Europe (Part Three)
 
Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 30+
 
 
This information duplicates items from the rest of The Factbook, selecting only those items that relate to Europe. However, numbers don't mean much without a comparison to family life in other continents. And that is why we may have included a lot of information on certain issues, but it seems like we have less regional information for others. Actually, that isn't the case – we just chose what were for us notable commonalities or exceptions, cross-culturally. For further information about a particular region, see the regional studies we've referenced in the footnotes: they probably have any additional information you might need on a particular country or region.
 
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 
 

LOVE, HISTORICALLY:

 
 
 
Greek romantic love was really lust, often brief, and equally often fatal. Early Greek (1100-1300 BC) marriages were a man “by purchase” (oxen) got a woman (with a dowry) and “love, in the truest sense, as a profound mutual tenderness and solicitude, comes to the Greeks, as to the French, after marriage rather than before; it is not the spark thrown off by the contact or nearness of two bodies, but the fruit of long association in the cares and industries of the home. The Homeric wife is as faithful as her husband is not.” He could have as many wives/concubines as he wanted; Theseus had so many, a historian catalogued them. 4.
 
 
 
This holds true in 5th Century Greece: “Romantic love appears among the Greeks, but seldom as the cause of marriage.” It leads to affairs (while prostitution was common, legal, taxed,, a man could buy a woman to live with him) not marriage; romantic love is a “a form of ‘possession’ or madness, and would smile at anyone who should propose it as a fit guide in the choice of a marriage mate.” Although now (with the assets of her dowry) the woman has to purchase the man! (Yea! . . . kinda.) The Greek man marries not for love but for his dowry, and children to ward off evil. And don’t forget that a man’s affection was properly directed to a younger boy. 5.
 
 
 
Being passionate – feeling passion – meant you were suffering – or, if not yet, would be soon enough. People quote Plato as being the one supporting the finding of your other half, because of the Symposium, but they forget that the story of the two-headed - four-legged creature split by the Gods is told by Aristophanes, the Greek comedian. It’s supposed to be for laughs. Instead, it is the goal of friendship/brotherhood/raising families by the state/etc which is the Platonic ideal.
 
 
 
At the end of the Greek area, poets were no longer writing about the faithfulness of wives, but about beauty. Sex was still everywhere. Men didn’t want to marry or have kids: infanticide was so pervasive that the death rate exceeded the birthrate. 6.
 
 
 
No romantic love in getting married, or even in Roman marriages, either; at first, it was for the sake of making babies, a useful wife and useful children. prostitution was around but in the shadows. but later, marriage was just a stepping stone in politics and wealth, so some didn’t even grow to love each other in marriage; serial divorces were common and frequent. prostitution became so big that brothel-keepers had their own guild. Over time, less Romans would marry; they would live together, with the woman leaving the house for three nights a year so that her property didn’t become his. 7.
 
 
 
Roman Stoics thought that marriage was for people who couldn’t control themselves sexually. 8.
 
 
 
Early Christians got married only to propagate the species. Sex was discouraged; love was between brothers. 9.
 
 
 
In the early middle ages, marriage continued to be a property arrangement. and despite the church, sex was all around; Arthur, Gawain, Roland, William the Conquerer, were all illegitimate. 10.
 
 
 
In the 12th Century, troubadours began to sing/write poems/etc spread an idea of love between two people: Joseph Campbell considers this to be the first in the West to think of it as that sort of personal relationship between individuals. Before that it was eros/lust -- and who the object was was secondary – or agape/spiritual – love of all neighbors as thyself. (That sort of personal experience would have been contrary to religious teaching/the church.) So it’s the troubadours who first come up with the idea that a “true marriage is the marriage that springs from the recognition of identity in the other, and the physical union is simply the sacrament in which that is confirmed.” 11.
 
 
 
But even the troubadours were singing in a land where marriage was about property, so that love would have come after the marriage, or with someone else. 12.
 
 
 
The historic Catholic church and its leading philosophers had a history of teaching that women were pretty much evil incarnate, served only to distract men from their higher purpose; sex and passion were bad, and should only be used for procreation. Thomas Aquinas thought that marriage was the least important sacrament because it was the least spiritual. Ideal marriage was that which was chaste; sex in marriage was regulated – the when and the how. 13.
 
 
 
Notwithstanding such condemnation, in the late 1400-1500s, arranged marriages in the patrician class were failing as Europe “seethed with lust.” The arranged marriages were fixed when the children were just seven or so, so romantic love had no role in marriage; instead, romance was outside the marriage. love was a synonym for sex and prostitution was a booming even respectable business (the famed courtesans). Sex was a priority for young woman, who if they weren’t married by 21 were spinsters or off to the convent, and the best way to prevent that was to get pregnant. 14.
 
 
 
From the Greeks and Middle Ages right up thru the Renaissance, romantic love is often thought of a bad thing; love/chivalry/courtly love may be a wonderful idea/feeling, the sex may be terrific, but it usually brings with it pain, suffering and/or death. and is not something that works out in life. It's a world where the heroes and heroines are Odysseus, Tristan and Yseult, Lancelot and Guinevere, Romeo, Juliet, Othello, etc. It's lovers who are in the second circle of Hell in Dante’s Inferno. And the Coy Maiden should give in to love – meaning sex – because she’ll be wormfood soon enough anyway. 15.
 
 
 
In the Renaissance et al 1300-1500s, marriage was for getting property and “love” was for getting some. In Italy, lots of men wouldn’t marry or put it off as long as possible; it was too expensive a process and not worth it. Poetry and love letters and mushy stuff abound -- but it was for seduction, not marriage. 16.
 
 
 
In fact, in the 1600s, romantic love was still considered at least in part, an actual sickness (you really were lovesick); that’s why Dutch painters of that time kept painting sad people in doctor’s offices. 17.
 
 
 
As time when on, love was allowed to be for the young, while they were young. 18.
 
 
 
Historians differ on if love became more important of the working class wanting to be free, or the bourgeoisie, but from the late 17th century, ideas of “marital affection” began to spread in society. However, they still believed that “Feelings of love during courtship considered a prelude to marriage but a danger during marriage.” Passions will turn attention away from the marriage. And a passion-based marriage will fade, while a land-based one won’t. Instead, it will only over time grow its own form of love relationship. 19.
 
 
 
By the 1700s, love begins to be the reason, but parental consent and property still reign supreme. By 1760s, Rousseau is writing that Emile can pick his own bride, but consult with his parents, and the ideal family is the agrarian unit. 20.
 
 
 
By the late 1700 - early 1800s, in Europe, British church and government were trying to clamp down on those flight-by-night romantic marriages, so adultery flourished: in Italy, women felt that once they’d married out of duty/prudence, and since marriage was indissoluble, “they were entitled to take a cavaliere servente (for love)” Everyone slept around: Byron claimed to have had sex with 200 women in 2 1/2 years – and paid 2,500 pounds for it. As long as the affair was kept quiet, it was fine. Think Les Liaisons Dangereux. 21.
 
 
 
 
From 1740 to 1865 (as seen increasingly in popular media over time), developed a new construction of love, a “romantic love ideal” which included a belief in
1) love at first sight,
2) there is one true love,
3) love conquers all,
4) the beloved is near perfection, and
5) one should marry for love. 23.

 
 
A “new romanticism” began in England in the late 18th Century, spread to Europe, and then hit America’s shores by the beginning of the 19th century: “It was pluralistic, its manifestations were as varied, as individualistic, and as conflicting as the cultures and the intellects from which it spring. Yet romantics frequently shared certain general characteristics; moral enthusiasm, faith in the value of individualism and intuitive perception that the natural world was a source of goodness and man’s societies a source of corruption. Romantic values dominated American politics, art, and philosophy until the Civil War. The romantic exaltation of the individual suited the nation’s revolutionary heritage and its frontier egalitarianism. The romantic revolt against traditional formalities gratified those displeased with the narrow limits of neoclassic literature, painting, and architecture. The romantic rejection of rationalism comforted those opposed to religions encrusted with the intellectual remnants of Calvinism and led increasing numbers of Americans to turn to the fervors of camp-meeting revivalism or to the tenets of New England transcendentalism.” 24.
 
 
 

CONTINUING ROLE OF ROMANTIC LOVE IN OUR SOCIETY

 
 
 
 
Head of the London School of Economics, Anthony Giddens states that the rise of romantic love has transformed the institution of family: when it was an economic unit, the couple was just a part of the family and not necessarily central to it. However, when love became the reason, then emotional communication and intimacy between the couple became the basis of the family unit. The idea that there is a “relationship” as something to talk about is very recent -- within the past 30 years. In the abstract, he argues that there is an idea of a “pure relationship” -- based on emotional communication, “where the rewards derived from such communication are the main basis for the relationship to continue.” This -- a democratization of emotions which parallels the democratization of society-- is a radical departure from old societal models. 37.
 
 
 

WHY GET MARRIED?

 
 
 
"Wherever, in the history of civilization, woman has ceased to be an economic asset in marriage, marriage has decayed; and sometimes civilization has decayed with it.”
-- Will Durant, The Story of Civilization 1.

 
 
Live together first, then, if you have a kid, get married.
Up until 1545, European marriages commonly had two ceremonies. First, a couple had a betrothal ceremony, after which the engaged couple was able to live together. Then, the couple had a child, that was taken to be the consummation of their marriage, so then they might (or might not) have the actual marriage ceremony. 2.
 
 
 
In fact, the prevailing attitude was that weddings routinely came after pregnancy and childbirth continued until the 1700s, and some scholars believe that the current decline in marriage and increase in unmarried women's births may actually be a return to that earlier tradition. 3.
 
 
 
An Unequal marriage of equals?
 
Marriage matches were historically a based in union of families and political dynasties, and families were hierarchies just as everything else was. And, while loveless, the low number of divorces in England until the late Nineteenth Century indicate that these marriages may have been more stable than the modern U.S. type of love matches between two equal partners. 5.
 
 
 

WHO'S THE LUCKY GUY (GIRL)?

 
 
 
Zero
The number of European nations that prohibit marriage between first cousins. 46.
 
 
 

CULTURAL TRADITIONS IN MARRIAGE AND WEDDINGS

 
 
 
 
Bringing English traditions with them, “Late marriages of men and women in strict birth order, delays in the transference of real and personal estates from fathers to sons, and residence of married children on their father’s lands were characteristic of many New England families in the seventeenth century and must of the eighteenth.” 62.
 
 
 

RELIGIOUS AND STATE INVOLVEMENT IN MARRIAGES, HISTORICALLY

 
 
Generally, in the UK/US Anglo-Saxon tradition, civil and religious rule grew in parallel over the centuries, really taking root following the Norman Conquest. Civil law would recognize nullification while religious law would come up with rules like don’t marry your sister. both religious and civil courts ruled over issues such as consummation (required), eligibility to marry, etc. Actually, it wasn’t until the 12th century that the Church recognized marriage as an official sacrament and therefore required church approval, and not until 1563 (when Henry VIII was giving the world headaches) that a priest had to marry for it to be recognized. Which is not to say that you couldn’t get in trouble with the church before that; married women could be excommunicated for being adulterous sluts hundreds of years before that (men were just slapped on the wrist because we’re expected to be unfaithful). 72.
 
 
Anglo-Saxon (and subsequent) courts have always recognized the importance of the marital state to the society and have therefore limited the ability to regulate marriage.
 
 
In the Anglo-Saxon tradition, the marriage contract – remember it’s a real contract – is really between the husband, wife and the state, whereas in other traditions, it's a contract between families. Regardless, the contract was that a husband promise to her and the state that you will provide for your wife and your progeny. The contract can be, to a certain extent, modified by the real parties in interest (take care of me or else). The state will go along with those “contract modifications” if they are reasonable, and don’t discourage creation of marriages. That’s why Pre-Nup’s are so controversial in the U.S., because they are thought to encourage divorce. (It wasn’t until 1983 that there was a Uniform Antenuptial Agreement Act for the states to discuss/review). In Islamic marriages, there's frequently a negotiated contract of marriage, with specific terms – what the wife must do, what the husband can't do, what during the marriage will constitute grounds for divorce, etc. 73.
 
 
 
. . . and let no man tear asunder . . . .
That was actually the concern of marriages in the Middle Ages. Parents arranged their children's marriages. They also ordered those same marriages ended, if they became politically or financially inconvenient. So the Catholic Church's steps to declare marriage indissoluble were not originally based in a religious belief that marriage was a sacrament. Instead, it was began as an effort to protect couples from the continued interference in the marriage by their parents. 74.
 
 
1753
The year English state and church control began to regulate marriages and weddings. Prior to that, couples married in secret, paid off clergy, etc. Not having any regulation had "helped serial bigamists, those who held out a title or wealth for marriage, then deserted shortly thereafter. An estimated 250,000 such marriages took place between 1694 and 1754, providing large profits for unscrupulous clergy who were little more than marriage brokers. Half of the brides were pregnant for the marriage, which no one had a problem with." 75.
 
 
 
Originally intended to stop titled gentry from eloping, which they’d been doing with regularity, the Act was far more reaching than that. The Act required: marriage under Church of England law / procedure / services (even for Catholics! although Jews and Quakers were exempt); parental consent for marriage up to the age of 21, and other wedding formalities (even time of day). (If you were rich enough, you could pay for a special license to get out of it.) Women with previously “valid” common law marriages (eg those who’d jumped the broom) that were not licensed were suddenly whores with bastard children: the common law marriages were no longer recognized. 76.
 
 
 
It wasn’t until 1836! that British Catholics could marry in their own chapels. 77.
 
 
 

ARRANGED MARRIAGES

 
 
 
 
At least one historian claims that, since the Norman Conquest, before the modern era's Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Charles, all but two monarchs had arranged marriages: “Three basic principles have governed the choice of a royal consort. First, international prestige demanded that the ruler marry someone of suitable status; second, a royal marriage was a valuable diplomatic asset not to be wasted; third, a spouse should be a foreigner, since to marry within a realm was to risk disturbing the balance of internal politics.” 80.
 
 
 
The ability to marry someone of one's choosing, voluntarily, is considered a human right, and as such is included in the United Nations' Universal Declaration on Human Rights and other international treaties. That is significant on two points – first, it underscores the importance of the issue, and also that governments must address forced marriages – not arranged but forced marriages – by migrants from other nations. In the United Kingdom, with its growing Muslim emigrant population, its law enforcement community has taken special efforts to understand the different types of arranged marriages, and how to identify when an arranged marriage is actually a forced marriage. Just being able to identify a forced marriage, however, is not the end of the problem. Getting married is, unless a spouse is underage, generally not illegal, and if the only evidence of a forced marriage is a statement that a parent has ordered a child to marry, it's difficult to prove when a crime has actually been committed. At the same time, those who have been making the threats of violence – and perhaps their threatened victims – are in their home country, making it next to impossible for U.K. officials to investigate the matter. There are, unfortunately, cases with physical violence. But for many forced marriages, it is a domestic violence of the mind. 85.
 
 
 

MARRIAGES INTERNATIONALLY

 
 
 
 
306,200
marriages in the U.K. in 2003. 35.
 
 
 
 
"Virtually all couples are married in the southern European member nations but marriage is less likely in many others." 37.
 
 
 
 
19 percent
of those Year 2000 marriages in England and Wales were remarriages – for both parties. 49.
 
 
 
One-fifth
of all marriages in the U.K. – 109,090 – in 2003 were remarriages for one or both parties. 50.
 
 
 

TRANSITION OF UNMARRIED COHABITATION INTO MARRIAGE

 
 
 
 
80 percent
of Czechs who live with someone plan to eventually marry that person. 11.
 
 
 
 
Three and four times more likely
British unmarried partners who are parents are three to four times more likely to separate than their married/parent counterparts. 13.
 
 
 
 

UNMARRIED PARTNERS / PERCEPTIONS AND LEGAL STATUS

 
 
 
 
"Well, it's okay for them, but I don't want to . . . "

Eight of 10 Czechs under the age of 30 think it's fine for a couple to live together without getting married.
 
But only one in 10 actually want to have that arrangement for themselves. 16.

 
 
2000
The year Belgian government determined that any two persons sharing a home – homosexual or heterosexual couples, siblings, two friends, etc. – can register to be legally be considered as ‘living together.” 19.
 
 
 
“Two fake singles”
The term used in 1997 Belgium to describe couples who were living together but not getting married, acknowledging that there were tax advantages to remaining unmarried. The issue became a key issue in the 1999 elections, and subsequent tax reform was put into place such that it was neutral as to family form. 22.
 

 

UNMARRIED PARTNERS / PREVALANCE

 
 
 
In North America and Western Europe, the prevalence of unmarried cohabitation is increasing– and not just prior to marriage, but also following separation, divorce or widowhood. "However, there is still a considerable between-country variation: in some of the Scandinavian countries, premarital cohabitation is a quite generalised form of behaviour; in countries such as France and the Netherlands, it is fast increasing; in some regions, such as Flanders, Scotland, and Wales, and in Southern European countries it is still a minority phenomenon." 23.
 
 
 
"In Greece and Portugal, cohabitation is low because marriage is high; whereas in Italy and Spain, cohabitation is low because there are fewer unions (the proportions of women marrying being similar to those observed in Central and Northern countries). In Italy and Spain, young people are not forming any unions at all, while this is the population group that enters into cohabitation in the rest of the EU." 24.
 
 
 
About 6.3 percent
of young couples in the European Union are cohabiting. 25.
 
 
 
Six to 92 percent –
the range in percentages of southern Europeans countries’ unmarried cohabiting young people the ages of 16 and 29. The lows are 6 percent (Italy) and 14 percent (Spain) "while Denmark, France and Holland stand out with rates of 72 percent, 46 percent and 54 percent, respectively." 26.
 
 
 
In the U.K., "by the mid 1990s there were just over one and a half million cohabiting couples in England and Wales, and that if trends continue numbers will almost double by 2012. . . ." 27.
 
 
 
19 percent
of all couples in the U.K. were cohabiting, unmarried couples in 1998. 28.
 
 
 
About 75 percent
of women in Finland are expected to have lived with someone by age 45. 29.
 
 
83.6 percent
of women in France are expected to have lived with someone by age 45. 31.
 
 
 
Less than 10 percent
of women in Italy are expected to have lived with someone by age 45. 32.
 
 
 
Less than five percent
of women in Poland are expected to have lived with someone by age 45. 33.
 
 
 
 
 

UNMARRIED PARTNERS WITH CHILDREN

 
 
 
 
 
58 percent
of young women in Sweden were cohabiting at the birth of their first child. 60.
 
 
 
53.5 percent
of Swedish children will have their mother in a cohabiting relationship by the time the children are 16 years old. 63.
 
 
 
4.7 percent
of Polish children will have their mother in a cohabiting relationship by the time the children are 16 years old. 64.
 
 
 
 
1999
The year Portugal gave cohabiting couples the legal "right to adoption, entitled them to be taxed jointly and gave the surviving partner more rights to the joint home in the event of death (usufruct rights, for a period of five years, to the home owned by the deceased partner)." 68.
 
 
 
2001
The year the U.K. Parliament granted unmarried couples the right to joint adoption of a child. 69.
 
 
 

PATRIARCHY OR MATRIARCHY / GENDER ROLES

 
 
 
In Roman times, a family was entirely male-owned/dictated controlled. A Roman could sell his wife and kids (up to 3 times); he could use as labor, beat and even kill his children with impunity. The wife was not a legal guardian and could not object to the sale/other transfer of the children, even when he died. 14.
 
 
 
In the Anglo-Saxon world, this became modified: the mother didn’t inherit the property of her husband, but she could continue to care for the child. After the Norman Conquest, this trend continued and as early as the 1200’s, there were laws and cases which provided for, once the father was dead, mothers to become legal guardians -- although this determination was largely based on whether or not she would interfere with the property rights of the estate. If she would, or would be detriment to them, then guardianship went elsewhere. 15.
 
 
 
By the late 1200s, early 1300s, the family’s desires to remain intact began to be considered in deciding custody of children of deceased fathers – although their wishes weren’t determinative. The presence of the unified continuing family was an asset in the agrarian society, which helped widowed mothers who were trying to keep their kids. However, there was in parallel, if you had titled/military lands, children became wards. Guardians took over control of both the children and property. And this lasted, in varying degrees, for 600 years. 16.
 
 
 
In 1646, a British father’s authority to determine custody of his children was codified as absolute -- even after death. He could will a child to anyone he wished). Different types of guardianships were created; some allowed for family, some did not. It depended on the wealth involved, power/royal status, remarriage, religion, etc. In the 1600 and 1700s, the state became increasingly willing to get involved to decide the matter, invoking parens patriae, the concept that it was the state who acted as the ultimate parent. However, throughout the 1700s to 1800s, English law was based on the premise that the father had unlimited right/custody/control over his children. 17.
 
 
 
By 1839, British law gave a maternal preference to custody of children under the age of seven. 18.
 
 
 
By the mid-1800s, the law in the U.K. began to discuss the “best interests of the child” when deciding who should get custody of the child. 19.
 
 
 
"For many years the underlying assumption of social welfare and taxation in Ireland was that of a breadwinner father with dependent spouse and children in a lifelong marriage. As the Report states “this is, however, no longer necessarily the norm in Irish society.” 20.
 
 
 
In Finland, "Mothers spend considerably more time on domestic tasks than do fathers, and this is also true for women who work full-time. Women bear greater responsibility for children and have been the main users of various forms of statutory childcare leave. Men have taken advantage of these rights only on a small scale. Because the benefits do not totally compensate for earnings, it is more profitable for the parent with the lower income to stay at home. Most often, this is the mother." 34.
 
 
 
In Portugal, "Two campaigns launched in 1999 by the High Commissioner’s Office for the Promotion of Equality and the Family: The National Campaign on Reconciliation turned the month of March 1999 into the month of workfamily balance in Portugal. Entitled Sharing Domestic Chores – the Necessary Reconciliation, it targeted Portuguese couples and consisted of television and radio spots, company advertisements and street posters with images relating to equality between husbands and wives in the household. The campaign was the subject of much commentary in the media." 35.
 
 
 
In Belgium, "In 1979, the Minister for Equal Opportunities launched a great publicity campaign with huge posters and postcards showing males performing such typical female tasks as child care, and females performing such male tasks as plumbing. This campaign was applauded by a large NGO, the largest family organisation in Belgium, which carried out some research under the motto of ‘Family is a two-person job’. More importantly, however, they designed a toolkit enabling families to measure the degree of unfair division of labour inside their family. These types of campaigns probably achieved better results on the cultural level by raising awareness, but did not provoke dramatic behavioural changes." 36.
 
 
 
"Twelve was the average number of childbearing years that upper-class medieval women could anticipate. The average number of live births was five. . . . In fourteenth-century England, it has been estimated, 15 percent of couples were childless.” 43.
 
 
 

GENERATIONAL ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

 
 
 
"... family obligations in Italy have traditionally played an important role in the satisfaction of basic needs. Making up for the lack of an adequate structure offering assistance and services paid for by the public purse was, and still is, the duty of the extended family and the kinship network." 54.
 
 
 
In Italy, "Once they do marry and raise a family, women often end up caring not only for their children but for their parents as well. Daughters, in particular, serve as de facto social security for their aging mothers." 55.
 
 
 
"In Mediterranean Europe, the care of the elderly fell almost exclusively on the family, whether it was carried out by means of coresidence, the circulation of the elderly among the households of their offspring, or the spatial proximity between the homes of the elderly and those of their children: all of these alternatives entailed transfers of goods and services from the families of the offspring toward their elderly parents. In England, on the other hand, the situation was quite different. For one thing, a smaller proportion of the elderly appears to have coresided with their children.(24) A structural characteristic of English society, epitomized in the Poor Laws, was that the ultimate responsibility for the wellbeing of the elderly fell to the collectivity. In Spain there were no Poor Laws and only in such cases as extreme poverty or grave mental or physical illness could people count on institutional support, often organized by the Church. For the vast majority of cases, the family alone took responsibility for the material and personal wellbeing of its elderly." 57.
 
 
 
In Italy, "The highest quota of caregivers is concentrated in the age group between 55 and 64 years; this is also the group in which, between 1983 and 1998, there was the greatest increase in people engaged in giving help. It goes without saying that this age group is basically made up of those generations who are engaged simultaneously on two different fronts: caring for their children, who in Italy tend to stay at home even beyond the age of 30, and caring for their parents, who once past the age of 80 enter a phase of the lifecycle in which the need for care and assistance increases. An interesting fact emerges from the surveys: During the period under consideration, the help given to the oldest members of the population showed a marked decrease. While in 1983, 30.7 percent of families with at least one elderly member and without children received help at least once, in 1998 this percentage fell to 16 percent." 58.
 
 
 
In Italy, "A significant aspect of the changes that have taken place recently in the structure of family networks is related to the extent of help from relatives. If one considers help as a whole – informal and formal, provided by the kinship network and by outside services – between 1983 and 1998, the number of families having an elderly member over 65 who received help at least once grew by nearly 10 percent; and that of families with an elderly member over 80 by almost 14 percent. Most of this growth is due to a process of substitution of the informal network by utilising help provided by private individuals and the public sector. The case is different with regard to families with children, for whom the importance of services outside the informal network is minor. This shows that, in the meantime, family support networks have reduced their range of intervention. To a certain extent, they still survive within the restricted context of the nuclear family. Families depend almost solely on the informal help network but tend to contract care and assistance for elderly people, for whom it is apparent that the use of external help and services provided by the public authorities and/or paid personnel has increased enormously." 59.
 
 
 

WHAT HAS CHANGED FAMILY STRUCTURES

 
 
 
In Spain, "Cultural gender differentiations are gradually vanishing. A clear change in the opinions and attitudes about sharing household tasks has occurred since 1975, when household maintenance was considered to be women’s work. In a recent survey, young people saw sharing domestic tasks as one of the key conditions for a successful partnership. Notwithstanding this tendency, families – especially those with children – tend to reproduce traditional roles, either by preventing married women from working when care obligations are impossible to fulfil with both parents working full-time, or by forcing working mothers to accept strategies involving informal and formal care and lengthy working days without any noticeable support from their husband, except in terms of direct child care. Staying at home is more often the case among women with less education, who at the same time feel less attraction for their job and are less able to afford external help given their small salary. Traditional roles have not changed in the workplace, which is still dominated by the male-breadwinner model; and these roles have not changed much in the family either, the two areas being too closely related." 74.
 
 
 
"Differences in family and demographic behaviour are, however, much more striking for migrants coming to Europe and North America from developing countries and in particular from less advanced rural regions in those countries. These immigrants encapsulate in their demographic behaviour more traditional beliefs and customs specific to their agrarian cultural and economic background. Family relations and dynamics are often characterised by patriarchal relations and gender divide, early marriage, low divorce rate, low age at first birth and childbearing into higher ages, high fertility, and larger household size. Because of initial difficulties to adapt to the new social, economic and cultural environment and their ethnic and/or religious differences, they tend to remain isolated from the host culture, living in communities where they strive to preserve traditional family structures, gender relations and cultural specificity in general . . . . The persistence of these behavioural differences is in general interpreted as an example of ineffective integration policies of the receiving country." 75.
 
 
 
"In terms of family formation, research on migrants shows that the relational and reproductive behaviour of migrants of European or American origin is not very different from that of the sedentary, non-migrant population in developed countries . . . . In some cases, immigrants from developed countries show lower nuptiality and fertility rates than the nationals in the host countries." 76.
 
 
 
In Portugal, "Attitudes to the distribution of responsibility within the family have also clearly shifted, with a majority of couples expressing commitment to a ‘symmetrical’ family organisation where both partners work and share responsibilities as well as authority within the family. By contrast, change in the allocation of household tasks has been quite slow. These still remain strongly segregated by gender, albeit less than in the recent past, with the 1999 survey showing that only one in five couples were actually sharing all the main household chores, such as cooking, cleaning or doing the laundry." 77.
 
 
 

DEFINITIONS OF FAMILY

 
 
 
 
Family, as defined by the Netherlands Cabinet:

"a social unit where one or more children are being cared for and/or brought up." 5.

 
 
As long as you're under my roof . . . .
The National Statistical Service of Greece counts all the people who live under the same roof as a family – even if they aren't related. 6.
 
 
 
Oxford English Dictionary
first defines a family as the servants of a house, or the household. The second definition is everyone who lives in a house or under one head. It isn't until the third definition that it defines family as a "group of persons consisting of the parents and their children, whether actually living together or not." 8.
 
 

ANALYSIS OF FAMILY AND SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS

 
 
 
 
 
Fascinatingly, Czech sociologists credited the family as being the tool that helped bring down Communism in Czechoslovakia. The Communist government had promised to end the traditional bourgeois family structure, and created institutions designed to replace it – even including infant boarding houses. But, during times of crisis, the government could not provide for the people – and families got together and were able to fulfill the people's needs, both material and emotional. 5.
 
 
 

POVERTY – INTERNATIONAL

 
 
 
Spanish aphorism: "The only truly poor person is one who has no family." 27.
 
 
 
 
15 percent
of European families are at risk of being in poverty. 29.
 
 
 
12.3 percent
of families in Ireland are in poverty. 30.
 
 
 
A European test for poverty:
if for a household to fall below 60 percent of the household total mean income. 31.
 
 
 
19 percent
of those in Spain are in poverty. 67 percent of Spanish households have difficulty making ends meet while 38 percent cannot afford at least three of the basic necessities. 32.
 
 
 
Over half
of those in Finland in the late 1990s who were in poverty were families with children. 33.
 
 
 
12.3 percent
of families in Italy are in poverty. 13.9 percent of total population is in poverty. 34.
 
 
 
21 percent
of families in Portugal are at risk of being in poverty. 35.
 
 
 
Doing better –
While the presence of children in a family often increases the poverty, in Greece, the poverty rate for families with one or two children is actually lower than for families without children. One explanation for this is that families are choosing to stabilize their finances before having children. 36.
 
 

URBANIZATION BY THE NUMBERS

 
 
 
 


On the left is our chart illustrating the change in urbanization, by continent. The red column is the urbanized population in 1950, the blue is today's percentage, and the green is the United Nations's projected percentages by the year 2030.

By this, you can see that the percentage of those living in urban environments has more than doubled in Africa and Asia in the past 50 years, and Latin America's is almost double.

Already comparatively urbanized, Europe and North American urbanization is continuing, but at a less dramatic rate. 20.

 
 
 

WHO IS MIGRATING?

 
 
They are families –
Families migrate together as a group, or, if individual family members do migrate alone, they bring with them a clear expectation that the others in their families will soon join them.

 
More than eight million
of those who migrated to Germany between 1973 and 1994 who were relatives of migrants already living there. 1.
 
 
More than 600,000
of those emigrating to the U.K. between the early 1970s and the early 1990s had relatives already living there. 2.
 
 
727,000
of those who emigrated to Switzerland during 1968 and 1995 had relatives already living there. 3.

 
 
They are women –

 
 
22,000
Yugoslav female migrants were working in the Netherlands in 1995 – almost equal number to the number of Yugoslav males there (23,800). 5.
 

 
They are married –

 
 
36 percent
of immigrants to Ireland in 2001 were married. According to a study. 10.

 
 
52 percent and 44 percent
of the legal, and illegal immigrants in Greece in 1997 were married. 11.
 
 
 
They are children –

 
One out of every four
children in Sweden has their roots in other parts of the world. In its larger cities, that figure rises to almost half. 13.
 
 
 
1,200
Number of unaccompanied children who immigrated to Finland in approximately the past ten years. Over half were Somali. 14.
 
 
 
5,400
immigrants to Ireland in 2001 – 20.5 percent of all those who immigrated there that year – were under 14 years old. According to a study. 15.
 
 
 

They are the ones they probably want to keep at home – more educated and younger
The émigrés of Central Europe, Jordan, and Syria have higher than the nations' average educational attainment. In Central Europe, the majority also tend to be younger than the rest of the population, aging 20-35 years old. 20.
 
 
 
 
30-40 percent
of Ukrainian households have had at least one household member who has experienced at least one move abroad. 21.
 
 
 
 
One-sixth
of all foreigners living in the E.U. are Turkish. That’s 3 million, making it the largest expatriate community in all of Western Europe. 23.
 
 
 
 
More than 60 million
people emigrated from Europe between 1800 and 1960. more than 60 million people emigrated from Europe to another continent. About 40 million people left for North America; and another 20 million, to South America, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand or the Asian parts of Russia. 29.
 
 
 

WHERE ARE THEY GOING?

 
 
 
 
Europe


Higher than in the U.S.
In 2002, net migration to the European Union was higher than the net migration to the U.S. 48.
 
 
 
18.69 million
Number of the European Union population who were third-country nationals in 2002. One-third of these were actually citizens of another EU nation. 49.
 
 
 
Five percent
of the European Union population were third-country nationals in 2002. 50.
 
 
 
About four million
Number of non-citizens living in Western European nations in 1950. That number doubled within 20 years. Between 1970 and 2000, the number almost doubled again. 51.
 
 
 
More than one million
By the 1990s, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and Switzerland each had at least 1 million immigrants within their borders, which make them the most important immigration countries in Western Europe. 52.
 

 
And that's probably an undercount
There is a rising number of criminal networks that smuggle illegal immigrants – usually labor migrants – into the E.U., usually through Central and Eastern Europe. 53.
 
 
 
26,300
The non-citizen population of Ireland in 2001, more than three times what it had been just five years earlier (8,000 in 1996). While much less than other nations' immigrant populations, the sudden increase hit a small country that traditionally sees itself of as country people emigrate from, not emigrate to. The result was that this rapid growth caused serious social and political tensions. 54.
 
 
 
A five-fold increase
In 1991 there were only 167,000 immigrants in Greece. By 2001, the number had risen to 797,000 – making the foreign-born population over seven percent of the total population. The clear majority of these immigrants – 440,000 of them – are from Albania. That is 56 percent of the total immigrant population. The next largest share of the immigrant population were Bulgarians, and they're just five percent of the immigrants to Greece. 55.
 
 
 
Over 90 percent
of the population increase in Greece over the past decade has been due to immigration. The natural increase (that is, from births) has only increased the population by 22,600. But the population of Greece has increased by over 650,000 during that same period – about 630,000 of whom were immigrants. 56.

 
 
 
The U.K., the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand –
destinations for South Asian professionally and technically qualified persons. 58.
 
 
 
 

WHY MIGRATE?

 
 
 
To find work –
 
 


Cheap labor from the former colonies –
During the 1950s and 1960s, there was a mass migration movement of laborers from former colonies to the respective former ‘mother countries’ These migrants more willing to migrate, and the countries were more eager to receive them because they already spoke the language, there were systems in place to grant them residency or even citizenship. So Indians and Pakistanis migrated to Great Britain, Moroccans and Algerians moved to France; and people from Surinam who migrated to The Netherlands. 64.
 
 
 
 
So many laborers had left, that they had to import replacement labor –
Beginning in 1950, increasing unemployment in Jordan meant that the government began to allow laborers to leave the country for Europe, Australia and the U.S.A. But by 1976-1982, so many people had left, that Jordan started having labor shortages in certain positions, and they had to start importing workers to fill those positions. So they became, at the same time, a country that both imported and exported labor. Since then, Jordan’s migration polices have included bilateral agreements with some countries. 66.
 
 
 
Making it easier to emigrate –
In Germany, where the future prospects of a sufficiently large workforce keep dwindling with the countries' falling birth rates, an effort has begun to improve the conditions for immigration, especially for highly skilled laborers. While there's a debate over the extent to which this should be done, the first set of changes needed to attract these workers have already been completed. 67.
 
 

 
 
To find peace and stability –
 
 

Political exiles
aren't always the glamorous ones fleeing a country on a jet, and their stories may not contain the drama of a spy thriller. But they are usually the people publicly involved in a nation's politics. They are often the urban, and, economically, are in the middle or upper class. They're often educated. Or, perhaps they occupy a position of leadership in a trade union or peasant community. 70.
 
 
 
Displacement, on the other hand
effects entire populations – men, women and children, elderly and infirm. And it has even more of an impact in the rural and remote populations. 70.
 
 
 
 
7 million
people left the European continent in the years between 1945 and 1960. 75.
 
 
 
More than 11.6 million
Number of people who migrated from Eastern Europe and the Balkans between 1950 and 1995. 76.
 
 
 
More than 1 million
fled the states of the former Yugoslavia, for the safety of Western Europe between 1991 and 1998. 77.
 
 
 
 
194,000
Hungarians fled their homeland after the national uprising there in 1956. 79.
 
 
 
170,000
Czechs and Slovaks fled during the 1968 crisis in Czechoslovakia. 80.
 
 
 
250,000
Poles left Poland during the 1980s, because of political oppression. However, when they got to their destination, Western Europe, they weren't seen as heroically escaping the government as much as they were seen as escaping the bad economic situation in Poland. 81.
 

 
To find a lost cultural and ethnic identity –
 
 

3.4 million
Under a policy which gave ethnically-German Eastern Europeans an unlimited right to return to Germany, about 3.4 million of them immigrated to Germany from 1950 to 1995. Most of them arrived from 1989 to 1995, because travel restrictions from Eastern-bloc nations were eased. Almost half of the returning Germans were from Poland (44.6 percent). Another 36 percent came from the former Soviet Union (36 percent), while the rest come from Romania (12.8 percent), the Czech Republic, Hungary and the former Yugoslavia (6.6 percent). So many were coming that, in the early 1990s, the German government attempted to limit the immigration of ethnic Germans to 220,000 people per year. 82.
 
 
 
One trigger for ethnic migration – forming new (or restoring old) countries
"Large-scale moves were observed among the new countries that were formerly within the ex-USSR, for example the return of Russians back to Russia. Analogous moves were observed among countries that comprised ex-Yugoslavia as well as between the Czech and Slovak republics. Large groups of ethnic Germans returned to Germany from the Ukraine, Russia, Romania." 83.
 
 

 
Tom Wolfe could have warned them: going home doesn't always work out . . . .

About 300,000 Turkish-Bulgarians left Bulgaria in 1989-1990 to settle in Turkey. Two out of every three of them were back in Bulgaria within three years. 85.
 
 
 
Some can't go home again, even if they want to –
because of unstable political or economic conditions in their native lands. 86.
 
 

THE IMPACT OF MIGRATION ON FAMILY LIVES

 
 
 
Strangers in a foreign land . . . .
 
 
 
The relatives who have emigrated –
before often become role models for the rest of the family. If it goes well, other members of the family may copy their example and emigrate themselves – to the same place, and to do the same thing. If, on the other hand, their emigration experience was a bad one, it may dissuade others from going at all. 140.
 
 
 
The relatives who are already there –

are fundamental sources of information about the new cultures. It isn't just that they have a common frame of reference, although that is vital, it is also that they are trustworthy sources, in a nation full of strangers. 141.
 
 
often are considered to have a moral obligation to help newly arriving family members find places to live, get jobs, etc. – even if they are distant relations – and to prepare an environment that will help families reunite in the new country. 142.
 
 
become a buffer from between the immigrants and the new society: "the more negatively members of the receiving society react to the presence of migrant families, the more the family turns into the only place where the people in that family can develop a positive self-image. The family, then, is regarded as a refuge, a place where one can feel safe and secure from the rejection of others." 143.

 
 
Having family members to join also extends the period of time someone will stay abroad. 144.
 
 
 
Assimilation –

While migrants may initially maintain high birth rates, and other family behaviors that they had maintained from their countries of origin, research shows that migrants – especially those from developing countries who move to more developed countries – gradually change their behavior to match that of their new homes: marriage rates, age of marriage, age of births, fertility rates, even out-of-wedlock births, all show a tendency to go to the levels of the families' new nations. These changes increase with following generations. 145.
 
 
 
Marriage rates, age at marriage, adolescent births, fertility rates, and extra-marital births all show a tendency to converge to the levels of the receiving country. Some immigrants will even have less children or marriage rates than the natives of their new homes. 146.
 
 
 
On the other hand, families from less developed countries, and especially their rural areas, have more difficulty assimilating after migrating to more developed countries. Their marriage rates remain high; their age at marriage and first birth remain comparatively lower. Their fertility remains high. Family relations remain more traditional – often retaining a patriarchal structure. Because of this, they tend to be more self-isolating – remaining not just within their own migrant community but within their own family. Which, in turn, reinforces the isolation and the retention of the traditions from their countries of origin. 147.
 
 
 
And while family members are aids to assimilation – they can also be hinderances to it as well. Familial pressure to maintain traditions, to remain within the family's community, etc., may also serve to isolate members, and lessen their exposure to the new culture. 148.

 
 
Over 90 percent
of British Indian, Bangladeshi, and Pakistani marriages that are within the same ethnic group. 149.
 
 
 
Mixed marriages
While immigrants initially tend to marry other immigrants with the same background – from common nations of origin to ethnicity to religion – or they bring spouses from their native lands, they gradually begin to marry outside their ethnic community. Immigrants from developed countries tend to marry outside their group more rapidly than those who are immigrating from lesser developed countries. 150.
 
 
 
 
Variations on a theme –

Since migration of families tends to be generational, not hierarchical, where a young couple might have lived with the husband's family in their country of origin, a migrating couple might likely move in with the husband's brother. And it is the brother, who has lived in the new country longer, who becomes the younger couple's advisor for family problems and issues.
 
And the parents, who are too far away to do anything, become much less influential than they would have been if their children had not immigrated. 152.

 
 
Families that have migrated as a whole
tend to stay in their new residence longer before returning home, or make it a permanent one. 153.
 
 
 
Migrant families tend to be closer knit, and rely on an extended family structure, if not extended family household.
Of Turkish migrants in Germany, 50 percent of the daughters and 60 percent of the sons identify at least one brother or sister as an important reference person – and while that may be based on growing up in the same household, the relationship continues even if they are no longer living together. 154.
 
 
 
But then, it maybe that they're just stuck with him –
 
Migrant women often are the targets of discrimination – both because they are migrants, foreigners and women – and they are therefore frequently limited in the options they have in a new country, especially in trying to find employment. It means that they may be more willing to accept exploitation by employers – seeing little alternative.

Similarly, this discrimination also may force a migrant woman to remain with husband whatever her relationship with him is, because the women are less able to becoming financially independent, or question the actions that their husbands take, since they have no other resources. They then focus on trying to provide a household that satisfies their husbands, hoping to prevent any potential strife between the couple. 155.
 
 
 
The families are disadvantaged –
When displaced, the families often are without housing or medical care. 156.
 
 
 
The children are behind in school –
Children who voluntarily emigrate or have been forcibly displaced are often behind in school – because of the difference between the national school systems, and language barriers. Many just do not go to school at all. 157.
 
 
 
 
The growth of the foreign population in Europe is due to immigration, but it's also due to:

the fact that most groups of foreigners have a higher fertility rate than do the native citizens.
 
Immigrants tend to be younger than the receiving countries' total population, so they have a greater number of births, while the aging native population has a greater number of deaths. 160.

 
 
A re-ordered family structure –
For Algerian women living in France, the women have became much more important in decision-making than they would have been in had they remained in Algeria. There, they would have been isolated, and the husbands would had been responsible for contacts with anyone other than their family.

But in France, the husbands are often consumed by their new jobs. Which means it falls to the women to make decisions concerning their children’s education, their matrimonial choices. They're even responsible not just for establishing the family's relationships to the new society, but maintaining the relationship with the home country as well. So while few Algerian women work outside the home, they are having contact with the new countries' government bureaucracies, in such things as schooling and health care. And where their husbands once would dictate all of these interactions, their husbands – who are often illiterate – can be little if no help in these matters.

Once in the larger society, the Algerian women have been taking increasingly public roles – from becoming religious leaders to shopkeepers; they are tenants of public baths for purification rituals, and singers of ritual chants performed during feasts and such familial events as births, circumcisions and weddings.
 
However, these new roles, according to the women, are not the result of their exposure to French ideas of an autonomous womanhood. Instead, they see their increased activity as fulfilling their responsibility to the family, do not seem to consider their autonomy and competence to be the result of the liberation ideology propagated by Western women. Instead, their role is to do what men can no longer do. 161.

 
 
 
 

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF MIGRATION

 
 
 
The poorest in Britain
are individuals of Bangladeshi/Pakistani origin. 60 percent of them live in households with less than half the average income. And, in case there was any doubt, their children are much more likely to live in low income families than their native, white, British peers. 162.
 
 
 
"An acute risk"
the level of risk of poverty facing refugee and asylum-seeking children and families in the U.K. 165.
 
 
 
48 percent
of foreign residents of Finland were unemployed in 1996, when Finland was in a deep recession. The percentage varied by migrant group: for Somalis, it was 81 percent unemployment. (There are about 4,400 Somalis living in Finland.). 176.
 
 
 
2.5
Average British household size in 1991 was 2.5; while the British-Caribbean households were at 2.6, British Indians were at 3.6, British Pakistanis at 4.8, and British Bangladeshi at 5.4. 177.
 
 
 

THE RISE OF SUBURBIA

 
 
England, around 1790
Apparently, about as soon as cities began to grow rapidly, people began to complain that they were places of moral and physical decay. By the late 1700s, the English began to establish homes outside of cities – considering these to be safe refuges for the wife and family while the men carried on business in the lecherous cities. The first of what would become the modern suburb began outside of London, in 1790. There were nascent versions of them in the U.S. by the mid-1800s. 1.
 
 
 

FAMILY VIOLENCE (INTERNATIONAL)
Prevalence of Violence, Internationally Social Justification for Abuse

 
 
Prevalence of Violence, Internationally
 
 
30 percent
of women in North London, England are physically abused by an intimate partner during their lifetime, while 23 percent are the victim of a rape or attempted rape by their partner. For those currently being physically abused, they're assaulted an average of seven times in a year. 37.
 
 
 
21 percent
of women in Switzerland are physically abused by an intimate partner during their lifetime. 38.
 
 
 

A LITTLE DIRTY LAUNDRY ABOUT TIMES AND SOCIETIES WITH MORE STABLE MARRIAGES

 
 
 
In Greece,
fewer marriages end there than in the rest of Europe. But those that do end, end more quickly than elsewhere in the region. 60.
 
 
 
 

LONGEVITY OF MARRIAGE AND THE LIKELIHOOD OF DIVORCE

 
 
 
 
12 years
In Greece, among divorce couples in the late 1990s, the mean number of years how long the marriage lasted before the couple got the divorce. In 1980, the mean had been 15 years. 11.
 
 
 

FACTORS FOR DIVORCING

 
 
 
 
Not surprisingly, American marriages last longer if the women:
grew up in an intact two-parent family;
consider religion to play an important role in their lives;
have a high family income; and
live in a community with high median family income, low male unemployment, and low poverty. Those factors increase the duration of a cohabiting relationship as well. 12.
 

 
 
Because he’s a bloody pain in the arse, that’s why –
Of divorces filed in England and Wales in 2003, 69 percent of them were at the wife's behest. The most frequently cited fact for the basis of the divorce for women? Her husband's "unreasonable behavior." For those men filing for divorce, on the other hand, it was a two-year long separation that was the most frequent reason for their request for a divorce. 15.
 
 
 
 
As many as one in three –
British marriages ending in divorce involve domestic violence. 23.
 
 
 

DIVORCE (INTERNATIONAL)

 
 
 
 
5.0
E.U. Divorce rate (i.e. Rate of Divorces per 1,000 population in 2001.
 
 
 
Malta and the Philippines
are the only countries left in the world where divorce is still against the law.
 
 
 
Two-fifths
of Czech women who marry before age 20 get divorced, while only one-fifth of those who get married after the age of 30 get divorced. 80.
 
 
 
The child comes first –
In 1998, the Czech divorce law was rewritten, requiring that couples cannot obtain a divorce if it is not in the interests of the children. So they require a determination of the children's interests before the divorce proceedings begin. 81.
 
 
 
In 1949, Science News Letter reported, “England and Wales, which 35 years ago had a divorce rate only one-fiftieth of ours, now has a rate half as large as that of the U.S. In 1913, England and Wales had only 2.2 divorces for every 1,000 in the annual marriage record. ¶ At the outbreak of World War II, the ratio had increased 10 times or about 20 per 1,000. By 1946, the rate had climbed another four times to 81.0 and in 1947 divorces had climbed to 138.5 per 1,000 marriages. ¶ In Scotland, the ratio of divorces to marriages was nine times as high in 1946 as in 1910. In Canada, the rise was even sharper – from 7.2 per 1,000 in 1920 to 50.0 per 1,000 in 1948.” It was further reported that the French divorce rate in 1948 was 207.2 divorces per 1,000 average annual marriages, which was almost three times the rate in 1944, and more than double what it had been just the year before. 82.
 
 
 
 
In the European Union, the divorce rate rose from from 1.4 per 1000 inhabitants in 1980 to 1.9 in 2001. 43.
 
 
 
166,700
divorces in the U.K. in 2003. 44.
 
 
 
Doubled and Doubled Again
In the U.K., the number of divorces doubled between 1961 and 1969, and doubled again by 1972. British divorces continued to increase until 1993 – then they dropped by 12 percent in 1999 and another 5 percent in 2001. But the lower rates may not be because of lasting marriages – it may be because fewer people are getting married. 45.
 
 
 
Approximately 280,000
people in England and Wales went through a divorce in 2001. 46.
 
 
 
_________________________________________________________________________
 
 
 
1. E. Cobham Brewer, Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (1898). Available at: http://www.bartleby.com
2. H.W. Fowler, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, Second Edition, Corrected Impression of 1931, Oxford University Press, Great Britain (1929).
3. J.A. Simpson and E.S.C. Weiner, The Compact Oxford English Dictionary (New/Second Edition), Oxford University Press, Inc., New York, NY (2000). Available at in on-line edition: http://www.askoxford.com/ http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/romancex?view=uk LINK to on-line dictionary
4. See, for example, Will Durant, The Story of Civilization, Simon and Schuster, New York (1935 et seq.) and Joseph Campbell, The Power of Myth, Anchor (1991). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0385418868/qid=1128370563/sr=8-1/ref=pd_bbs_1/104-2655861-4201507?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
5. See, for example, Will Durant, The Story of Civilization, Simon and Schuster, New York (1935 et seq.) and Joseph Campbell, The Power of Myth, Anchor (1991). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0385418868/qid=1128370563/sr=8-1/ref=pd_bbs_1/104-2655861-4201507?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
6. See, for example, Will Durant, The Story of Civilization, Simon and Schuster, New York (1935 et seq.) and Joseph Campbell, The Power of Myth, Anchor (1991). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0385418868/qid=1128370563/sr=8-1/ref=pd_bbs_1/104-2655861-4201507?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
7. See, for example, Will Durant, The Story of Civilization, Simon and Schuster, New York (1935 et seq.) and Joseph Campbell, The Power of Myth, Anchor (1991). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0385418868/qid=1128370563/sr=8-1/ref=pd_bbs_1/104-2655861-4201507?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
8. See Uta Ranke-Heinemann, Eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven, Penguin Books, New York, New York (1991). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0140165002/104-2655861-4201507?%5Fencoding=UTF8&s=books&v=glance
9. See Uta Ranke-Heinemann, Eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven, Penguin Books, New York, New York (1991). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0140165002/104-2655861-4201507?%5Fencoding=UTF8&s=books&v=glance
10. See Uta Ranke-Heinemann, Eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven, Penguin Books, New York, New York (1991). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0140165002/104-2655861-4201507?%5Fencoding=UTF8&s=books&v=glance, Will Durant, Story of Civilization, Joseph Campbell, The Power of Myth, Anchor (1991). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0385418868/qid=1128370563/sr=8-1/ref=pd_bbs_1/104-2655861-4201507?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
11. Joseph Campbell, The Power of Myth, Anchor (1991). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0385418868/qid=1128370563/sr=8-1/ref=pd_bbs_1/104-2655861-4201507?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
12. Will Durant, The Story of Civilization, Simon and Schuster, New York (1935 et seq.) and Joseph Campbell, The Power of Myth, Anchor (1991). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0385418868/qid=1128370563/sr=8-1/ref=pd_bbs_1/104-2655861-4201507?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
13. See Uta Ranke-Heinemann, Eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven, Penguin Books, New York, New York (1991). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0140165002/104-2655861-4201507?%5Fencoding=UTF8&s=books&v=glance
14. William Manchester, A World Lit Only by Fire: The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance: Portrait of an Age, Little, Brown, Boston, MA (1992), pp. 68-76. Available through http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0316545562/qid=1128369960/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-2655861-4201507?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
15. Peter N. Stearns, editor-in-chief, Encyclopedia of European Social History from 1350 to 2000, Scribner, New York, New York (2001). Available through http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0684805820/qid=1128370201/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-2655861-4201507?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 and William Manchester, A World Lit Only by Fire: The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance: Portrait of an Age, Little, Brown, Boston, MA (1992), pp. 68-76. Available through http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0316545562/qid=1128369960/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-2655861-4201507?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
16. Peter N. Stearns, editor-in-chief, Encyclopedia of European Social History from 1350 to 2000, Scribner, New York, New York (2001). Available through http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0684805820/qid=1128370201/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-2655861-4201507?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
17. Peter N. Stearns, editor-in-chief, Encyclopedia of European Social History from 1350 to 2000, Scribner, New York, New York (2001). Available through http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0684805820/qid=1128370201/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-2655861-4201507?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 William Manchester, A World Lit Only by Fire: The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance: Portrait of an Age, Little, Brown, Boston, MA (1992), pp. 68-76. Available through http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0316545562/qid=1128369960/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-2655861-4201507?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
18. Peter N. Stearns, editor-in-chief, Encyclopedia of European Social History from 1350 to 2000, Scribner, New York, New York (2001). Available through http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0684805820/qid=1128370201/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-2655861-4201507?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
19. Peter N. Stearns, editor-in-chief, Encyclopedia of European Social History from 1350 to 2000, Scribner, New York, New York (2001). Available through http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0684805820/qid=1128370201/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-2655861-4201507?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
20. Peter France (ed.), The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French, Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press, Oxford/New York (1995). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0198661258/qid=1123777704/sr=2-1/ref=pd_bbs_b_2_1/104-0887680-4192712 and Peter N. Stearns, editor-in-chief, Encyclopedia of European Social History from 1350 to 2000, Scribner, New York, New York (2001). Available through http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0684805820/qid=1128370201/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-2655861-4201507?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
21. Paul M. Johnson, The Birth of the Modern: World Society 1815-1830, Harper Collins, New York (1991), p. 507. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0060922826/qid=1128371343/sr=1-3/ref=sr_1_3/104-2655861-4201507?v=glance&s=books
23. James J. Ponzetti, (ed.), International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Macmillian Reference USA (2002). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
28. James J. Ponzetti, (ed.), International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Macmillian Reference USA (2002). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
32. James J. Ponzetti, (ed.), International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Macmillian Reference USA (2002). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
34. James J. Ponzetti, (ed.), International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Macmillian Reference USA (2002). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
37. Anthony Giddens, "Runaway World," Reith Lecture 4, Washington, DC (1999). Archived at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/events/reith_99/week4/week4.htm
1. Will Durant, The Story of Civilization, Simon and Schuster, New York (1935 et seq.) p. 44.
2. Margot Patterson, "Theology of Marriage Evolving: Since Vatican II, Church Challenged by Richer Understanding of Sacrament," National Catholic Reporter (December 28, 2001). Archived at: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1141/is_8_38/ai_82066336/print
3. David Johnson, "Publish or Be Damned, David Johnson describes the Infamous Marriage Act of 1753, which made marriage a tightly-regulated institution governed by church and state," History Today (November 2003)(Between 1694 and 1754, "Half of the brides were pregnant for the marriage, which no one had a problem with."). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:110621789 and Margot Patterson, "Theology of Marriage Evolving: Since Vatican II, Church Challenged by Richer Understanding of Sacrament," National Catholic Reporter (December 28, 2001). Archived at: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1141/is_8_38/ai_82066336/print
5. Margaret Talbot, Love, American Style,” New Republic (April 14, 1997).
6. Margaret Talbot, Love, American Style,” New Republic (April 14, 1997).
72. Will Durant, The Story of Civilization, Simon and Schuster, New York (1935 et seq.)
74. Margot Patterson, "Theology of Marriage Evolving: Since Vatican II, Church Challenged by Richer Understanding of Sacrament," National Catholic Reporter (December 28, 2001). Archived at: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1141/is_8_38/ai_82066336/print
75. David Johnson, "Publish or Be Damned, David Johnson describes the Infamous Marriage Act of 1753, which made marriage a tightly-regulated institution governed by church and state," History Today (November 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:110621789
76. David Johnson, "Publish or Be Damned, David Johnson describes the Infamous Marriage Act of 1753, which made marriage a tightly-regulated institution governed by church and state," History Today (November 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:110621789
77. David Johnson, "Publish or Be Damned, David Johnson describes the Infamous Marriage Act of 1753, which made marriage a tightly-regulated institution governed by church and state," History Today (November 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:110621789
78. Nazek Nosseir, "Family in the New Millennium: Major Trends Affecting Families in North Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtnosseir.pdf
79. David Johnson, "Publish or Be Damned, David Johnson describes the Infamous Marriage Act of 1753, which made marriage a tightly-regulated institution governed by church and state," History Today (November 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:110621789
80. Eric Ives, "Marrying for Love: The Experience of Edward IV and Henry VIII," History Today (December 2000). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:68147615
85. Yunas Samad and John Eade, Community Perceptions of Forced Marriage, Community Liasion Unit, Foreign & Commonwealth Office, London, England, United Kingdom (Undated). Archived at: http://www.fco.gov.uk/Files/kfile/clureport.pdf and ________, Dealing with Cases of Forced Marriage – Guidelines for Police, Association of Chief Police Officers, Foreign & Commonwealth Office, United Kingdom, Home Office, United Kingdom, and the Association of Chief Police Officers, Scotland (February 24, 2003). Archived at: http://www.lbp.police.uk/publications/dealing_with.htm
35. ________, "Society: Divorces," National Statistics Online, National Statistics, United Kingdom (August 31, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget_print.asp?ID=170 on August 26, 2005.
36. ________, "3306.0.55.001 Marriages, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (March 18, 2005). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/9025e35e5d062131ca256f6300711118!OpenDocument on August 13, 2005.
37. ________, "Fewer Marriages, More Divorces," The Clearinghouse on International Developments in Child, Youth, and Family Policies at Columbia University, New York, NY (January 2004). Archived at: http://www.childpolicyintl.org/contexttabledemography/table216.pdf
49. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
50. ________, "Society: Marriages Increase," National Statistics Online, National Statistics, United Kingdom (February 4, 2005). Accessed at: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget_print.asp?ID=322 on August 26, 2005.
11. Ivo Mozny and Tomas Katrnak, "The Czech Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 235-261 (2005), pp. 240. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
12. Patrick Heuveline and Jeffrey M. Timberlake, "The Role of Cohabitation in Family Formation: The United States in Comparative Perspective," Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 66, pp. 1214-1230 (December 2004), p. 1223.
13. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
16. Ivo Mozny and Tomas Katrnak, "The Czech Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 235-261 (2005), p. 240. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
19. Wilfried Dumon, The Situation of Families in Belgium, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 6. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_belgium_dumon.pdf
22. Wilfried Dumon, The Situation of Families in Belgium, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_belgium_dumon.pdf
23. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
24. Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 9. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
25. ________, "Fewer Marriages, More Divorces," The Clearinghouse on International Developments in Child, Youth, and Family Policies at Columbia University, New York, NY (January 2004). Archived at: http://www.childpolicyintl.org/contexttabledemography/table216.pdf
26. Lynne Chisholm, Antonio de Lillo, Carmen Leccardi and Rudolf Richter (eds), Family Forms and the Young Generation in Europe, Report on the Annual Seminar 2001, Milan, Italy, 20–22 September 2001, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family (2001), p. 63. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/milan_report_2001_en.pdf
27. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
29. Patrick Heuveline and Jeffrey M. Timberlake, "The Role of Cohabitation in Family Formation: The United States in Comparative Perspective," Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 66, pp. 1214-1230 (December 2004), p. 1222.
30. Patrick Heuveline and Jeffrey M. Timberlake, "The Role of Cohabitation in Family Formation: The United States in Comparative Perspective," Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 66, pp. 1214-1230 (December 2004), p. 1222.
31. Patrick Heuveline and Jeffrey M. Timberlake, "The Role of Cohabitation in Family Formation: The United States in Comparative Perspective," Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 66, pp. 1214-1230 (December 2004), p. 1222, 1225.
32. Patrick Heuveline and Jeffrey M. Timberlake, "The Role of Cohabitation in Family Formation: The United States in Comparative Perspective," Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 66, pp. 1214-1230 (December 2004), p. 1222.
33. Patrick Heuveline and Jeffrey M. Timberlake, "The Role of Cohabitation in Family Formation: The United States in Comparative Perspective," Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 66, pp. 1214-1230 (December 2004), p. 1222.
57. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
58. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
59. Patrick Heuveline and Jeffrey M. Timberlake, "The Role of Cohabitation in Family Formation: The United States in Comparative Perspective," Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 66, pp. 1214-1230 (December 2004), p. 1215 (citation omitted).
60. According to a survey. Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 9. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
61. Gregory Acs and Sandi Nelson, The More Things Change? Children's Living Arrangements since Welfare Reform, "Snapshots of America's Families III" No. 10, The Urban Institute (October 06, 2003). Archived at: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=310859
62. Patrick Heuveline and Jeffrey M. Timberlake, "The Role of Cohabitation in Family Formation: The United States in Comparative Perspective," Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 66, pp. 1214-1230 (December 2004), p. 1226.
63. Patrick Heuveline and Jeffrey M. Timberlake, "The Role of Cohabitation in Family Formation: The United States in Comparative Perspective," Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 66, pp. 1214-1230 (December 2004), p. 1223.
64. Patrick Heuveline and Jeffrey M. Timberlake, "The Role of Cohabitation in Family Formation: The United States in Comparative Perspective," Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 66, pp. 1214-1230 (December 2004), p. 1223.
68. Karin Wall, The Situation of Families in Portugal in the Late 1990s, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), pp. 10-11. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_portugal_wall_en.pdf
69. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 12 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
14. See Will Durant, The Story of Civilization, Simon and Schuster, New York (1935 et seq.) A.R. Colón with P.A. Colón, A History of Children: A Socio-cultural Survey Across Millennia, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT (2001). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0313315744/qid=1123775672/sr=8-2/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i2_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 , Danaya C. Wright, "De Manneville v. De Manneville: Rethinking the Birth of Custody Law under Patriarchy," Law and History Review, Vol. 17, No. 2 17.2 (Summer 1999). Archived at: http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/lhr/17.2/wright.html
15. See Danaya C. Wright, "De Manneville v. De Manneville: Rethinking the Birth of Custody Law under Patriarchy," Law and History Review, Vol. 17, No. 2 17.2 (Summer 1999). Archived at: http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/lhr/17.2/wright.html
16. See Will Durant, The Story of Civilization, Simon and Schuster, New York (1935 et seq.) A.R. Colón with P.A. Colón, A History of Children: A Socio-cultural Survey Across Millennia, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT (2001). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0313315744/qid=1123775672/sr=8-2/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i2_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 , Danaya C. Wright, "De Manneville v. De Manneville: Rethinking the Birth of Custody Law under Patriarchy," Law and History Review, Vol. 17, No. 2 17.2 (Summer 1999). Archived at: http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/lhr/17.2/wright.html
17. See Will Durant, The Story of Civilization, Simon and Schuster, New York (1935 et seq.) A.R. Colón with P.A. Colón, A History of Children: A Socio-cultural Survey Across Millennia, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT (2001). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0313315744/qid=1123775672/sr=8-2/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i2_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 , Danaya C. Wright, "De Manneville v. De Manneville: Rethinking the Birth of Custody Law under Patriarchy," Law and History Review, Vol. 17, No. 2 17.2 (Summer 1999). Archived at: http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/lhr/17.2/wright.html
20. Gabriel Kiely, The Situation of Families in Ireland, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_ireland_kiely_en.pdf
34. Sirpa Taskinen, The Situation of Families in Finland in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_finland_taskinen_en.pdf
35. Karin Wall, The Situation of Families in Portugal in the Late 1990s, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 8. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_portugal_wall_en.pdf
36. Wilfried Dumon, The Situation of Families in Belgium, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 10. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_belgium_dumon.pdf
43. A.R. Colón with P.A. Colón, A History of Children: A Socio-cultural Survey Across Millennia, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT (2001), p. 226. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0313315744/qid=1123775672/sr=8-2/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i2_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
54. Giovanni B. Sgritta, The Situation of Families in Italy in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), pp. 2-3. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_italy_sgritta_en.pdf
55. Carla Power, "Staying Home With Mamma," Newsweek International (August 14, 2000). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:64076546
56. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
57. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
58. Giovanni B. Sgritta, The Situation of Families in Italy in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 4 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_italy_sgritta_en.pdf
59. Giovanni B. Sgritta, The Situation of Families in Italy in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 4 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_italy_sgritta_en.pdf
74. Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf
75. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 20 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
76. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 20 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
77. Karin Wall, The Situation of Families in Portugal in the Late 1990s, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_portugal_wall_en.pdf
5. Hans-Joachim Schulze, General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Netherlands.pdf and Hans-Joachim Schulze and Peter Cuyvers, The Situation of Families in The Netherlands in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_netherlands_schulze_cuyvers.pdf
6. Aphrodite Teperoglou, "Greece," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. James J. Ponzetti, (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA (2002), p. 775. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
8. Simpson, J.A. and E.S.C. Weiner, The Compact Oxford English Dictionary (New/Second Edition), Oxford University Press, Inc., New York, NY (2000).
5. See Ivo Mozny and Tomas Katrnak, "The Czech Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 235-261 (2005). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
27. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998) (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
28. Sherri Grasmuck, "Gender, Households and Informal Entrepreneurship in the Dominican Republic," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 1997) (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:20355395
29. Walter Bien, "The Situation of Families In EU-15: A Synthesis Based on the National Reports," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 19. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_synthese_en.pdf
30. Walter Bien, "The Situation of Families In EU-15: A Synthesis Based on the National Reports," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 19. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_synthese_en.pdf
31. Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 7. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf
32. Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 7. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf
33. Sirpa Taskinen, The Situation of Families in Finland in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 4. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_finland_taskinen_en.pdf
34. Giovanni B. Sgritta, "Families in Italy: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 10. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Italy.pdf
35. Walter Bien, "The Situation of Families In EU-15: A Synthesis Based on the National Reports," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 19. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_synthese_en.pdf
36. Christos Bagavos, "Families in Greece: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 11. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Greece.pdf
20. Source of Data: Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision. Accessed at: http://esa.un.org/unpp on November 9, 2005.
1. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), pp. 11-12 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
2. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), pp. 11-12 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
3. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), pp. 11-12 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
5. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 26 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
6. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 44. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
7. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9 (Arabic language citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf See also Nazek Nosseir, "Family in the New Millennium: Major Trends Affecting Families in North Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 13. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtnosseir.pdf
8. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
9. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), pp. 10-11. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
10. Gabriel Kiely, The Situation of Families in Ireland, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), pp. 3-4 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_ireland_kiely_en.pdf
11. Christos Bagavos, The Situation of Families in Greece, 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 4 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_greece_bagavos.pdf
12. ________, "Key Facts on Conflict," Press Kit for State of the World's Children, 2005, UNICEF. Accessed at http://www.unicef.org/sowc05/english/press_facts2.html on September 18, 2005.
13. Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 32 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
14. Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 52. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
15. Gabriel Kiely, The Situation of Families in Ireland, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), pp. 3-4 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_ireland_kiely_en.pdf
20. Dimiter Philipov, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central and Eastern Europe," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 14 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtphilipov.pdf
21. According to a 1999 study. Dimiter Philipov, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central and Eastern Europe," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 13 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtphilipov.pdf
22. Nazek Nosseir, "Family in the New Millennium: Major Trends Affecting Families in North Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtnosseir.pdf
23. Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 51. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
24. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p.10. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
26. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
27. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 9. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
28. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 9. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
29. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 4. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
48. Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 50. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
49. Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 56. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
50. Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 56. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
51. Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 50. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
52. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), pp. 6-7. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
53. Dimiter Philipov, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central and Eastern Europe," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 13. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtphilipov.pdf
54. Gabriel Kiely, The Situation of Families in Ireland, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_ireland_kiely_en.pdf and personal observations from Ashley Merryman.
55. Christos Bagavos, "Families in Greece: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 9. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Greece.pdf See also Christos Bagavos, The Situation of Families in Greece, 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), pp. 3-4. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_greece_bagavos.pdf
56. Christos Bagavos, "Families in Greece: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 9. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Greece.pdf See also Christos Bagavos, The Situation of Families in Greece, 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), pp. 3-4. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_greece_bagavos.pdf
57. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 19. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
58. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), pp. 8-9. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
64. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 5. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
65. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9 (Arabic language citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
66. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
67. Walter Bien, The Situation of Families in Germany, 2000-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_germany_bien_en.pdf
70. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 19 (emphasis added). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
75. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) pp. 18-19. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
76. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 4. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
77. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 10 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
78. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 7 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf See also Dimiter Philipov, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central and Eastern Europe," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 12 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtphilipov.pdf
79. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 19. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
80. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 7 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
81. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 6. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
82. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 7 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
83. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 6. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
84. Dimiter Philipov, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central and Eastern Europe," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtphilipov.pdf
85. Cecilia L.W. Chan, "How the Socio-cultural Context Shapes Women's Divorce Experience in Hong Kong," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302752 and Yu-Hua Chen and Chin-Chin Yi, "Taiwan's Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 177-198 (2005), p. 193. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
86. Dimiter Philipov, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central and Eastern Europe," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtphilipov.pdf
147. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 21 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf See also Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 24 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
148. Luke J. Larsen, Foreign Born Population in the United States: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-551. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 4 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-551.pdf
149. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 24 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
150. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 17. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf and Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 50. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
151. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 24 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
152. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 27 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
153. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 28. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
154. See Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 19 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf;
155. See Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 19 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf; Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf; relating to language acquisition of emigrants in the U.S. and their educational attainment, see Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf and A. Dianne Schmidley and Campbell Gibson, Profile of the Foreign-Born Population in the United States: 1997, U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, Series P23-195, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1999). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/99pubs/p23-195.pdf and personal observations of Ashley Merryman.
156. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 14-16. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
157. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 14-16. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
158. See Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 50. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf and Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 20. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
159. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 27 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
160. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 8 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
161. As of 2002. Luke J. Larsen, Foreign Born Population in the United States: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-551. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-551.pdf
162. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 14-16. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
163. According to a study. There is actually little official study of this issue.Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 8 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
164. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) pp. 17-18. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
165. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 12 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
166. Amount in U.S. Dollars, according to a study. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 18 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
167. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) pp. 17-18 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
168. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) pp. 17-18. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
169. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
170. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9 (Arabic language citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
171. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9 (Arabic language citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
172. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9 (Arabic language citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
173. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9 (Arabic language citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
174. Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 55. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
175. Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 51. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
1. See discussion in Laura J. Miller, "Family Togetherness and the Suburban Ideal," Sociological Forum, Vol. 10, No. 3., pp. 393-418 (September 1995), pp. 396-398. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0884-8971%28199509%2910%3A3%3C393%3AFTATSI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C
37. Based on a 1993 survey of women 16 years old and over. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), pp. 89-91, 152. (citations omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
38. Based on a 1994-1996 survey of women 20 to 60 years old. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 90 (citation omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
60. Christos Bagavos, The Situation of Families in Greece, 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_greece_bagavos.pdf