside the home." 62.
 
 
 
In the U.K., "These researchers argued that the main ‘barrier’ to employment for mothers continues to be the lack of affordable, good quality childcare in the UK, and that this had a significant impact on their choices. Furthermore, a report from the Daycare Trust also highlighted how the cost and shortage of childcare restricts employment options for many women, and especially those from minority ethnic backgrounds, lone mothers, the less well qualified and mothers of disabled children." 63.
 
 
 
"In the ECHP [European Community Household Panel], the poverty line is considered to be 60 percent of the METI [household total mean income]. In Spain, 19 percent of all persons are below this line. However, the proportion is 33 percent among those living in a household formed by a single parent with dependent children, and 28 percent in those with two adults and three or more dependent children. If the incidence of poverty is close to average, the financial situation of Spanish households is well below the average for the countries studied in the ECHP, with 67 percent living in households with difficulties making ends meet – a proportion clearly higher than the average (49 percent ). Another 65 percent live in households unable to save regularly, also above average (59 percent ); and 38 percent live in households that cannot afford three or more basic necessities (average 21 percent )." 64.
 
 
 
In Greece, "single-parent families carry a greater burden in terms of income but not in terms of consumption, probably because of informal support networks." 65.
 
 
 
In Ireland, in 1996. "11 percent of all households consisted of lone parents with children." 66.
 
 
 
47 percent
of single Irish parents of children under five years old were employed in 2001. 67.
 
 
 
Almost 50 percent
of single parents in Finland work. 69.
 
 
 
In Finland, "In 1998, every second child had two working parents, though the mothers tended to regulate their working time according to their children's age. When the youngest child was under three, only 45 percent of the mothers worked." 70.
 
 
 
31.0 percent
of Russian children living with a single mother lived in poverty in 1995, compared to 26.0 percent of those living in a two-parent family. 71.
 
 
 
25.4 percent
of French children living with a single mother lived in poverty in 1989, compared to 7.7 percent of those living in a two-parent family. 73.
 
 
 
In Greece, in 1998, "single-parent families carry a greater burden in terms of income but not in terms of consumption, probably because of informal support networks." 74.
 
 
 

SAME SEX COUPLES – INTERNATIONALLY

 
 
 
 
1989
The year Denmark established the world's first laws recognizing same-sex unions. Under these laws, which were later adopted in Norway (in 1993) and Sweden (in 1994) gays were entitled to the same legal protections as married couples with three exceptions:
1. There would be no official marriage of the couple.
2. The couple could not be the parents of the same child.
3. The couple could not adopt. (Recently, however, the law has been changed to allow same-sex couples to adopt.). 48.
 
 
 
2001
The year the U.K. Parliament granted a cross-party amendment agreed to grant gay partners the right to make a joint adoption application. 49.
 
 
 
2001
The year in Portugal that granted some rights to same-sex unions, but excludes in those new rights the right to adoption. 50.
 
 
 
2000
The year Belgium began to have legalized partnerships for gays. 51
 
 
 
June 1, 2003
The date Belgian law legalizing same-sex marriages became effective. The law allows Belgian gay couples to enter into the existing legal form of marriage with two notable exceptions:
1) in the event of a same-sex spouses, the surviving spouse does not automatically get custody of the decendent spouse's children and
2) they are not allowed to adopt. 52.

 
 
June 6, 2003
The date that the first same-sex couple married in Antwerp, Belgium. 53.
 
 
 

IS FAMILY IMPORTANT?

 
 
 
 
"As a rule, in Italy the family is firmly at centre stage. The use of private services to assist with housework and care does not show any particular signs of change as compared to the past. Care of the house, children and elderly continue to be almost exclusively women’s responsibility. The differences with respect to the other European countries emerge clearly from a recent Eurobarometer survey." 5.
 
 
 
"The importance of the family has never been questioned in Germany. However, the appreciation of the work involved in raising a family and the importance of families as an investment into the future only became focal issues in the course of the discussion on the potential labour shortage. Family associations and those representing families feel some uneasiness over the fact that the family only received the recognition it deserves by virtue of its role in the production process–thus a back-door entry at best, without any recognition in its own right. However, the current acknowledgement of the family’s importance is indeed noteworthy. It constitutes a favourable prerequisite for creating a good and lasting basis for children, women and families–and for not blocking the way into a future that must offer children and adolescents stable conditions for growing up." 6.
 
 
 
"The geography of families in the central and northern parts of Europe and the communities in North America are characterized by relatively weak family ties. In contrast, families from the Mediterranean region possess stronger family bonds, as evidenced by the care they render to aged or weak members of society. There are strong evidences which indicate that these differences have extensive historical causes, which may likely have characterized European families for several centuries." 7.
 
 
 
"In weak-family areas, the value attributed to the individual and to individualism tends to predominate. Young adults leave home, encouraged by their parents, so as to acquire the experiences they need to handle life as autonomous individuals. Leaving home at an early age is considered an important part of their education. Where the strong family flourishes, the familial group more than the individual tends to predominate in the socialization of the young. In these contexts, the family is seen as defending its members against the difficulties imposed by social and economic realities. A child receives support and protection until he or she leaves home for good, normally for marriage, and even later." 8.
 
 
 
"Loneliness is one of the most important social problems in weak-family societies. I refer to the loneliness of the individual who must confront the world and his own life without the safety net of familial support so characteristic of strong-family regions. Suicide, often an indirect consequence of loneliness, tends to be far higher in northern Europe and the United States than it is in southern Europe. The effects of loneliness are compensated in weak-family societies by a strong tradition of civic association, where people form groups, clubs, and societies for the most varied purposes. The number and variety of these associations in England or the [U]nited States would be unimaginable for a citizen of southern Europe." 9.
 
 
 
 

DOES LIVING NEAR BY MEAN YOU'RE CLOSE?: FAMILY PROXIMITY AND CONTACTS

 
 
 
 
58 percent
of Italian men call their mother every day. 22.
 
 
 
65 percent
of Italian women call their mother every day. 23.
 
 
 
43 percent
of all Italian married couples under 65 years old live within one kilometer of either the husband's or wife's parents. 24.
 
 
 
One-half
of Czech newlywed couples live within the same city or town as their parents – an average distance being about 30 minutes apart. 25.
 
 
 
87 percent
Austrian grandparents describe their relationship with their grandchildren as either "very close" or "quite close." 31.
 
 
 
Mostly good to very good
How both Austrian children and their parents rate their parent-child relationship. But the parents seem to rate that relationship more favorable than their kids do. 32.
 
 
 
It's not a sense of obligation, exactly, it seems to be more paying the Piper, but in a good way . . . sorta . . . .
In Austria, parents who spent a lot of time with their children when they were young, are much more likely to have those now adult children spend a lot of time with them when they are infirmed – compared those parents who spent less time raising their children. And for parents who didn't spend that much time with their children when they were young – well, only 27 percent of them can expect anything more than just a little help from their children now. At least 54 percent of the parents closer to their kids can expect more than that. 33.
 
 
 
64 percent
of elderly in Austria live with or near by their children. 34.
 
 
 
Nearly 90 percent
of Germans aged 18–55 who live within less than one hour’s travel time from two, three- or four-generations of their family. 35.
 
 
 
30 percent
of Germans who live less than 15 minutes distance between three-generations. 36.
 
 
 
Just one percent
of U.K. households are three-generation households in the UK. As of 2001 – an estimated 1 percent of all households in spring 2001. However, research shows that links between the generations remain important, even when families do not actually share the same home. For example, a study which compared data from the International Social Survey Programme in 1986, 1995 and 2001, found that although individuals now have most regular contact with their immediate family, they still keep in regular touch with wider family members. 37.
 
 

WORK-LIFE BALANCE

 
 
 
In Belgium, "New measures tend to take on male-oriented overtones. Currently, the system of parental leave is undergoing reform. In Belgium, parental leave was a special arrangement within a broader context of career interruption. As of 1 January 2002, this system will be discontinued and replaced by a new system involving time credit. This new systems foresees that each employee has the right to take off one year (full-time) (or its equivalent in part-time periods) over the space of the working career."
 
 
 
In Belgium, "Since 1997, the issue of parental leave has taken on new overtones; and the target population has not been exclusively mothers but also fathers. Special arrangements exclusively for fathers were introduced. One example was when a regional government (Brussels) introduced an additional ten days of fatherhood leave for their staff, effective as of 1 January 2002. Across regions, two general tendencies can be identified. First, the amounts received for parental leave tend to be quite substantial. For example, in the non-profit sector, employees can take three months of fatherhood leave and receive an amount of ¤ 927.12 a month as of January 2001. Second, incentives are built in so that the measures attract men as well as women."
 
 
 
In Germany, "To make clear that raising children is also work, the term ‘parental leave’ (Erziehungsurlaub)–which tends to connote ‘vacations’ in German–was substituted by ‘parental time’ (Elternzeit)."
 
 
 
In the Netherlands, "The most prevalent pattern is that of a family where the father is working full-time and the mother is working for an extra income that, in most cases, amounts to a half-time job or less."
 
 
 
27 percent
of working mothers in Spain say that it is the help of their own mothers which is the main reason they can maintain both a family and a career. That's two percent less than say it's their husband are the reason. 14 percent say that it's proximity between work and home. Another 10 percent credit their other family members.
 
 
 
30 million
The increase of the European labor force between 1960 and 1990.
 
 
 
25 million
of those Europeans entering the labor force between 1960 and 1990, 25 million of them were women.
 
 
 
50 percent
of women in Spain 25-49 years old are in the work force. That's the lowest percentage of working women in the European Union.
 
 
 
80 percent
of women in Spain 25-49 years old are in the work force. That's the highest percentage of working women in the European Union.
 
 
 
Two-thirds
of women 25-49 years old in the European Union are working.
 
 
 
Eight percent
of employed women in Greece 25-49 years old are only working part-time.
 
 
 
75 percent
of employed women in the Netherlands 25-49 years old are only working part-time.
 
 
 
10 million
women in the U.K. were working in 1971.
 
 
 
13.2 million
women in the U.K. were working in 2001.
 
 
 
Over half –
of British mothers with preschool children were working in 1997. 18 percent of them were working full time.
 
 
 
Almost one-fifth
of British children live in a household without a working parent.
 
 
 
Three in five
British couples with dependent children are ‘dual-earner’ families – both adults are working.
 
 
 
36 percent
of the British mothers who have partners, do not work. By contrast, 73 percent of British women with partners but without children are employed.
 
 
 
37 percent
of the British mothers who have partners, work but just part-time. By contrast, just 22 percent of British women with partners but without children work part-time.
 
 
 
27 percent
of the British mothers who have partners, work full-time. By contrast, 51 percent of British women with partners but without children are employed full-time.
 
 
 
In Finland, "Because the benefits do not totally compensate for earnings, it is more profitable for the parent with the lower income to stay at home. Most often, this is the mother."
 
 
 
In Germany, "Besides migration, the discussion [on low fertility and the “extinction of the German population] soon focused on the enormous potential of qualified women. If future offers enable them to better reconcile work and family life, they could close the anticipated gap between the supply of and demand for skilled labour."
 
 
 
In Ireland, "For many years the underlying assumption of social welfare and taxation in Ireland was that of a breadwinner father with dependent spouse and children in a lifelong marriage. As the Report states “this is, however, no longer necessarily the norm in Irish society.”
 
 
 
23.1 percent
of women in Portugal worked in 1970.
 
 
 
62.0 percent
of women in Portugal worked in 1998.
 
 
 
68 percent
of couples with at least one dependent child in Portugal were dual-earner families.
 
 
 
70 percent
of women with children in Finland work.
 
 
 
58 percent
of women without children in Finland work.
 
 
 
Every second child –
in Finland had two working parents in 1998. Although fewer mothers of younger children worked.
 
 
 
Almost 50 percent
of Irish mothers with partners work.
 
 
 
74 percent
of new jobs in 1990s Greece were filled by women.
 
 
 
31 percent
of all British women were in the labor force in 1951.
 
 
 
44 percent
of all British women were in the labor force in 1993.
 
 
 
48 hours a week –
the most hours an employer can require an employee to work in the U.K., following a 1998 law meant to acknowledge the need to balance work and family life.
 
 
 
In the U.K., it's the grown-ups who need a note to go leave early –
Beginning in 2003, British parents can make a written request for flexible work scheduling – and their bosses have to explain why such a request isn't granted. And the employee has the right to appeal the decision, even in a tribunal, if necessary.
 
 
 
Over 80 percent
of unmarried women in Spain, aged 25 to 49, are working.
 
 
 
57 percent
of married women in Spain, aged 25 to 49, are working. That is an increase from 42 percent in 1991.
 
 
 
In Spain, "Cultural gender differentiations are gradually vanishing. A clear change in the opinions and attitudes about sharing household tasks has occurred since 1975, when household maintenance was considered to be women’s work. In a recent survey, young people saw sharing domestic tasks as one of the key conditions for a successful partnership. Notwithstanding this tendency, families – especially those with children – tend to reproduce traditional roles, either by preventing married women from working when care obligations are impossible to fulfill with both parents working full-time, or by forcing working mothers to accept strategies involving informal and formal care and lengthy working days without any noticeable support from their husband, except in terms of direct child care. Staying at home is more often the case among women with less education, who at the same time feel less attraction for their job and are less able to afford external help given their small salary. Traditional roles have not changed in the workplace, which is still dominated by the male-breadwinner model; and these roles have not changed much in the family either, the two areas being too closely related."
 
 
 
35-hours –
the number of hours in a French work week since its institution in the year 2000.
 
 
 
57 percent
of French parents with children under the age of six – and one-third of all French parents – think the reduced work week was helping them balance work and family responsibilities, especially child care. But it wasn't just the change in the hours. Analysts think that – without supportive employers and other French benefits (such as parental leave and child care) – the change in hours alone would probably not have had as significant an impact.
 
 
 
Almost half
of French parents with children under 12 years old surveyed responded that they spend more time with their children since the reduction of work hours.
 
 
____________________________________________________
 
 
15. Note that this means that both parents are present; it does not indicate whether or not the couple is married. Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 51. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
3. Ivo Mozny and Tomas Katrnak, "The Czech Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 235-261 (2005), pp. 240. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
23. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
27. Christos Bagavos, The Situation of Families in Greece, 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_greece_bagavos.pdf
15. See, for example, Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf and Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 5. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf and Walter Bien, The Situation of Families in Germany, 2000-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_germany_bien_en.pdf Spain is another European nation already struggling with this issue. Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf
16. _________, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision, Highlights, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations (February 24, 2005), p. 6. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/WPP2004/2004Highlights_finalrevised.pdf
23. Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of Low Fertility and Ageing Prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p. 49. Archived at: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
24. Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), pp. 4-5. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
25. Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of Low Fertility and Ageing Prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p. 49. Archived at: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
26. Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of Low Fertility and Ageing Prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p. 49. Archived at: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
27. Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of Low Fertility and Ageing Prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p.64. Archived at: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
28. Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of Low Fertility and Ageing Prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p. 64. Archived at: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
29. Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of Low Fertility and Ageing Prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p. 64. Archived at: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
30. Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of Low Fertility and Ageing Prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p. 64. Archived at: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
33. Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 3. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
34. Karin Wall, The Situation of Families in Portugal in the Late 1990s, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_portugal_wall_en.pdf
35. Sirpa Taskinen, The Situation of Families in Finland in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_finland_taskinen_en.pdf
36. Walter Bien, The Situation of Families in Germany, 2000-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_germany_bien_en.pdf
48. Eva Bernhardt, The Situation of Families in Sweden in the 1990s, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_sweden_bernhardt_en.pdf
49. Gabriel Kiely, The Situation of Families in Ireland, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_ireland_kiely_en.pdf
50. ________, “More Childless Marriages; Fewer Large Families,” Science News Letter, p. 30 (January 14, 1939).
57. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
60. Ivo Mozny and Tomas Katrnak, "The Czech Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 235-261 (2005), p. 239. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
61. Ivo Mozny and Tomas Katrnak, "The Czech Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 235-261 (2005), pp. 239-240. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
71. According to a survey. Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 9. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
72. Ivo Mozny and Tomas Katrnak, "The Czech Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 235-261 (2005), p. 243. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
73. Ivo Mozny and Tomas Katrnak, "The Czech Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 235-261 (2005), pp. 240, 242. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
74. Ivo Mozny and Tomas Katrnak, "The Czech Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 235-261 (2005), p. 243. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
77. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
78. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
79. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
80. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
81. Eva Bernhardt, The Situation of Families in Sweden in the 1990s, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_sweden_bernhardt_en.pdf
82. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
83. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
51. Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of low fertility and ageing prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p. 49 http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
65. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2002), p. _. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
7. Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of Low Fertility and Ageing Prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p. 49. Archived at: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
8. Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of Low Fertility and Ageing Prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p. 49. Archived at: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
18. _______, "Italy," Flashlights, Family Observer, European Observatory on Family Matters, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, Vienna, Austria, p. 34 (1999). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/fo1_en.pdf
19. Rudolf Richter, "Families in Austria: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 10. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Austria.pdf
20. Claude Martin, "Families in France: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters, (2004), p. 19. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_France.pdf
45. Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 5. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf
46. Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 5. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf
47. Cordón, Juan Antonio Fernández, "Families in Spain: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 7. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Spain.pdf
49. Giovanni B. Sgritta, The Situation of Families in Italy in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_italy_sgritta_en.pdf and Giovanni B. Sgritta, "Families in Italy: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004) (p. 4). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Italy.pdf
50. Giovanni B. Sgritta, The Situation of Families in Italy in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_italy_sgritta_en.pdf and Giovanni B. Sgritta, "Families in Italy: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004) (p. 4). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Italy.pdf
51. Giovanni B. Sgritta, The Situation of Families in Italy in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_italy_sgritta_en.pdf and Giovanni B. Sgritta, "Families in Italy: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004) (p. 4). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Italy.pdf
52. Giovanni B. Sgritta, The Situation of Families in Italy in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_italy_sgritta_en.pdf
53. Giovanni B. Sgritta, The Situation of Families in Italy in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_italy_sgritta_en.pdf
54. Giovanni B. Sgritta, The Situation of Families in Italy in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 4 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_italy_sgritta_en.pdf
55. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
56. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (2002), pp. 129. Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
57. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
58. Christos Bagavos, The Situation of Families in Greece, 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 3 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_greece_bagavos.pdf
59. Christos Bagavos, The Situation of Families in Greece, 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 3 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_greece_bagavos.pdf
60. Christos Bagavos, The Situation of Families in Greece, 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 3 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_greece_bagavos.pdf
65. Claude Martin, "Families in France: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters, (2004), p. 19. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_France.pdf
66. Claude Martin, "Families in France: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters, (2004), p. 19. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_France.pdf
67. Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 5. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf
68. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998) (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
74. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (2002), p. 125. Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
8. Wilfried Dumon, "Belguim's Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 215-234 (2005), p. 221. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
9. Wilfried Dumon, "Belguim's Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 215-234 (2005), p. 221. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
10. Wilfried Dumon, "Belguim's Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 215-234 (2005), p. 221. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
6. Sirpa Taskinen, "Families in Finland: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 6 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Finland.pdf
7. Sirpa Taskinen, "Families in Finland: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 6 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Finland.pdf
16. Discussing a report by Andrew Cherlin and Frank Furstenberg, Jr. Liselotte Wilk, “Intergenerational Relationships: Grandparents and Grandchildren,” Family issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report, Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies (May 2000), p. 28 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
25. Based on 1998 data. Helmuth Schattovits, The Situation of Families in Austria, 1994-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_austria_schattovits_en.pdf
26. Liselotte Wilk, “Intergenerational Relationships: Grandparents and Grandchildren,” Family issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report, Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies (May 2000), p. 27. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
27. Helmuth Schattovits, The Situation of Families in Austria, 1994-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_austria_schattovits_en.pdf
28. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 6 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
29. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 6 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
30. ________, "Historical Table. Primary Child Care Arrangements Used by Employed Mothers of Preschoolers: 1985 to 1999." U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/child/ppl-168/tabH-1.pdf
31. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), pp. 5-6 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
32. Valerie Richardson, "Families in Ireland: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 14. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Ireland.pdf
33. Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, "Families in Spain: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 8. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Spain.pdf
34. Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, "Families in Spain: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 8. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Spain.pdf
35. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915 . See also Cordón, Juan Antonio Fernández, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 4. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf and Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, "Families in Spain: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 8. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Spain.pdf
36. Christos Bagavos, The Situation of Families in Greece, 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_greece_bagavos.pdf
37. ________, "Facts for Features: Grandparents Day 2005: Sept. 11," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (July 11, 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005353.html
38. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 6 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
25. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
1. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 6 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
4. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 26. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
6. ________, "Family Structures," Encyclopedia of American Social History. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, Reproduced in the History Resource Center, Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. Archived at: http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC Document No. BT2313027032 (1993).
13. Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 52. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
14. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 12 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
15. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
16. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
33. As of 1996. As of 1996. Gabriel Kiely, The Situation of Families in Ireland, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_ireland_kiely_en.pdf
38. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998), note 27 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
39. Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
41. Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
50. Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 60 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
51. Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 60 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
52. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), pp. 8-9 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
53. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), pp. 8-9 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
54. As of 2002. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), pp. 8-9 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
55. Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 60. Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
56. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 9. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
57. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), pp. 8-9 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
58. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 9 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
59. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), pp. 8-9 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
60. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
61. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
62. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
63. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
64. Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 7. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf
65. Christos Bagavos, The Situation of Families in Greece, 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 5 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_greece_bagavos.pdf
66. Gabriel Kiely, The Situation of Families in Ireland, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_ireland_kiely_en.pdf
67. Gabriel Kiely, The Situation of Families in Ireland, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_ireland_kiely_en.pdf
68. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
69. Sirpa Taskinen, The Situation of Families in Finland in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_finland_taskinen_en.pdf
70. Sirpa Taskinen, The Situation of Families in Finland in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_finland_taskinen_en.pdf
71. Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 60 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
72. Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 60 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
73. Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 60 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
74. Christos Bagavos, The Situation of Families in Greece, 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 5 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_greece_bagavos.pdf
48. Jan Trost and Irene Levin, "Scandinavian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 347-363 (2005), p. 355. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
49. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 12 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
49. Karin Wall, The Situation of Families in Portugal in the Late 1990s, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 11. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_portugal_wall_en.pdf
50. Wilfried Dumon, "Families in Belgium: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters, (2004), p. 5. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Belgium.pdf
52. Wilfried Dumon, "Families in Belgium: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters, (2004), p. 8. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Belgium.pdf
53. Wilfried Dumon, "Families in Belgium: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters, (2004), p. 8. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Belgium.pdf
5. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
6. Walter Bien, The Situation of Families in Germany, 2000-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 4. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_germany_bien_en.pdf
7. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
8. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915 David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
9. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
22. ________, "Italy by Numbers . . . ," National Italian American Foundation News from Italy website (October 2002). Accessed at: https://www.niaf.org/news/news_italy/news_italy_october.asp on August 15, 2005.
23. ________, "Italy by Numbers . . . ," National Italian American Foundation News from Italy website (October 2002). Accessed at: https://www.niaf.org/news/news_italy/news_italy_october.asp on August 15, 2005.
24. Giovanni B. Sgritta, The Situation of Families in Italy in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 4 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_italy_sgritta_en.pdf
25. Ivo Mozny and Tomas Katrnak, "The Czech Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 235-261 (2005), p. 259. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
31. Helmuth Schattovits, The Situation of Families in Austria, 1994-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_austria_schattovits_en.pdf
32. Helmuth Schattovits, The Situation of Families in Austria, 1994-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_austria_schattovits_en.pdf
33. Helmuth Schattovits, The Situation of Families in Austria, 1994-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_austria_schattovits_en.pdf
34. Helmuth Schattovits, The Situation of Families in Austria, 1994-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_austria_schattovits_en.pdf
35. Lynne Chisholm, Antonio de Lillo, Carmen Leccardi and Rudolf Richter (eds), Family Forms and the Young Generation in Europe, Report on the Annual Seminar 2001, Milan, Italy, 20–22 September 2001, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family (2001), p. 50. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/milan_report_2001_en.pdf
36. Lynne Chisholm, Antonio de Lillo, Carmen Leccardi and Rudolf Richter (eds), Family Forms and the Young Generation in Europe, Report on the Annual Seminar 2001, Milan, Italy, 20–22 September 2001, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family (2001), p. 50. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/milan_report_2001_en.pdf
37. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p.5 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
Wilfried Dumon, The Situation of Families in Belgium, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 11. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_belgium_dumon.pdf
Wilfried Dumon, The Situation of Families in Belgium, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 11. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_belgium_dumon.pdf
Walter Bien, The Situation of Families in Germany, 2000-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 3. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_germany_bien_en.pdf
Hans-Joachim Schulze and Peter Cuyvers, The Situation of Families in The Netherlands in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 4. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_netherlands_schulze_cuyvers.pdf
Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, "Families in Spain: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 9. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Spain.pdf
Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 27 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 20 (quoting from Female Careers Between Employment and Children). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 20 (quoting from Female Careers Between Employment and Children). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 20 (quoting from Female Careers Between Employment and Children). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 20 (quoting from Female Careers Between Employment and Children). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 20 (quoting from Female Careers Between Employment and Children). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 20 (quoting from Female Careers Between Employment and Children). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 20 (quoting from Female Careers Between Employment and Children). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
As of 1999. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 7 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
Sirpa Taskinen, The Situation of Families in Finland in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_finland_taskinen_en.pdf
Walter Bien, The Situation of Families in Germany, 2000-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_germany_bien_en.pdf
Gabriel Kiely, The Situation of Families in Ireland, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_ireland_kiely_en.pdf
Karin Wall, The Situation of Families in Portugal in the Late 1990s, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_portugal_wall_en.pdf
Karin Wall, The Situation of Families in Portugal in the Late 1990s, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_portugal_wall_en.pdf
According to a 1999 national survey. Karin Wall, The Situation of Families in Portugal in the Late 1990s, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_portugal_wall_en.pdf
Sirpa Taskinen, The Situation of Families in Finland in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_finland_taskinen_en.pdf
Sirpa Taskinen, The Situation of Families in Finland in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_finland_taskinen_en.pdf
Sirpa Taskinen, The Situation of Families in Finland in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_finland_taskinen_en.pdf
Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 27 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 27 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
Gabriel Kiely, The Situation of Families in Ireland, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_ireland_kiely_en.pdf
Christos Bagavos, The Situation of Families in Greece, 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 3 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_greece_bagavos.pdf
Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 12 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 12 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 3. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf
As of 2000. Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 3. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf
Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 3. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf
Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 34 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 34 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 34 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf