Africa (Part One / Sub-Saharan Africa)
 
Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 15
 
This information duplicates items from the rest of The Factbook, selecting only those items that relate to Africa, specifically Sub-Saharan Africa. However, numbers don't mean much without a comparison to family life in other continents. And that is why we may have included a lot of information on certain issues, but it seems like we have less regional information for others. Actually, that isn't the case – we just chose what were for us notable commonalities or exceptions, cross-culturally. For further information about a particular region, see the regional studies we've referenced in the footnotes: they probably have any additional information you might need on a particular country or region.
 
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 

COUPLES OR HOUSEHOLD HEADS ON THEIR OWN?

 
 
 
One-half
of families in South Africa are "nuclear families." 14.
 
 
 
 
South African children are more likely to be raised in a family without a father, but with other relatives living in the house, than are children in Western countries. 33.
 
 
 
13 percent
of black families in South Africa are headed by the grandparent. But that's only the case for 0.5 percent of white South African families. 34.
 
 
 

HOUSEHOLD SIZE

 
 
4.9
average family size in urban Egypt in the 1990s. 47.
 
 
 
6.5
average family size in rural Egypt in the 1990s. 48.
 
 
 
Eight
According to a study, the average family size in Qatar. 49.
 
 
 
7.28
average family size in the United Arab Emirates. 50.
 
 
 

EXTENDED FAMILY HOUSEHOLDS

 
 
 
13 percent
of households in South Africa were extended family households in 1998. 8.
 
 
 
 

MULTIGENERATIONAL HOUSEHOLDS

 
 
 
 
About 9 out of 10
in a survey of South African three-generation households, the number of African elders who live in a multigenerational setting. The proportion of older black South Africans living in two-, three-, and four-generation households has remained fairly stable for the past decade. 17.
 
 
 
____________________________________________________
 
 

THEORIES AND RESPONSES TO WHY WOMEN DELAY
HAVING CHILDREN AND HAVE FEWER OF THEM

 
 
 
 
A moral duty –
There's a belief that Rwanda’s birth rate is on the increase because Rwandans believe it is their moral duty to replace the one million or so people who died during that country's genocide. 5.
 
 
 
8.5
Highest fertility rate ever observed on a national level, reported by the U.N.: Rwanda in 1975–1980, with many other African countries having rates above 8.0 during this period. 29.
 
 
 
Somalia –
Country with the highest national TFR in the world in 2001 – 7.3. 32.
 
 
 
 

FAMILY SIZE AND CHILDLESSNESS

 
 
 
A second wife
In Kenya and Afghanistan, wives' infertility is often resolved by the husbands' marrying a second wife. 58.
 
 

POPULATION – INTERNATIONAL DEMOGRAPHICS

 
 
 
 
48 years
the life expectancy in Southern Africa – which is a decrease from 62 years in 1990-1995. The cause – deaths from HIV/AIDS. Experts expect that life expectancy there will continue to fall for another ten years – to 43 years – before starting to slowly recover. 67.
 
 
 
 
 
Having Under Five Percent of the world's population, United States ranked third in terms of total population size in 2000. 35.


 
Almost half of the global population increase from 1950 to 2000
came from just five countries: the United States, India, China, Nigeria, and Indonesia. 36.
 
 
 
Half the population, but more young children
Nigeria has a total population that is less than half of the United States. But it has a larger population of children under than age of five. 39.
 
 
 
 
 

46.
 
 
 
 
Four to seven percent
of the elderly of More Developed Countries live in nursing homes. In the U.S., four percent are in nursing homes. In Canada, 6.8 percent are in a nursing home; in Israel, 4.4 percent, and South Africa, 4.5 percent. 54.
 
 
 

DAUGHTERS' ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

 
 
 
Well, it may be the girls, if the boys are all gone
One researcher in Kenya determined that as Kenyan boys are leaving rural families for education and work in urban areas, daughters are being kept on the farm to take care of the elderly and younger children. 26.
 
 
 
____________________________________________________
 
 
 
22 percent
of households in South Africa were single-parent families in 1998.
 
 
 
215 minutes a day –
time spent by women in South Africa on housework. According to a 2002 survey. 36.
 
 
 
84 minutes a day –
time spent by men in South Africa on housework. 37.
 
 
 
 
17 percent
of Kenyan working mothers of children under six have relatives looking after their children. Of those, 15 percent of them are being cared for by an older sister or brother. 13.
 
 
 
Two percent
Children in Orchard Town, New England spent two percent of their time doing work, while children of the same age in Nyansongo, Kenya, spent 41 percent of their time at work.
 
 
 
 
“Nsameneng (1992) gave examples of children’s work from West Africa. They start with small errands around the house from the time they being to walk. Child work constitutes an important contribution to the household economy. It is also ‘an indigenous mechanism for social integration and the core process by which children learn roles and skills.’”
 
 
 
 
 
In one study, the authors “contrasted the developmental results of differing parental conceptions of cognitive competence (ethnotheories) and their expression in the organization of daily life settings and customs of childrear-ing in Kokwet (Kenya) and in Cambridge (United States). They described life in Kokwet where it is customary for 5-year old children to take care of infants, for 3-year-old boys to drive cows from the garden, and for 8-year-old girls to cook dinner for the family; children from Cambridge would be unable to perform these tasks. However, children from Kokwet do poorly in simple cognitive tests (involving retelling a story), whereas children from Cambridge have no difficulty with this task.”
 
 
In sub-Saharan Africa, families in rural areas send their children to be raised by their urban relatives, in order to provide the children access to a better education. At the same time, better educated urban workers could send money to their rural family. This also meant that the rural families could also more easily provide for the children that remained with them. While these ties have been thought of as being a bond between the families, more recent research has shown that it has – over time – weakened the rural families' welfare and the strength of the inter-family relationships. 8.
 
_________________________________________________________________________________
 
 
 
 
About 60 percent
of the world's growth of in the number of children under the age of 15 during the 1990s came from just the following five countries: India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Ethopia, Congo (Kinshasa).
 
 
 
India and Senegal have similar levels of per capita income, but Indian children are more at risk of malnutrition – while Senegalese children are more at risk of losing out on schooling.
 
 
 
 
The U.S. "has more than twice the total population of Nigeria but fewer children under the age of 5."
 
 
 
Chart of Top 10 Countries By Under 5
 

 
 
 

CHILD LABOR

 
 
 
 
 
200,000
Number of children enslaved in Central and West Africa each year, according to a UNICEF. 66.
 
 
 
 

CHILD POVERTY

 
 
 
India and Senegal have similar levels of per-capita income – but Indian children are more at risk of malnutrition while Senegalese children are more at risk of losing out on schooling. 81.
 
 
 
___________________________________________________
 
 
So they won't forget their families
One researcher in Kenya determined that the mothers there didn't want to educate their girl children, because they thought that education would lead the girls to move on and forget their families – which is acceptable (and what's happening) for urban Kenyan boys. 42.
 
 
 
 
Marrying down –
An urban Kenyan man often prefers a wife from a rural area who is less educated than he is, so it can be difficult for educated, urban women to find spouses. Educated women are usually younger than their rural counterparts, more independent, or are in school, so they opt to stay single longer. All of which also works against them in finding a mate of comparable education and social status. So they often end up marrying men who are considerably older than they are, or become a second or third wife. 44.
 
 
 
 
16 percent
of currently married women in Kenya are in polygynous marriages, a decrease of 30 percent from 30 years earlier. One of the chief factors against polygyny: education. 53.
 
 
 
 
Attending initiation school is the first step
in South Africa to becoming an adult. Initiation school teaches children about respect for the society's elders, and about hardship – through activities like swimming in a cold river during the winter. For boys in some tribes, it may include circumcision.
 
 
 
Not until you've had a kid –
In South Africa, men really aren't thought of as adults until the birth of their first child.
 
 
 
Not until your husband's died –
In South Africa, women really aren't thought of as independent adults until after the death of their husbands and his brothers.
 
 
Six years later
" In urban areas of Nigeria, average age at marriage for those with tertiary education is 6 years higher than women without any schooling (23.8 and 17.4, respectively),"
 
 
 
95-100 percent
of men and women in North Africa / Arab societies who are 45 years old and older have been married.
 
 
 
 
"In addition, as men have migrated to low skilled jobs in South Africa, the educational profile has changed in Lesotho so that most of the females left behind have acquired more education than males. These changes have in turn affected the marriage patterns whereby the educated females are less willing to get married, particularly to men in distant South African mines. Data further reveals that 32 per cent of the respondents in a survey indicated that women’s superior education was responsible for the incessant marriage break-ups; 66 per cent agreed that education among women had created a new family pattern of cohabitation whereby women prefer to live with men who are not their husbands. With the escalation in bride-wealth costs, many men are marrying late, well beyond 30 years of age."
 
 
 

WHY GET MARRIED?

 
 
 
A union of families –

In North Africa, most marriages are still arranged, and from within the same ethnic community or tribe. That's because marriages there are still still considered to be unions between two families – not just a union between two individuals. 7.
 

 
What do you get the single woman who has everything? A good . . . wife . . . ?
In the Igbo tribe of Nigeria, women who are elderly, or the only heir in the family, may marry a woman, in order to keep the family wealth and name intact. She is socially recognized as the husband. And if her wife becomes pregnant (through known about liasons), the children are the woman's – they continue on the family line. 12.
 
 
 
 
A second wife
Getting another wife is more common than divorce and remarriage in Kenya. 22.
 
 
 
Muslim men in Nigeria
are expected to be polygynous – they can (and do) marry up to four wives. 23.
 
 
 
Christian men in Nigeria
are expected to be monogamous – to have just one wife. Unless, of course, he's a convert to Christianity who already has more than one wife, in which case, he should keep them all. 24.
 
 
 
16 percent
of currently married women in Kenya are in polygynous marriages, a decrease of 30 percent from 30 years earlier. 26.
 
 
 
Bridewealth
in South Africa, goes from the husband's family to the bride's – and is considered to be compensation for the bride's family loss of the ability to control her ability to have children. 53.
 
 
 
Bridewealth
In Kenya, it is the money that is paid by the groom's family to the bride's family. In a survey, 90 percent of married Kenyans had said that bridewealth was being or had been paid for their marriage. But the goal of bridewealth isn't really to buy the bride from her family. Instead, it is to establish a continuing tie between the two families – so the goal isn't actually to pay the amount off. In fact, while most of it is paid before the marriage, it may be that a small portion of the payment lasts for years – sometimes, it will even continue by the sons after the husband has died. 54.
 
 
In sub-Saharan Africa, "A critical continuity in African family patterns relates to the persistence of polygynous practices. The much-anticipated decline in polygynous households is still far from a social reality in most African countries. In rural areas, polygyny survives largely because of the imperatives established by the sexual division of labor that marks the sphere of agriculture. Multiple wives, and by extension, many children, are valued because they continue to provide essential labor services in rural agricultural production. But in most African urban areas, polygyny, once fairly common, is becoming rare, in particular among the younger generations. Comparative studies from Cameroon, Kenya, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania show that monogamous households have taken a greater hold on society."
 
 
 
The patriarch
In Nigeria, the eldest male is the patriarch of is extended family. In that role, he is the adjudicator of family disputes – from the personal to those about division of the family's wealth. He's also the spiritual leader of the family, since – because of his age – he's thought of as being closer to the spirits of the family's dead ancestors.
 
 
 
A three-generation extended family –
is traditional in South Africa. In that family, are the elders, their sons with their wives, and their children. They usually remain in that household until the elders die, and the brothers set up their own households.
 
 
 
In sub-Saharan Africa, "The family as a unit of production, consumption, reproduction, and accumulation, has been profoundly impacted by the economic downturns that transformed the environment in which families make their decisions. These broader socio-political and economic environments provide the contexts for understanding changes in African family structures. Opportunities have arisen from considerable socioeconomic changes that continue to alter the structure of the family away from traditional patterns to new ones generated by the expansion of education, health care, employment, and migration. Yet the same forces that engender significant vistas for families have also produced multiple constraints. African families are embedded in political and socioeconomic circumstances that are characterized by long-standing domestic dynamics of economic fragility, debilitating poverty, poor governance and civil conflicts."
 
 
 
"Elsewhere in Africa, the mobility of young males in search of opportunities in urban areas remains a constant feature of migration. Women who migrate are mainly the educated, those seeking to join husbands already in towns, or the heads of the burgeoning number of single-parent families. These trends have undermined the solidity of the traditional family, created family structures, and transferred social responsibilities at the expense of traditional institutions. The impact of migration on divorce and separation is most felt where urban males abandon their wives in rural settings. While the durability of marriages in traditional structures was strengthened by the control maintained by kinship ties, new migration patterns have increased the prospects of divorces, separation, and the opportunity for multiple partners. In most cases, migration encourages males to have wives in the rural areas and other wives or sexual partners in urban settings. Since housing conditions in urban areas prohibit several wives to live together, “matricentric” households have emerged whereby an increasing number of households consist of a wife and children visited frequently by the husband. Although these unions represent a modern adapted version of polygyny, they contribute to family break-ups and the upsurge of female-headed households. Solidarity between spouses is weakened by separation due to migration."
 
 
 
In Africa, "More important, the outcomes of migration movements, notably polygynous unions without regular cohabitation, have put additional pressures on the social and economic responsibilities of women. For the most part, the conditions of women have deteriorated because absent husbands who migrate to cities for a lengthy period often abdicate their economic roles. Thus overall economic changes growing from migration have forced women to play an even greater part in providing for their children’s subsistence either through food production or off-farm income-generating activities. With little means of bringing pressures to bear on their husbands, women have continued to bear most of the costs incurred in the households."
 
 
 
43.7 percent
of Lesotho’s GNP, in 1990, that was remittances from abroad.
 
 
 
"Studies from Swaziland show that labor migration has had corrosive effects on kinship ties. The out-migration of Swazi men to South African mines has forced women to undertake the rearing of children alone; many households lack the stabilizing influence of a father and are thus incapable of providing the support network that is the foundation of family stability. In addition, the large numbers of single women in Swaziland has increased poverty levels, yet paradoxically, while single women may be poorer, they have more control of household resources and are freer to channel more resources towards health than women who live with men."
 
 
 
"A recent study reveals that virtually every Lesotho household depends directly or indirectly on migrant financial monthly remittances from South Africa for survival. It is estimated that 40 per cent of the male labor force in the 20-39 age group is away in South Africa at any given time."
 
 
 
"Out-migration has invariably led to the decline of agricultural production as wives of migrants are entrusted with subsistence farming activities. Erratic rains, drought, shortage of fertile land, and lack of markets for agricultural products have all compounded the decline. More important, one out of 10 Lesotho married men working in South Africa has abandoned his wife and taken on new ones in South Africa. Most of the abandoned wives become single parents and many of their children are not catered for adequately; moreover, abandoned wives often become the targets of married men in their societies, leading to more marriage break-ups."
 
 
 
"In addition, as men have migrated to low skilled jobs in South Africa, the educational profile has changed in Lesotho so that most of the females left behind have acquired more education than males. These changes have in turn affected the marriage patterns whereby the educated females are less willing to get married, particularly to men in distant South African mines. Data further reveals that 32 per cent of the respondents in a survey indicated that women’s superior education was responsible for the incessant marriage break-ups; 66 per cent agreed that education among women had created a new family pattern of cohabitation whereby women prefer to live with men who are not their husbands. With the escalation in bride-wealth costs, many men are marrying late, well beyond 30 years of age."
 
 
 
"Elsewhere in Africa, the mobility of young males in search of opportunities in urban areas remains a constant feature of migration. Women who migrate are mainly the educated, those seeking to join husbands already in towns, or the heads of the burgeoning number of single-parent families. These trends have undermined the solidity of the traditional family, created family structures, and transferred social responsibilities at the expense of traditional institutions. The impact of migration on divorce and separation is most felt where urban males abandon their wives in rural settings. While the durability of marriages in traditional structures was strengthened by the control maintained by kinship ties, new migration patterns have increased the prospects of divorces, separation, and the opportunity for multiple partners. In most cases, migration encourages males to have wives in the rural areas and other wives or sexual partners in urban settings. Since housing conditions in urban areas prohibit several wives to live together, “matricentric” households have emerged whereby an increasing number of households consist of a wife and children visited frequently by the husband. Although these unions represent a modern adapted version of polygyny, they contribute to family break-ups and the upsurge of female-headed households. Solidarity between spouses is weakened by separation due to migration."
 
 
 
In Africa,"More important, the outcomes of migration movements, notably polygynous unions without regular cohabitation, have put additional pressures on the social and economic responsibilities of women. For the most part, the conditions of women have deteriorated because absent husbands who migrate to cities for a lengthy period often abdicate their economic roles. Thus overall economic changes growing from migration have forced women to play an even greater part in providing for their children’s subsistence either through food production or off-farm income-generating activities. With little means of bringing pressures to bear on their husbands, women have continued to bear most of the costs incurred in the households."
 
 
 
One-third
of the world’s refugees were in Africa by 1995. About 10 million are victims of forced migration, ending up with neighboring countries having with each others’ refugees (e.g. there are Mailan in Mauritania and Mauritanians in Mali).
 
 
 
1,200
Number of unaccompanied children who immigrated to Finland in approximately the past ten years. Over half were Somali.
 
 
 
 
Prevalence of Violence, Internationally
 
 
 
 
 
37 percent
of Kenyan wives are abused every day. 67 percent of the abuse is committed by husbands, or the wives' in-laws. Abuse is not considered a legitimate reason for a wife to leave her husband.
 
 
 
45 percent
of women in Ethopia are physically abused by an intimate partner during their lifetime. 43.
 
 
 
31 percent
of Nigerian women are physically abused by an intimate partner during their lifetime. 44.
 
 
 
 
Social Justification for Abuse
 
 
 
Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe –
nations where men see the ability to inflict physical punishment on his wife as a right, according to various studies. 50.
 
 
 
They think it's justified for a husband to beat his wife if . . .

. . . she refuses to have sex with her husband
. . . according to: one percent of men in New Zealand; 5 percent of men in Singapore; 28 percent of Palestinian men; 33 percent of women in Ghana; and 81 percent of women in rural Egypt. 51.

 
. . . uses birth control without her husband's knowledge
. . . according to: 51 percent of men and 43 percent of women in Ghana. 57.

 
_____________________________________________________________________________
 
 
Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004)(citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
Nazek Nosseir, "Family in the New Millennium: Major Trends Affecting Families in North Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtnosseir.pdf
Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 12-13 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
 
____________________________________________________
 
 
14. Note that this means that both parents are present; it does not indicate whether or not the couple is married. Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 51. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
33. Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 51. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
34. Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 51. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
47. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 5 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
48. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 5 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
49. Yahya El-Haddad, "Major Trends Affecting Families in the Gulf Countries," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (200_), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtelhaddad.pdf
50. Yahya El-Haddad, "Major Trends Affecting Families in the Gulf Countries," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (200_), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtelhaddad.pdf
 
8. Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 53 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
17. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 8-9 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
 
____________________________________________________
 
 
5. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
29. Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of Low Fertility and Ageing Prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p. 64. Archived at: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
32. Table 5, Demographic Indicators, ________, "State of the World's Children 2003, Statistical Tables," UNICEF. Archived at: http://www.unicef.org/sowc03/tables/index.html
58. Edward K. Mburugu and Bert N. Adams, "Families in Kenya," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 3-24 (2005), p. 18. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 and Nancy Hatch Dupree and Thomas E. Gouttierre, "The Society and Its Environment," Chapter 2, "Family" section, Afghanistan, Library of Congress Country Study (1997). Available in on-line edition at: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/aftoc.html
 
____________________________________________________
 
35. Source for text: Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2002), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf Source of Chart: Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
36. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2002), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
39. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2002), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
46. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2002), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
_________________________________________________________
 
54. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (2002), pp. 129. Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
26. Edward K. Mburugu and Bert N. Adams, "Families in Kenya," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 3-24 (2005), p. 19. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
 
Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 53 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
 
 
36. According to a 2002 survey. Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 54. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
37. According to a 2002 survey. Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 54. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
 
13. Edward K. Mburugu and Bert N. Adams, "Families in Kenya," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 3-24 (2005), p. 12. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
 
 
According to a study. Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Family And Human Development Across Cultures: A View From The Other Side, Lea / Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Mahwah, New Jersey. (1996), p. 26 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0805820760/qid=11237769December sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Family And Human Development Across Cultures: A View From The Other Side, Lea / Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Mahwah, New Jersey. (1996), p. 26 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0805820760/qid=11237769December sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Family And Human Development Across Cultures: A View From The Other Side, Lea / Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Mahwah, New Jersey. (1996), p. 43 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0805820760/qid=11237769December sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
 
__________________________________________________________________
8. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9 (footnote omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
 
8. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9 (footnote omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
________, "Key Facts on Poverty," Press Kit for State of the World's Children, 2005, UNICEF. Accessed at http://www.unicef.org/sowc05/english/press_facts.html on September 18, 2005.
Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
 
66. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 14 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
81. ________, "Key Facts on Poverty," Press Kit for State of the World's Children, 2005, UNICEF. Accessed at http://www.unicef.org/sowc05/english/press_facts.html on September 18, 2005.
 

42. Edward K. Mburugu and Bert N. Adams, "Families in Kenya," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 3-24 (2005), p. 19 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
44. Edward K. Mburugu, and Bert N. Adams, "Families in Kenya," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 3-24 (2005), p. 8. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
53. Edward K. Mburugu, and Bert N. Adams, "Families in Kenya," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 3-24 (2005), pp. 7-8. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
 
____________________________________________________________________
 
 
 
Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), pp. 49-50. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 50. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 50. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
 
 
Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004)(citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
Nazek Nosseir, "Family in the New Millennium: Major Trends Affecting Families in North Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtnosseir.pdf
Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 12-13 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
 
___________________________________________________________
 
7. Nazek Nosseir, "Family in the New Millennium: Major Trends Affecting Families in North Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtnosseir.pdf
8. Cecilia L.W. Chan, "How the Socio-cultural Context Shapes Women's Divorce Experience in Hong Kong," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004)(citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302752
9. Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856
10. Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856
11. Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856
12. Innocent Victor Ogo Modo, "Nigerian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 25-46 (2005), p. 28. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
22. Edward K. Mburugu and Bert N. Adams, "Families in Kenya," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 3-24 (2005), p. 19. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
23. Innocent Victor Ogo Modo, "Nigerian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 25-46 (2005), p. 27-28. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
24. Innocent Victor Ogo Modo, "Nigerian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 25-46 (2005), pp. 27-28. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
26. Edward K. Mburugu, and Bert N. Adams, "Families in Kenya," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 3-24 (2005), pp. 7-8. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
53. Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 49. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
54. Edward K. Mburugu, and Bert N. Adams, "Families in Kenya," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 3-24 (2005), p. 8. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
 
____________________________________________________
 
Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 7 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
 
____________________________________________________
Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
Innocent Victor Ogo Modo, "Nigerian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 25-46 (2005), p. 32. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 50. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
 
____________________________________________________
 
Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 13 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 13. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 12 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 12 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 12-13 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 13 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 13. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 14 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 19. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 52. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
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43. Based on a 1995 survey of women 15 years old and over. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 90 (citation omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
44. Based on a 1993 survey of women. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 90 (citation omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
50. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), pp. 94-95 (citations omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
51. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 94 (citations omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
57. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 94 (citation omitteds). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
Edward K. Mburugu and Bert N. Adams, "Families in Kenya," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 3-24 (2005), pp. 16-17. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846