Asia / Pacific Rim (Part Two)
 
Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 47
 
This information duplicates items from the rest of The Factbook, selecting only those items that relate to Asia and the Pacific Rim. However, numbers don't mean much without a comparison to family life in other continents. And that is why we may have included a lot of information on certain issues, but it seems like we have less regional information for others. Actually, that isn't the case – we just chose what were for us notable commonalities or exceptions, cross-culturally. For further information about a particular region, see the regional studies reports we've referenced in the footnotes: they probably have any additional information you might need on a particular country or region.
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 
 

WHY GET MARRIED?

 
 
 
A union of families –

While arranged marriages are no longer common in Hong Kong, the belief there is still that the purpose of marriage is never to unite two individuals, but to continue the husband's family lineage, and to "unite two surnames" – meaning unite two family lineages. 8.

 
 
I will get married even if I'm not in love –
What 76 percent of students in India – where arranged marriages are still common – said in a 1995 survey. 10.
 
 
 
Two-Thirds
Number of surveyed Japanese-American women and Chinese-American single women who explained that their refusal to get married was in large part due to the fact that their parents had gotten married because of familial responsibilities and obligations, rather than on love. 11.
 
 
 
"I don't":
There were four reasons why surveyed Chinese-American and Japanese-American women were not married: their parents's marriage was not love based, their status as elder daughters who had to care for their family, their educational goals, and their belief that there wasn't anyone appropriate to marry. 13.
 
 
 
A successful marriage, with many sons
The goal for most Afghan women . . . and Afghan men. 17.
 
 
 
In South-Eastern and Eastern Asia, marriage has been almost universal.
In Malay, until about three decades ago, over 50 percent of the Muslin women there were married before they were 18, and over 99 percent of them were married by the time they'd reached their 40s. And what were just about only reasons for not getting married? If the women were mentally ill, or physically deformed. 19.
 
 
 
If she doesn't want to marry, it's the parents' fault?
In Korea, a woman's decision to not marry is sometimes seen as her parents' failure: they failed in their duty to her since they haven't found her a mate. 20.
 
 
 
The practice of polygyny has been on the decline around the world – but it does still continue. In Afghanistan, polygyny has been less prevalent – but divorce holds greater stigma than does a second wife, so a problem with a first wife – such as her inability to have children, or the fact that all of her children have been girls – may be a reason for an Afghani man to take another wife. 21.
 
 
 
 

WHO'S THE LUCKY GUY (GIRL)?

 
 
 
Marry within
Amongst Indian Hindus, caste compatibility and cultural background are still often more important than couple's having similar educational and financial backgrounds. Coming from a different caste or culture is seen as a legitimate reason to disapprove of a match. 28.
 
 
 
Checking out his horoscope –
In India, it isn't a pick-up line in the bar. Astrologists are consulted to see if the couple is a good match. If he is, they'll even pick the day for the ceremony. 29.
 
 
 
I'll tell you what you think of him –
While this has been changing in recent years, even after an initial introduction, a prospective Indian couple still doesn't have much direct interaction before marriage. They may meet a few times, but really any ongoing communication goes on between the couple's parents or go-betweens. 30.
 
 
 
Traditional requirements for an Indian Hindu man in order to be considered marriageable:

He can't be insane.
He can't be impotent.
He can't have a terrible disease. 31.

 
Traditional requirements for an Indian Hindu woman in order to be considered marriageable:

She cannot have been married before.
If she isn't the oldest, then her older sisters must already be married.
She must be want to bear children for her husband.
She must be physically attractive.
She must be practical, and know how to manage a household.
She must be docile.
She must be eager to satisfy her husband sexually. 32.

 
 
25 percent
of Taiwanese marriages in 2002 were between a Taiwanese man and a bride from elsewhere in Southeast Asia. This influx of brides is largely due to the fact that blue-collar men, farmers, and older veterans of the Chinese Cival War have had a hard time finding brides amongst the increasingly urbanized, educated Taiwanese women. The marriages aren't trouble-free. The foreign brides are more frequently abused, and their children – with mothers lacking knowledge of Taiwanese culture and Chinese language skills, and fathers lacking financial resources – are noticeably behind in their educations. 33.
 
 
 
Don't want to be their mothers –
Three-fourths of Japanese-American women and Chinese-American women surveyed said that dating Asian-American men was difficult, because the men wanted the women to adopt traditional, submissive gender roles, while the women were looking for men who would share child-rearing and household responsibilities. 34.
 
 
 
15 percent
of Indian women who have married, married a blood relative. 42.
 
 
 
 
 

CULTURAL TRADITIONS IN MARRIAGE AND WEDDINGS

 
 
 
 
 
Television shows and "supermatchmakers" –
are Taiwanese favorites for introducing eligible men and women for possible mates. 51.
 
 
 
 
So it's supposed to comes out even – but it doesn't.
In Afghanistan, there's a brideprice – the amount that the groom pays the bride's family for his wife – and a dowry. Normally, they're supposed to be equal. But the amount is of huge importance, and the subject of heavy negotiations. And much more than just money is at stake. The bride's social status in the family is set by the value of the brideprice and the dowry. It will determine not only her role, but the quality of the dowry will also be key to the prestige of both the bride's and the groom's family. Just what is in the dowry? Enough clothing – that the bride and her family members have embroidered, woven, and tailored themselves – bedding, and household utensils which are expected to last the couple for the first fifteen years of their marriage. So preparing the daughter's dowry is a fundamental activity in any Afghani home.57.
 
 
 
In India,
"In cities like New Delhi, elaborate processions wind through the streets as the groom heads for the wedding on his white horse. Even families of modest means will incur enormous debts to provide feasts and dowries for their daughters. Many families retain the services of marriage brokers, whose task is to seek out eligible prospective daughters-in-law who meet the qualifications set out by the parents of either bride or groom. Traditional marriage brokers are specialists in genealogy. Many families also refer to marriage ads that are a regular feature of newspapers." 58.
 
 
 
The Year of the Tiger –
is thought by Chinese and Taiwanese to be a year of war, disagreement and disaster. Thus, in 1998, a Year of the Tiger, there was a sharp drop in the number of marriages and babies born in Taiwan. 59.
 
 
 
The Year of the Dragon –
is thought by Chinese and Taiwanese to be a good year for both marriage and family. Thus, in 2000, a Year of the Dragon, Taiwan saw a sharp increase in both. 60.
 
 
 
Giving the Bride Away –
In a traditional Hindu wedding, the beginning of the rite is when the groom comes to the bride's home, asking her father for his bride. When he approves, Brahmin priests read the families' genealogies. 61.
 
 
 

ARRANGED MARRIAGES

 
 
At varying times, arranged marriages have occurred pretty much everywhere (except the U.S., but they were present there occasionally), although currently the majority of them seem to be occurring in Asian and Middle Eastern cultures, or within their expat communities. While currently on the decline to about 9.9 percent of marriages in Japan, Japanese have a tradition of arranged marriages. They do, as well, in Thailand and Korea, too. Hmongs, Hasidic Jews and well, maybe some “ultra-Orthodox Jews” (who definitely use marriage brokers, but they would say that it is the introductions, and not the marriages which are arranged).
 
 
 
"Brown (1994) notes that college students in Korea may not be happy with their family being involved in marriage decisions; nevertheless, they do not doubt their legitimacy in making these important life decisions. As Talbani and Hasanali (2000) point out, "The arranged marriage has been a key instrument for economic, social and political stability in South Asian culture. It has been used to make political alliances, solidify economic positions, and secure social stability among large families, tribes, and communities" (p. 625)." 71.
 
 
 
In the Middle East, it is also cultural, not exactly religious, that marriages are arranged. Muslim, Sikh, Buddhist, and yes, Indian Tamil Catholics and other denominations of Christians, do it, too. 72.
 
 
 
85 to 90 percent
of India's marriages are arranged, regardless the couple's religious belief. 73.
 
 
 
Forced Marriages –
are just that – those where one (or more) of the parties has not freely consented to the marriage. They are literally being forced to marry, under the threat of violence to themselves or other loved ones. The difference between “a forced marriage” and just your run of the mill “arranged marriage” is important to remember, and unfortunately, Western news reports sometimes blur their use of the terms. Failing to see the distinction is criticized within the affected communities: Arabic Muslim journalists say such that it smacks of “Islamophobia” and Western media’s sloppiness. 74.
 
 
 
The ability to marry someone of one's choosing, voluntarily, is considered a human right, and as such is included in the United Nations' Universal Declaration on Human Rights and other international treaties. That is significant on two points – first, it underscores the importance of the issue, and also that governments must address forced marriages by migrants from other nations. In the United Kingdom, with its growing Muslim emigrant population, its law enforcement community has taken special efforts to understand the different types of arranged marriages, and how to identify when an arranged marriage is actually a forced marriage. Just being able to identify a forced marriage, however, is not the end of the problem. Getting married is, unless a spouse is underage, generally not illegal, and if the only evidence of a forced marriage is a statement that a parent has ordered a child to marry, it's difficult to prove when a crime has actually been committed. At the same time, those who have been making the threats of violence – and perhaps their threatened victims – are in their home country, making it next to impossible for U.K. officials to investigate the matter. There are, unfortunately, cases with physical violence. But for many forced marriages, it is a domestic violence of the mind. 75.
 
 
 
 
 
In Australia, there's been an eight percent decline in the number of people who are married in the past 20 years. Half of that is due to people living with each other, instead of getting married. But the other half just don't have partners at all.
 
 
 
In 34 percent
of Australian marriages in 2000, at least one of the spouses had been married previously.
 
 
 
58.2 percent
of Australian divorced men will remarry.
 
 
 
48.7 percent
of Australian divorced women will remarry.
 
 
 
 
 
106,400
marriages in Australia, in 2003 – "an increase of 960 when compared with 2002, and continuing the increase in the number of marriages since the low of 103,130 in 2001."
 
 
 
 
12 percent
of Australian couples with children aged 0-17, in 2003, who were unmarried. "Couples in both step (56 percent) and blended families (39 percent) were more likely than those in intact families (8 percent) to be in a de facto marriage."
 
 
 
 

Unmarried Partners

 
 
Living together may not mean a greater risk of divorce –
Among Australians, while the divorce rate is higher for those who have lived together before marriage, it may not be that living together is the cause. Instead, the fact is that the population that is likely to live together is largely the same population that's more likely to divorce in any event – those who are less religious, lived in a broken home, etc. And those who are without those characteristics but live together are no more likely to divorce if they live together before marrying. So it isn't the living together that's the determinant of marriage success or failure.
 
 
 
But that doesn't mean everyone's hanging out in the Outback all by himself -
Instead, what is happening is that younger Australians form partnered relationships, but a lot of them don't last – so the end result is that more people are single at any given time.
 
 
 
72 percent
of first-time marrieds Australians lived with their spouses before they got married. That's up from just 16 percent in the 1970s, and 43 percent in the 1980s.
 
 
 
73 percent
of Australian couples in 2002 had cohabited prior to marriage. Comparative data from the 1991 Family Survey showed that twenty years ago only 30 percent of couples had lived together prior to marriage.
 
 
"Premarital cohabitation is clearly being used by many couples in the West to determine compatibility and the potential for co-parenting and marriage. In 1981-82, in a national survey or 18-34 year olds in Australia, "55 percent of females and 62 percent of males agreed that "it is good to have a trial marriage," by which they meant cohabitation (Carmichael, 1985, pp. 98-100)."
 
 
 
 
0.5 percent
In 2001 same-sex de facto married Australians represented 0.5 percent of all persons living as social married.
 
 
 
12 percent
of Australian couples with children aged 0-17, in 2003, who were unmarried. "Couples in both step (56 percent) and blended families (39 percent) were more likely than those in intact families (8 percent) to be in a de facto marriage."
 
 
 
 
11 percent
of Australian same-sex de facto married households with children present, compared with 42 percent of opposite-sex de facto married and 59 percent of registered married.
 
 
 
Honored husband –
Traditional South Korean husbands were considered so superior to their wives that their wives would speak to them in deferential language, while they might speak abusively to their wives. They would even eat better than their wives. And he slept in a separate room, outside of the main house, to symbolize his authority over the family in the larger world.
 
 
 
Never go in the kitchen –
In traditional South Korean families, the men never went into the kitchen: that was their wives' domain. And that idea has still carries a lot of weight. Even in more progressive families of today, if the man wants even a glass of water, he doesn't get it: his wife does.
 
 
 
Pretty much, it's the law –
In India, traditionally, the elders of the family are the patriarchs, and what they decide is considered infallible. This is weakening somewhat, however, in the modern era.
 
 
 
"4-2-1"
Because of the now decades-old "one-child" policy in China, children may be growing up by themselves, with no siblings or cousins, and end up responsible for the care of anywhere between two to six older couples, and their own children.
 
 
 
65 percent
of Chinese newlyweds rural areas live with the husband's parents. For urban couples, it's about half that: 32 percent. And they'll remain there until something – a change in employment, a death, etc. – happens that forces a change.
 
 
 
"A distance that keeps a soup warm."
a Chinese proverb explaining the maximum distance children should move away from their parents.
 
 
 
48 percent
of Chinese adult children live within the same district – a 20 minute walk – from their parents. Nine percent live in the same neighborhood – a three-minute walk.
 
 
 
25 percent
of Chinese parents have daily contact with their adult children. 80 percent see them on a weekly basis, at least.
 
 
 
 
In Afghanistan, "Relations between co-wives can be amiable, sister-like and mutually supportive in sharing household chores and in securing favorable attention from the husband, but relations can also be stormy and many men hesitate to take a second wife because of the fierce battles that can erupt. Some co-wives resort to magic to ease household tensions by purchasing a variety of amulets and charms, including dried hoopoe heads and wolf claws which are believed to guarantee loving attention from husbands, peace with mothers-in-law and sweet tempers all around."
 
 
 
Koseki
the Japanese term for the family registration, that arose following the legal recognition of the blood line family headed by a father, which was not thrown out after WWII.
 
 
 
"A great variety of family forms have existed historically in Japan, from the matrilocal customs of the Heian elite, which are described in Genji monogatari (Tale of Genji), to the extreme patrilineality of the samurai class in the feudal period."
 
 
 
In Japan, "Numerous family forms, through which ran a common belief in the existence of the family-household beyond the life of its current members, coexisted particularly in the countryside. Among the upper classes and wealthier merchant and artisan urban households of the Tokugawa period, the chonin , providing for household continuity, and if possible enriching the household's estate, represented duty to one's ancestors and appreciation toward one's parents."
 
 
 
ie
Japanese term for the system established in the early 20th Century, that requiring registration of the multigenerational household, under the legal authority of a household head. "In establishing the ie system, the government moved the ideology of family in the opposite direction of trends resulting from urbanization and industrialization. The ie system took as its model for the family the Confucian-influenced pattern of the upper classes of the Tokugawa period. Authority and responsibility for all members of the ie lay legally with the household head. Each generation supplied a male and female adult, with a preference for inheritance by the first son and for patrilocal marriage. When possible, daughters were expected to marry out, and younger sons were expected to establish their own households. Women could not legally own or control property or select spouses. The ie system thus artificially restricted the development of individualism, individual rights, women's rights, and the nuclearization of the family. It formalized patriarchy and emphasized lineal and instrumental, rather than conjugal and emotional ties, within the family."
 
 
 
Post-WWII / Allied Occupation Changes the Japanese Family
"After World War II, the Allied occupation forces established a new [Japanese] family ideology based on equal rights for women, equal inheritance by all children, and free choice of spouse and career. From the late 1960s, most marriages in Japan have been based on the mutual attraction of the couple and not the arrangement by the parents. Moreover, arranged marriages might begin with an introduction by a relative or family friend, but actual negotiations do not begin until all parties, including the bride and groom, are satisfied with the relationship."
 
 
 
"Under the [Japanese] ie system, only a minority of households included three generations at a time because nonsuccessor sons (those who were not heirs) often set up their own household. From 1970 to 1983, the proportion of three-generation households fell from 19 percent to 15 percent of all households, while two generation households consisting of a couple and their unmarried children increased only slightly, from 41 percent to 42 percent of all households. The greatest change has been the increase in couple-only households and in elderly single-person households."
 
 
 
"[Japanese] Public opinion surveys in the late 1980s seemed to confirm the statistical movement away from the three-generation ie family model. Half of the respondents did not think that the first son had a special role to play in the family, and nearly two-thirds rejected the need for adoption of a son in order to continue the family. Other changes, such as an increase in filial violence and school refusal, suggest a breakdown of strong family authority."
 
 
 
"Strong gender roles remained the cornerstone of [Japanese mid-1990s] family responsibilities. Most survey respondents said that family life should emphasize parent-child ties over husband-wife relations. Nearly 80 percent of respondents in a 1986 government survey believed that the ancestral home and family grave should be carefully kept and handed on to one's children. More than 60 percent thought it best for elderly parents to live with one of their children."
 
 
 
"This sense of [Japanese mid-1990s] family as a unit that continues through time is stronger among people who have a livelihood to pass down, such as farmers, merchants, owners of small companies, and physicians, than among urban salary and wage earners. Anthropologist Jane M. Bachnik noted the continued emphasis on continuity in the rural families she studied. Uchi (here, the contemporary family) were considered the living members of an ie , which had no formal existence. Yet, in each generation, there occurred a sorting of members into permanent and temporary members, defining different levels of uchi."
 
 
 
"In many urban salaryman [Japanese mid-1990s] families, the husband may commute to work and return late, having little time with his children except for Sundays, a favorite day for family outings. The wife might be a "professional housewife," with nearly total responsibility for raising children, ensuring their careers and marriages, running the household, and managing the family budget. She also has primary responsibility for maintaining social relations with the wider circles of relatives, neighbors, and acquaintances and for managing the family's reputation. Her social life remains separate from that of her husband. It is increasingly likely that in addition to these family responsibilities, she may also have a part-time job or participate in adult education or other community activities. The closest emotional ties within such families are between the mother and children."
 
 
 
"In other [Japanese mid-1990s] families, particularly among the self-employed, husband and wife work side by side in a family business. Although gender-based roles are clear cut, they might not be as rigidly distinct as in a household where work and family are more separated. In such families, fathers are more involved in their children's development because they have more opportunity for interacting with them."
 
 
 
"As [Japanese] women worked outside of the home with increasing frequency beginning in the 1970s, there was pressure on their husbands to take on more responsibility for housework and child care. Farm families, who depend on nonfarm employment for most of their income, are also developing patterns of interaction different from those of previous generations."
 
 
 
"In [Asian] traditional societies, the close proximity to kin was considered a valuable feature of one’s home both in terms of physical and economic security. Close proximity to kin was often implemented by the sharing of the same physical compound or the same house by members of the extended family. As societies become economically and socially more diverse, heads of nuclear families within the extended family earn a living in a wider variety of occupations and locations. This process together with changes in the value of privacy, authority and hierarchy within the family, have led to the setting up of independent homes by nuclear and three-generation families thus changing the composition of domestic households everywhere."
 
 
 
"Three sub-themes that arose were based on Filipino cultural beliefs and norms namely (a) Pakikisama--family unity and closeness (b) Utang na loob--mutual reciprocity "the give and take" and obligation in relationships, and (c) authoritarianism (being responsible role models, elders are highly valued, and respect for authority figures)."
 
 
 
"Filipino Immigrants to the U.S. have the highest percentage (27 percent) of Asian American grandparents who are living with their own grandchildren under 18 years or age and who are responsible for their grandchildren (28 percent). When the members of the Filipino nuclear family or extended family migrate to the U.S., they usually live together because the family is a major source of emotional, moral, and economic support. Many elders become surrogate parents and homemakers for their grandchildren when both parents are employed). The family collectively provides a unique system of care for family members from birth to end of life.. Filipinos strongly identify with their nuclear and extended family and the needs and welfare of the family come before those of the individual."
 
 
 
"Under the influence of Confucianism, family is accorded the central place in Chinese society. Confucian's definition of the five basic human relationships in the classic Book of Rites are: ruler-minister, father-son, elder brother-younger brother, husband-wife, and friend-friend. Of these five, three are familial relationships with clear generation, age, and gender hierarchy prescribed (Pimentel, 1994)."
 
 
 
"When the members of the Filipino nuclear family or extended family migrate to the U.S., they usually live together because the family is a major source of emotional, moral, and economic support. Many elders become surrogate parents and homemakers for their grandchildren when both parents are employed). The family collectively provides a unique system of care for family members from birth to end of life.. Filipinos strongly identify with their nuclear and extended family and the needs and welfare of the family come before those of the individual."
 
 
 
"Filipino American grandparents view the grandparenting caregiving role as a normative process rather than a burden. Families take on responsibilities as result of their cultural beliefs and norms such as pakikisama, utang na loob, and authoritarianism."
 
 
 
"In both Hindu and Confucian traditions, practiced throughout Asia, only sons can pray for and release the souls of dead parents, and only males can perform birth, death, and marriage rituals."
 
 
 
In China, "The active influence of such Western romantic notions has been evident throughout the latter half of the 20th century. The conception of marriage in Hong Kong is now moving from a traditional, patriarchal, utilitarian mode to a modern, egalitarian, companionate one."
 
 
 
"The present findings show that although [Chinese] male adolescents and female adolescents did not perceive paternal parenting characteristics differently, the female adolescents perceived their mothers as more demanding but less harsh than their fathers. The observed differences were greater than some reported relatively "small" gender differences (e.g., Dornbusch et al., 1987)."
 
 
 
"30 percent of Chinese women surveyed in 1990 thought that men are born to be more important than women, and 33 percent agreed that women should hold back so that they are not more successful than their husbands."
 
 
 
"Generally speaking, the status of women inside the family is consistent with their status outside the family. As Whyte and Parish (1984) and Robinson (1985) pointed out, despite the government's unremitting drive toward gender parity after 1949, gender inequality continues in urban Chinese families. This tendency has long been referred to as patriarchal socialism (Stacey, 1983). However, if changes in gender attitudes through early childhood socialization under the communist rule can be translated into behavior changes, a somewhat egalitarian division of household labor in urban Chinese families should be expected, particularly in comparison with capitalist America. This is to say that although husbands may continue to endorse the traditional division of domestic labor, they may have actually and perhaps slowly started to extend their help in the kitchen and get more involved in the "female's chores." It is also entirely possible, though by no means certain, that the overall shift in wives' share of the load can be a function of women's role in the labor force, therefore, resulting in less time available for family obligations."
 
 
 
"For whatever reasons, be it the diffusion of the egalitarian ideology advocated by the government or the force of modernization, the gap between husbands and wives in shouldering domestic chores begins to narrow in urban China."
 
 
 
" . . . family authority pattern is primarily patriarchal, which characterizes the husband as a breadwinner and the wife as a caregiver. As can be seen, this holds true in both urban America and urban China, except the fact that the Chinese husbands outperformed their American counterparts in "helping out." In short, gender inequality rather than egalitarianism is the characterization of the relationship between husbands and wives in the division of household labor. Moreover, in the face of dramatic social change, men's power in making family decisions has remained at a substantial, if not constant, level. Once again, contrary to Goode's claim, the macro-level shifts do not seem to be able to overcome men's resistance, and a convergence toward egalitarianism has yet to come into being."
 
 
 
". . . neither capitalist America nor socialist China had shown real signs of a significant transformation from patriarchal to gender-egalitarian power relationships in the past fifty years. The wife's recent achievement in economic independence via labor force participation does not easily translate into a gender-balanced power structure in the conjugal family. In the case of Detroit, we do not see an expected steady decline in husbands' power since the 1960s' cohorts where women begun to increasingly enter into the labor force. In the case of China, the finding is consistent with previous studies, which revealed that in urban Chinese families husbands tend to dominate the decision-making process."
 
 
 
"To the contrary, the curve across historical generations seems to suggest that, in urban America husbands do not contribute much to "female duties" that have been traditionally assigned to wives. What is more discouraging is that after the wife's employment status is controlled, the slope remains virtually unchanged (the result is not shown here). This leads us to argue that, in contemporary America married women may increasingly participate in the labor force, their husbands, however, do not do much more around the house than do husbands of nonemployed wives (Blumberg and Coleman, 1989)."
 
 
 
"To the extent that [American] husbands do contribute to housework (particularly washing dishes), their efforts are often considered "helping out" and their wives typically take primary responsibility to ensure that the task is carried out (Hochschild, 1989). In agreement with these previous studies, this research finds that gender inequality persists in how household labor is routinely divided in urban American families."
 
 
 
" For whatever reasons, be it the diffusion of the egalitarian ideology advocated by the government or the force of modernization, the gap between husbands and wives in shouldering domestic chores begins to narrow in urban China."
 
 
 
". . . neither capitalist America nor socialist China had shown real signs of a significant transformation from patriarchal to gender-egalitarian power relationships in the past fifty years. The wife's recent achievement in economic independence via labor force participation does not easily translate into a gender-balanced power structure in the conjugal family. In the case of Detroit, we do not see an expected steady decline in husbands' power since the 1960s' cohorts where women begun to increasingly enter into the labor force. In the case of China, the finding is consistent with previous studies, which revealed that in urban Chinese families husbands tend to dominate the decision-making process."
 
 
 
"the customs of the upper-caste Oriya Hindus as they are described by anthropologist Usha Menon.(114) The moral order advanced by the Hindu religion is one that cherishes self-control, self-refinement, and duty to the family. Most Hindus, both men and women, would find the Western emphasis on the primacy of the individual immoral and futile because they believe that the self does not exist apart from its connections with others.(115) Hindus do not think of the person as indivisible and bounded, but as divisible, "continually changing and being reconstituted by the givings and receivings he or she engages in."(116) Hindus transform themselves through daily practices and rituals of refinement. Women are especially permeable because they menstruate and reproduce, and as a result they are required to be more concerned than men about their connections with others, their daily practices, and their rituals of refinement. To regulate their exchanges with others, Oriya Hindu women must seclude themselves within family compounds, have virtually no contact with strangers, and meticulously observe prescribed daily practices.(117)"
 
 
 
Oriya Hindu women are usually literate in the local language, but not necessarily schooled. They have arranged marriages, spend their entire life within the compounds of their natal and conjugal extended households, and have only minimal contact with the outside world.(118) Both Oriya men and women regard the domestic sphere as the most important sphere of human action.(119) The senior women within an extended household control and manage all household affairs, including the household finances and expenses. Thus, according to Menon, it would not be correct to cast men as oppressors and women as victims, but rather to speak of the more senior family members controlling the activities of the more junior.(120) Unlike men, Oriya Hindu women do not inherit property.(121)
 
 
 
Married women are believed to embody the family's fund of auspiciousness and its future. If the woman is irresponsible in the management of the family resources or is promiscuous, then the family will be mined. Oriya Hindus insist that the control over greed and lust must come from within. This can only be achieved through the surrender of one's sense of self and service to others. These are the two basic duties of married women. Thus, in order to enable them to achieve self-control, married women are expected to cook, serve food, fast, eat last, eat leftovers, and selflessly take care of the physical as well as the emotional needs of the members of the extended family.(122)
 
 
 
According to Menon, though junior women find the first years in the conjugal home -- to which they are obliged to move after their arranged marriage -- difficult, they ascribe their difficulties to their own failure to open themselves completely in order to assimilate and be remade into the substance of their conjugal family. Further, all women understand that even the most junior women can start acquiring power to make decisions for themselves and later for the family by building relationships and exerting influence through cooking, serving, and taking care of others.(123) Junior women do not complain about their situation, both because they know that such complaints would be futile and would jeopardize their efforts to gain more power and position by assimilating into the family, and because they know that someday they will occupy the positions of power as senior women in the family.(124)
 
 
 
Menon concludes that the Oriya Hindu women lead "fairly fulfilling, contented lives" for several reasons.(125) First, their identification with the Goddess Devi, who embodies the energy and power of the universe, is a source of substantial self-worth. Second, Oriya Hindu women are universally regarded as being central to the material and spiritual welfare of their families.(126) Third, within a few years of marriage, they identify themselves completely with the conjugal family and their sense of self emerges from their involvement with it.(127)
 
 
 
This account of the lives of Oriya Hindu women demonstrates beautifully how religion and culture make a selective use of the ideals of selflessness and self-sacrifice in order to subjugate women, while at the same time persuading them that they are leading good and fulfilling lives. Such an account also explains why Oriya Hindu men are convinced that they are not subjugating the women. First, like the women, the men are brought up to believe that the functions women fulfill and their highly-restricted existence reflect their special powers and not their weakness.(128) Second, the enormous benefits men get from living in a moral order of this kind are bound to quench any doubts about its legitimacy that they might entertain. Third, as the moral order under which the group exists is so all-encompassing, as well as uncompromising, that individual men do not feel they have any say in its shaping. Feeling they are as bound by the moral order as the women are and that they are prevented from changing it, men do not feel any responsibility and therefore no guilt for its continuing existence. . . .
____________________________________________________
 
 
Guo + Jia
The Chinese word for "nation" consists of the combination of two other characters: "guo" – country – and "jia" – family. 8.
 
 
 
It doesn't just take a village – it is one –
Up until the mid-1800s, a Japanese family unit was considered those who worked together in a single village. 9.
 
 
 
ie
In 1889, Japanese law defined a family to be based on blood lineage, with a father as head of the household, passing on down to his eldest son. Since the determining factor was paternal blood relations, that included polygamous families: all children who had the same father were considered to be in the same family. 10.
 
 
 
uchi:
The contemporary Japanese term for family, following post-World War II changes in the nation's laws and society. It may refer to a nuclear family of parents and unmarried children, but it can also mean a household as a unit of production or consumption. 11.
 
 
 
____________________________________________________
 
 
 
More than 90 percent
of Chinese people lived in rural areas at the turn of the Twentieth Century.
 
 
 
More than 60 percent
of Chinese people lived in rural areas at the turn of the Twentieth-First Century.
 
 
 
78.8 percent
of Japanese living in urban areas in 2000, just a slight increase from 77.4 percent in 1990.
 
 
 
48.8 percent
of Filipinos living in urban areas in 2000, an increase from 58.6 percent in 1990.
 
 
 
"Filipinos are generally acquainted with internal migration from rural villages to cities and on to Metropolitan Manila. But the move of one or more breadwinners to a job in another country posses more serious challenges to the cohesion of married couples, husband-wife communication, parent-child bonding, parental authority and adolescent behaviour, among other aspects. On the positive side, the migrant worker's network of support is mobilized on a reciprocal basis: the worker sends money regularly to his/her family and kin while the extended kin provide support to the worker's spouse, now de facto a single parent, and children left behind."
 
 
 
Effects on South Asian Families Due to Migration to Urban Areas
– more possibility for egalitarian and intimate relationships between spouses, because the couple is away from the (husband’s) mother-in-law;
– changing family structure from extended, multigenerational family system to nuclear one;
– smaller family size
– opportunity to enter work-force (and therefore increasing women’s independence).
–Adoption of a “fast food culture” (diet changes, usually more food, but maybe worse for you)
– Increased stress from conflict between demands of family and work
– Living in unhealthy housing (congestion, pollution, slum/shanty conditions)
– creation of “a new urban middle class” that has increased exposure to globalization, consumerism, and information technology.

____________________________________________________
 
 
 
 
28 percent
of Australians were born overseas.
 
 
 
Over 7 million –
South Koreans live outside of their nation of origin. Of these, half left home after 1965.
 
 
 
69 percent
of all Asians in the U.S. are foreign born, compared to the total U.S. population of 11.1 percent.
 
 
 
43 percent
of the Asian population in the U.S. entered the country between the years 1990 to 2000.
 
 
 
 
"For instance, in 1995, some 19,000 Filipino female migrants worked in Italy, as opposed to only 8,700 Filipino men. This applies, for instance, to Yugoslav female migrants living in The Netherlands. In 1997, some 22,900 female migrants lived there, with an almost equal number of 23,800 male migrants."
 
 
 
During the 1950s and 1960s, "The demand for cheap labor triggered a mass migration movement to the respective former ‘mother countries’. Migrants from former colonies willing to migrate to Europe had several advantages over people from other regions: most of them were already able to speak the language of the host country and also received preferential treatment when it came to obtaining a residence permit or even citizenship. These conditions made it easier for many groups: Indians and Pakistanis, among others, who migrated to Great Britain, Moroccans and Algerians who moved to France; and people from Surinam who migrated to The Netherlands."
 
 
 
43 percent
of the Asian population in the U.S. entered the country from 1990 to 2000.
 
 
 
 
In China, "Beginning in the mid 80s and peaking in the early 90s, most manufacturing industries in Hong Kong moved their factories to the nearby southern part of China where the cost of production is much lower especially in labor and venue. By the mid 1990s, about 25,000 Hong Kong factories have moved (Jessop & Ngai, 2000). In addition, many large enterprises began to establish offices in major Chinese cities to grab a share of this vast market. Thus, large numbers of employers and employees in Hong Kong are stationed in China for extended periods of time. Most of these individuals are men. They usually do not bring their families with them due to a much lower living standard in most factory sites in Southern China and a totally different social system, including education. These male workers usually return to Hong Kong only during weekends, creating many opportunities for these men to engage in extra-marital affairs in Mainland China."
 
 
 
"Many single men in Hong Kong, especially those from the lower socioeconomic stratum, often older, who formerly were not able to find a mate in Hong Kong, are able to secure one in China (Fung & Hung, 1998). The arrangement generally is that the man will go to China to meet the bride candidate, usually much younger and often from families in economic hardship. When both parties consent, they will get married in China. Because of the immigration quota, the bride has to wait for her turn to enter Hong Kong, which often takes years. In the mean time, the man will travel periodically to China to visit his wife and children and, of course, contribute financially. When the wife eventually comes to Hong Kong, the marriage is sometimes strained. While the wife will experience difficulty adjusting to a new environment and social system, the husband also must adjust to the new arrangement and added responsibilities. In addition, given the much higher cost of living in Hong Kong than in the Mainland--particularly in housing--many families experience great economic hardship."
 
 
 
"Between 1800 and 1960, more than 60 million people emigrated from Europe to another continent. About 40 million people left for North America; and another 20 million, to South America, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand or the Asian parts of Russia."
 
 
 
Approximately 2-3 years
The duration of stay by South Asian migrants in Middle East countries "with the opportunity for home leave on completion of one year’s work. The workers long absences from their households - especially in the case of married persons with young children - make it necessary for them to seek the assistance of parents or other siblings to attend to the needs of the young children and to assist the spouse left behind. When an immediate family member is not available, the assistance of distant relatives is sought."
 
 
 
550,000
Estimated number of Sri Lankan workers who were working abroad in 2003.
 
 
 
75 percent
of the labor force that had migrated from Sri Lanka in 2003 was female.
 
 
 
80 percent
of 224 Sri Lankan children who had left behind by their emigrating mothers were under 15, according to a survey.
 
 
 
Half a million
"estimated number of Pakistani workers who were reported to have left, as labor migrants, from 1984-1989. only a couple of hundred were women, mostly nurses and domestic workers."
 
 
 
A couple hundred
"the number of the half million Pakistani labor migrants, from 1984-1989, who were women (mostly nurses and domestic workers)"
 
 
 
The U.K., the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand
"destinations for South Asians who are professionally and technically qualified persons."
 
 
 
Approximately 2-3 years
"The duration of stay by South Asian migrants in Middle East countries] with the opportunity for home leave on completion of one year’s work. The workers long absences from their households - especially in the case of married persons with young children - make it necessary for them to seek the assistance of parents or other siblings to attend to the needs of the young children and to assist the spouse left behind. When an immediate family member is not available, the assistance of distant relatives is sought."
 
 
 
"In most of the host countries [South Asian] female migrants are housemaids and the status of females is lower than that of males. The decision to migrate is usually purely economic, to earn some money for the household."
 
 
 
49
Number of “migration related adverse incidents” effecting families in Sri Lanka in a three month period in 1995. These included thirteen suicides and deaths of migrants or members of the family ". . . . Others, such as clandestine love affairs (migrant or spouse) and instances of abandoning the family, were observed.".
 
 
 
Higher
rates of divorce in migrant families in Sri Lanka.
 
 
Reported Negative Effects of Female-labor Migration in Sri Lanka:
– Alcoholism
– Gambling,
– Wasteful Consumption,
– Devaluation of moral values of the women abroad,
– Delay of marriage (until the women leave and then return),
– Transfer of familial responsibilities to elders,
– Age of family household skewed older,
– obliging their wives to repeat migration as a mode of survival,
husbands of migrant wives do not provide adequate care to their children, and
–most husbands engage in extramarital affairs.

 
 
Reported Negative Effects of Male-labor Migration in Sri Lanka:
– Gambling;
– Wasting money;
– Transfer of familial responsibilities to the elders; and
– The age of family households skewed older.

 
 
Married with kids –
The majority of migrants who have left South Asia for temporary employment abroad.
 
 
 
Extended Family Back on the Rise –
an unexpected result of parental migration in South Asia, since other members within the family, to an elder child or to a close family relative. When the extended family was virtually collapsing, that has halted with the need for extended families to raise children in their parent(s)’s absence. Grandparents are becoming more involved. "In some instances, such redistribution of family responsibilities within the family had a negative effect. For example the elder child may be discouraged from schooling to look after the younger siblings left behind or to attend to other household chores (De Silva, 1998). Such instances are a matter of concern and have caused breakdowns of family ties and family disruption."
 
____________________________________________________
 
 
Prevalence of Violence, Internationally
 
 
 
 
About 60 percent –
of Indian women feel that they deserve to be beaten by their husbands if they neglect the house or their children.
 
 
 
22 percent
of men surveyed in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, who admitted that they had used sexual violence against their wives. 17 percent admitted to using physical violence. And another seven percent had said they had used both physical and sexual violence. 40.
 
 
 
7,000 - 25,000 dowry deaths
Official government reports estimate about 7,000 Indian women were murdered in 2001 by their in-laws because they were not able to pay the required dowry. Often, the death occurs by their husband or other relative pouring gas on the woman and setting her on fire. Another common form of attack is by throwing acid on the woman. 41. But the United Nations has estimated that as many as 25,000 women are murdered each year in these "dowry deaths." 42.
 
 
 
 
Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe –
nations where men see the ability to inflict physical punishment on his wife as a right, according to various studies. 50.
 
 
 
They think it's justified for a husband to beat his wife if . . .

. . . she refuses to have sex with her husband
. . . according to: one percent of men in New Zealand; 5 percent of men in Singapore; 28 percent of Palestinian men; 33 percent of women in Ghana; and 81 percent of women in rural Egypt. 51.

. . . she neglects her housework or children
. . . according to: one percent of men in New Zealand; 15 percent of women in urban Nicaragua; and 61 percent of women in rural Egypt. 52.

. . . the husband suspects her of having an affair
. . . according to: five percent of men in New Zealand; 19 percent of men in Brazil; 33 percent of men in Singapore; 32 percent of women in rural Nicaragua; 14 percent of women in Colombia; and 71 percent of Palestinian men. 53.

. . . talks back or disobeys her husband
. . . according to: one percent of men in New Zealand; four percent of men in Singapore; 10 to 50 percent of men in Uttar Pradesh, India; 32 percent of women in rural Egypt; 14 percent of women in Colombia; and 57 percent of Palestinian men. 56.


A LITTLE DIRTY LAUNDRY ABOUT TIMES AND SOCIETIES WITH MORE STABLE MARRIAGES

 
 
 
 
22 percent of men in Hong Kong
think that it's all right for a married woman to have affairs. 56.
 
 
 
16 percent of women in Hong Kong
think that it's all right for a married woman to have affairs. 57.
 
 
 
57 percent of men in Hong Kong
think that it's all right for a married man to have affairs. 58.
 
 
 
20 percent of women in Hong Kong
think that it's all right for a married man to have affairs. 59.
 
 
 
 
In Hinduism, the Laws of Manu decreed that since marriage was eternal and indissoluble for women – but not men. Therefore, they were unable to divorce or remarry if widowed. Women have had no recourse in the event that a husband commits adultery. Reform efforts during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries have secured the right of remarriage for widows, and since 1955 the Hindu Marriage and Divorce Act has allowed them to divorce for cause but the practice is still relatively rare. Women have been taught to put up will all difficulties, no matter what, because their husbands are their lords and masters. Even when under certain rarely applied legalities a woman might leave her husband because of terminal illness, impotence, or insanity, the woman could not hope to find another husband. Men have always had the right to dissolve a marriage for virtually any reason merely by shutting the wife out of the house. Newer legislation lists cruelty, apostasy, more than five years of insanity or desertion or certain diseases, impotence, or the husband’s concubinage as valid causes for divorce, but only for marriages of less than twenty years’ duration." John Renard, Responses to 101 Questions on Hinduism, Paulist Press (March 1999). Available throught: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/080913845X/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
_________________________________________________________________________
 

LONGEVITY OF MARRIAGE AND THE LIKELIHOOD OF DIVORCE

 
 
 
The common assumption is that longer life-spans will mean longer marriages. But, in western industrialized nations, that doesn't appear to be holding true. Instead, what is changing is the cause of the end of the marriage has changed from death to divorce. So the average length of the marriage is actually staying substantially the same. 1.
 
 
 

DIVORCE (INTERNATIONAL)

 
 
 
Malta and the Philippines
are the only countries left in the world where divorce is still against the law.
 
 
 
55,300
Number of divorces granted in Australia in 2001 – the highest number in the past 20 years. In 2002, 54,000 divorces were granted. That's a decrease of 2 percent (1,300 divorces) – and is the second highest amount in the last 20 years. 47.
 
 
 
32 percent
Probability of an Australian born in 2004 having his marriage end in divorce, if 1997-1999 rates of marriage, widowing, divorce, remarriage and mortality are applied. If 1990-1992 rates were applied, only (29 percent would divorce, while if 1985-1987 rates were used, 28 percent would divorce. 48.
 
 
 
Just over half
(51 percent) of Australian divorces in 2002 involved children under 18 years. That's a slight decrease from 53 percent from a decade earlier. At the same time, the actual number of children involved in divorce in 2002 (50,500) was down 5 percent compared with 2001 (53,400), but was an increase of 10 percent of the number effected in 1992 (45,800). 49.
 
 
 
“Ousting the wife”
The ancient Chinese expression for a husband's unilateral right to dissolve his marriage. There were seven reasons why a man could oust his wife – including lacking piety when she served his parents, childlessness, adultery, jealousy (over the husband's concubines or use of prostitutes) , sickness, theft, and gossip. 56.
 
 
 
None –
Women of ancient China, on the other hand, had no right to end their marriages. 57.
 
 
 
It was up to the mother-in-law?
In the Chinese ancient Sui and Tang dynasties (581-960AD), if a couple decided they wanted to divorce, it was up to husband's parents if they did so. 58.
 
 
 
Still influential in Hong Kong:
Proverbs such as "a good horse would not bear two saddles, a good woman would not marry two men, and a loyal official would not serve two lords," and "a good horse will never turn around to feed on pastures behind, and a good woman will never marry again." 59.
 
 
 
“Vintage year divorce”
Japanese expression for divorces that occur after a couple has been married for decades. 60.
 
 
 
Less than 6 percent
of Japanese divorces in 1975 were by couples married over 20 years. 61.
 
 
 
17 percent
of Japanese divorces in the 1990s were by couples married over 20 years. 62.
 
 
 
289,838
Japanese couples divorced in 2002 – a record as of 2004. 63.
 
 
 
Ten years ago,
notwithstanding a fairly uncomplicated legal procedure, divorce in Japan was such a source of shame that it could end a man's career. 64.
 
 
 
Five years or less
The length of marriage comprising the biggest ratio of Japanese divorces, about 34 percent. These divorces were mostly between couples in their 20s and 30s. 65.
 
 
 
Honey, we have to talk –
Japanese women initiated divorces more than 2.5 times more than husbands did. 66.
 
 
 
93 percent
of Japanese divorced women surveyed had no regrets about their divorce. 67.
 
 
 
More divorced women –
At every age, there are more divorced women than divorced men in all East and Southeast Asian countries. 68.
 
 
 
Why there are less divorced men –
In East and Southeast Asia, divorced men appear to more likely to remarry soon after a divorce – or, in countries allowing polygamy, it could be that they may still be married to another wife. 69.
 
 
 
Why there are more divorced women –
it may be more difficult for a divorced woman in East and Southeast Asia to remarry for various reasons ranging from the practical ones – such as a role as custodian parent – to custom – the continuing negative view of divorced women. 70.
 
 
 
One out of ten
women in Kazakhstan in age 45-49 is divorced. Divorce is on the rise in Central Asian nations as well. 71.
 
 
 
Nonexistent –
Divorce in Nepal. 72.
 
 
 
Divorce isn't increasing in South Asia, as it is in Central Asia –
a chief reason being religion. In Central Asia, there are more Muslims, who see marriage as a contractual relationship between people. In South Asia, on the other hand, a higher Hindu population believes that marriage is a religious sacrament, and thus eternal. 73.
 
____________________________________________________
 
 

PAGE INDEX:

 
 
 
 
3.2
Japan’s average household size in 1980.
 
 
 
2.7
Japan’s average household size in 2000.
 
 
 
 
3.3
The average size of an Australian family household, in 1992.
 
 
 
3.1
The average size of an Australian family household in 1997.
 
 
 
3.1
The average size of an Australian family household, in 2003 – no change in six years.
 
 
 
 
 
Sri Lanka –
the country in South Asia with the highest proportion of female-headed households in South Asia "where the figure increased from 19 per cent in the 1990s to 20 percent in 2000 . . . the increase is mainly due to the existing political unrest. Consequently a significant number of young widows have emerged as female heads of households."
 
 
 
 

"In many societies in Asia, the oldest male is designated as the head of household regardless of whether he is the primary source of economic support, the authority figure, or fulfills other tasks purportedly performed by household heads (Ayad et al., 1997). In the mean time female headed households have become a steadily growing phenomenon."
 
 
 
___________________________________________________________
 
8. Cecilia L.W. Chan, "How the Socio-cultural Context Shapes Women's Divorce Experience in Hong Kong," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004)(citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302752
10. Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856
11. Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856
13. Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856
17. Nancy Hatch Dupree and Thomas E. Gouttierre, "The Society and Its Environment," Chapter 2, "Gender Roles" section, Afghanistan, Library of Congress Country Study. (1997). Available in on-line edition at: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/aftoc.html
18. Ruth Katz and Yoav Lavee, "Families in Israel," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 486-506 (2005), p. 489 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
19. Gavin W. Jones, "The 'Flight From Marriage' in South-East and East Asia," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 1 p. 92, et seq. (Winter 2005), p. 94 (citation omitted).
20. Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856
21. Nancy Hatch Dupree and Thomas E. Gouttierre, "The Society and Its Environment," Chapter 2, "Family" section, Afghanistan, Library of Congress Country Study. (1997). Available in on-line edition at: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/aftoc.html
28. See Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856 and John Renard, Responses to 101 Questions on Hinduism, Paulist Press (March 1999). Available throught: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/080913845X/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
29. John Renard, Responses to 101 Questions on Hinduism, Paulist Press (March 1999). Available throught: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/080913845X/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
30. John Renard, Responses to 101 Questions on Hinduism, Paulist Press (March 1999). Available throught: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/080913845X/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
31. John Renard, Responses to 101 Questions on Hinduism, Paulist Press (March 1999). Available throught: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/080913845X/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
32. John Renard, Responses to 101 Questions on Hinduism, Paulist Press (March 1999). Available throught: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/080913845X/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
33. Yu-Hua Chen and Chin-Chin Yi, "Taiwan's Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 177-198 (2005), pp. 193-194 (citations omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
34. Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856
42. J.P. Singh, "The Contemporary Indian Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 129-166 (2005), p. 142. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
43. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
44. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
45. As of 1991-1998. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
46. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
47. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
48. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
49. Will Durant, The Story of Civilization, Simon and Schuster, New York (1935 et seq.).
50. Lorena S. Walsh, "'Till Death Us Do Part': Marriage and Family in Seventeenth Century Maryland," The Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century: Essays on Anglo-American Society, Thad W. Tate and David L. Ammerman, eds., Univ. of North Carolina Press (1979), p. 126. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0807813605/qid=1123776483/sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
51. Yu-Hua Chen and Chin-Chin Yi, "Taiwan's Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 177-198 (2005), p. 179. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
57. And here Ashley thought she was doing well to have enough clean laundry to get her through the week. Nancy Hatch Dupree and Thomas E. Gouttierre, "The Society and Its Environment," Chapter 2, "Family" section, Afghanistan, Library of Congress Country Study. (1997). Available in on-line edition at: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/aftoc.html
58. John Renard, Responses to 101 Questions on Hinduism, Paulist Press (March 1999). Available throught: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/080913845X/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
59. Yu-Hua Chen and Chin-Chin Yi, "Taiwan's Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 177-198 (2005), p. 182. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
60. Yu-Hua Chen and Chin-Chin Yi, "Taiwan's Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 177-198 (2005), p. 182. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
71. Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856
72. See, for example, ________, Tami Catholic Weddings, Kalyanam.com, T. Nagar, Chennai, India (1990-2000). Accessed at: http://www.kalyanam.com/background/tamilchristian.asp on October 21, 2005 and ________, "Christian Goan Weddings," Weddings In India, IncredibleIndia.org, Department of Tourism, Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Government of India 2002. Accessed at: http://www.tourismofindia.com/exi/christian.htm on October 21, 2005.
73. John Renard, Responses to 101 Questions on Hinduism, Paulist Press (March 1999). Available throught: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/080913845X/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
74. ________, "Forced Marriage and International Human Rights Norm," ArabicNews.com. Regional/Culture section, (March 12, 2001). Accessed at: http://www.arabicnews.com/ansub/Daily/Day/010312/2001031230.html on October 19, 2005.
75. Yunas Samad and John Eade, Community Perceptions of Forced Marriage, Community Liasion Unit, Foreign & Commonwealth Office, London, England, United Kingdom (Undated). Archived at: http://www.fco.gov.uk/Files/kfile/clureport.pdf and ________, Dealing with Cases of Forced Marriage – Guidelines for Police, Association of Chief Police Officers, Foreign & Commonwealth Office, United Kingdom, Home Office, United Kingdom, and the Association of Chief Police Officers, Scotland (February 24, 2003). Archived at: http://www.lbp.police.uk/publications/dealing_with.htm
 
 
Kimberly A. Faust and Jerome N. McKibben, "Marital Dissolution: Divorce, Separation, Annulment and Widowhood," Handbook of Marriage and the Family, 2nd ed, Marvin Sussman, Suzanne K. Steinmetz, and Gary W. Peterson (eds.), Plenum Press, New York (1999), p. 480. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0306457547/qid=1123777024/sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
________, "3306.0.55.001 Marriages, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (March 18, 2005). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/9025e35e5d062131ca256f6300711118!OpenDocument on August 13, 2005.
________, "Marriage and Divorce," National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Accessed at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/marriage.htm on 8/26/2005.
________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 70 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 91. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 91. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 91. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
 
____________________________________________________
 
________, "3310.0 Marriages and Divorces, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (November 26, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/b06660592430724fca2568b5007b8619/893c1288678fd232ca2568a90013939c! OpenDocument on August 13, 2005.
William M. Pinsof, "The Death of 'Til Death Us Do Part,': The Transformation of Pair-Bonding in the 20th Century," Family Process (June 22, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:90301620
________, "3310.0 Marriages and Divorces, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (November 26, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/b06660592430724fca2568b5007b8619/893c1288678fd232ca2568a90013939c! OpenDocument on August 13, 2005.
Sandra S. Smith, "NCHS Dataline," Public Health Reports (March 1, 2002)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:94042640
________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
________, "3310.0 Marriages and Divorces, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (November 26, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/b06660592430724fca2568b5007b8619/893c1288678fd232ca2568a90013939c! OpenDocument on August 13, 2005.
David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 89. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 71 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 67. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
____________________________________________________
 
31 Intern’l Encyc. of Marriage and Family, p. 969. See also Ronald E. Dolan and Robert L. Worden (eds), Library of Congress Country Study: Japan (1994), Section on Family. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress under the Country Studies/Area Handbook Program sponsored by the Department of the Army. Online edition at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/jptoc.html
Ronald E. Dolan and Robert L. Worden (eds), Library of Congress Country Study: Japan (1994), Section on Family. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress under the Country Studies/Area Handbook Program sponsored by the Department of the Army. Online edition at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/jptoc.html
Ronald E. Dolan and Robert L. Worden (eds), Library of Congress Country Study: Japan (1994), Section on Family. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress under the Country Studies/Area Handbook Program sponsored by the Department of the Army. Online edition at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/jptoc.html
Ronald E. Dolan and Robert L. Worden (eds), Library of Congress Country Study: Japan (1994), Section on Family. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress under the Country Studies/Area Handbook Program sponsored by the Department of the Army. Online edition at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/jptoc.html
Ronald E. Dolan and Robert L. Worden (eds), Library of Congress Country Study: Japan (1994), Section on Family. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress under the Country Studies/Area Handbook Program sponsored by the Department of the Army. Online edition at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/jptoc.html
Ronald E. Dolan and Robert L. Worden (eds), Library of Congress Country Study: Japan (1994), Section on Family. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress under the Country Studies/Area Handbook Program sponsored by the Department of the Army. Online edition at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/jptoc.html
Ronald E. Dolan and Robert L. Worden (eds), Library of Congress Country Study: Japan (1994), Section on Family. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress under the Country Studies/Area Handbook Program sponsored by the Department of the Army. Online edition at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/jptoc.html
Ronald E. Dolan and Robert L. Worden (eds), Library of Congress Country Study: Japan (1994), Section on Family. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress under the Country Studies/Area Handbook Program sponsored by the Department of the Army. Online edition at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/jptoc.html
Ronald E. Dolan and Robert L. Worden (eds), Library of Congress Country Study: Japan (1994), Section on Family. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress under the Country Studies/Area Handbook Program sponsored by the Department of the Army. Online edition at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/jptoc.html
Ronald E. Dolan and Robert L. Worden (eds), Library of Congress Country Study: Japan (1994), Section on Family. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress under the Country Studies/Area Handbook Program sponsored by the Department of the Army. Online edition at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/jptoc.html
Ronald E. Dolan and Robert L. Worden (eds), Library of Congress Country Study: Japan (1994), Section on Family. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress under the Country Studies/Area Handbook Program sponsored by the Department of the Army. Online edition at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/jptoc.html
Ronald E. Dolan and Robert L. Worden (eds), Library of Congress Country Study: Japan (1994), Section on Family. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress under the Country Studies/Area Handbook Program sponsored by the Department of the Army. Online edition at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/jptoc.html
Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 15. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
Marian Yoder, "Grandparent Caregiving Role in Filipino American Families," Journal of Cultural Diversity (September 22, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:125337672
Marian Yoder, "Grandparent Caregiving Role in Filipino American Families," Journal of Cultural Diversity (September 22, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:125337672
Cecilia L.W. Chan, "How the Socio-cultural Context Shapes Women's Divorce Experience in Hong Kong," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302752
Marian Yoder, "Grandparent Caregiving Role in Filipino American Families," Journal of Cultural Diversity (September 22, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:125337672
Marian Yoder, "Grandparent Caregiving Role in Filipino American Families," Journal of Cultural Diversity (September 22, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:125337672
19 Opportunities for Women Through Reproductive Choice. Population Reports; (7/1/1994).
Cecilia L.W. Chan, "How the Socio-cultural Context Shapes Women's Divorce Experience in Hong Kong," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302752
Daniel T. Shek, "Adolescents' Perceptions of Paternal and Maternal Parenting Styles in a Chinese Context," The Journal of Psychology (September 1, 1998) http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21083549
Daniel T. Shek, "Adolescents' Perceptions of Paternal and Maternal Parenting Styles in a Chinese Context," The Journal of Psychology (September 1, 1998) http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21083549
Daniel T. Shek, "Adolescents' Perceptions of Paternal and Maternal Parenting Styles in a Chinese Context," The Journal of Psychology (September 1, 1998) http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21083549
Daniel T. Shek, "Adolescents' Perceptions of Paternal and Maternal Parenting Styles in a Chinese Context," The Journal of Psychology (September 1, 1998) http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21083549
Opportunities for Women Through Reproductive Choice. Population Reports (7/1/1994)
Xiaohe Xu, "Convergence or Divergence: The Transformation of Marriage and Relationships in Urban America and Urban China," Journal of Asian and African Studies (May 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:20980086
Xiaohe Xu, "Convergence or Divergence: The Transformation of Marriage and Relationships in Urban America and Urban China," Journal of Asian and African Studies (May 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:20980086
Xiaohe Xu, "Convergence or Divergence: The Transformation of Marriage and Relationships in Urban America and Urban China," Journal of Asian and African Studies (May 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:20980086
Xiaohe Xu, "Convergence or Divergence: The Transformation of Marriage and Relationships in Urban America and Urban China," Journal of Asian and African Studies (May 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:20980086
Xiaohe Xu, "Convergence or Divergence: The Transformation of Marriage and Relationships in Urban America and Urban China," Journal of Asian and African Studies (May 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:20980086
Xiaohe Xu, "Convergence or Divergence: The Transformation of Marriage and Relationships in Urban America and Urban China," Journal of Asian and African Studies (May 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:20980086
Xiaohe Xu, "Convergence or Divergence: The Transformation of Marriage and Relationships in Urban America and Urban China," Journal of Asian and African Studies (May 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:20980086
Xiaohe Xu, "Convergence or Divergence: The Transformation of Marriage and Relationships in Urban America and Urban China," Journal of Asian and African Studies (May 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:20980086
Gila Stopler, "Countenancing the Oppression of Women: How Liberals Tolerate Religious and Cultural Practices That Discriminate Against Women, Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, Vol. 12, No. 1, p. 154 et seq. (January 31, 2001).
Gila Stopler, "Countenancing the Oppression of Women: How Liberals Tolerate Religious and Cultural Practices That Discriminate Against Women, Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, Vol. 12, No. 1, p. 154 et seq. (January 31, 2001).
Gila Stopler, "Countenancing the Oppression of Women: How Liberals Tolerate Religious and Cultural Practices That Discriminate Against Women, Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, Vol. 12, No. 1, p. 154 et seq. (January 31, 2001).
Gila Stopler, "Countenancing the Oppression of Women: How Liberals Tolerate Religious and Cultural Practices That Discriminate Against Women, Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, Vol. 12, No. 1, p. 154 et seq. (January 31, 2001).
Gila Stopler, "Countenancing the Oppression of Women: How Liberals Tolerate Religious and Cultural Practices That Discriminate Against Women, Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, Vol. 12, No. 1, p. 154 et seq. (January 31, 2001).
Gila Stopler, "Countenancing the Oppression of Women: How Liberals Tolerate Religious and Cultural Practices That Discriminate Against Women, Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, Vol. 12, No. 1, p. 154 et seq. (January 31, 2001).
Nancy Hatch Dupree and Thomas E. Gouttierre, "The Society and Its Environment," Chapter 2, "Family" section, Afghanistan, Library of Congress Country Study. (1997). Available in on-line edition at: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/aftoc.html
Xuewen Sheng, "Chinese Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 99-128 (2005), p. 104. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
Xuewen Sheng, "Chinese Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 99-128 (2005), p. 118. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
Xuewen Sheng, "Chinese Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 99-128 (2005), p. 118 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
Xuewen Sheng, "Chinese Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 99-128 (2005), p. 118 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
Kwang-Kyu Lee, "South Korean Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 167-176 (2005), p. 171. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
Kwang-Kyu Lee, "South Korean Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 167-176 (2005), p. 172. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
J.P. Singh, "The Contemporary Indian Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 129-166 (2005), pp. 158-159. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
Nancy Hatch Dupree and Thomas E. Gouttierre, "The Society and Its Environment," Chapter 2, "Family" section, Afghanistan, Library of Congress Country Study. (1997). Available in on-line edition at: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/aftoc.html
Nancy Hatch Dupree and Thomas E. Gouttierre, "The Society and Its Environment," Chapter 2, "Family" section, Afghanistan, Library of Congress Country Study. (1997). Available in on-line edition at: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/aftoc.html
Xuewen Sheng, "Chinese Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 99-128 (2005), p. 105. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
 
 
8. Chan, Cecilia L.W., "How the Socio-cultural Context Shapes Women's Divorce Experience in Hong Kong," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302752
9. Junko Kuninobu, "Japan," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. James J. Ponzetti, (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA (2002), p. 969. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
10. Junko Kuninobu, "Japan," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. James J. Ponzetti, (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA (2002), p. 969. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024 See also Ronald E. Dolan and Robert L. Worden (eds), Library of Congress Country Study: Japan (1994). Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress under the Country Studies/Area Handbook Program sponsored by the Department of the Army. Online edition at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/jptoc.html
11. Ronald E. Dolan and Robert L. Worden (eds), Library of Congress Country Study: Japan (1994). Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress under the Country Studies/Area Handbook Program sponsored by the Department of the Army. Online edition at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/jptoc.html
 
Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 26. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 26. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 22 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 12. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), pp. 14,18, 24. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Xuewen Sheng, "Chinese Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 99-128 (2005), p. 100. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
Xuewen Sheng, "Chinese Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 99-128 (2005), p. 100. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
 
 
Terrance J. Reeves and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Asians in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-17. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-17.pdf
Terrance J. Reeves and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Asians in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-17. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-17.pdf
Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 19. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 26 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 5. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
of the Asian population in the U.S. entered the country from 1990 to 2000.
Cecilia L.W. Chan, "How the Socio-cultural Context Shapes Women's Divorce Experience in Hong Kong," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302752
Cecilia L.W. Chan, "How the Socio-cultural Context Shapes Women's Divorce Experience in Hong Kong," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302752
Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 4. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 11. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p.10. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 44. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 10. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 9. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 9. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 8. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 11. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 9. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 9. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), pp. 9-10. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), pp. 10, 25. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 10. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), pp. 10-11. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), pp. 10-11. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
As of 2001. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 67. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
Kwang-Kyu Lee, "South Korean Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 167-176 (2005), p. 169. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
 
____________________________________________________
40. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 151 (citation omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
41. Lucy Ash, "India's dowry deaths," BBC News Website (July 16, 2003). Accessed at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/crossing_continents/3071963.stm on August 28, 2005. But the United Nations has estimated that as many as 25,000 women are murdered each year in these "dowry deaths."
42. _________, "Dowry and Bride-burning in India - Parts 1 & 2," United Nations' Women Features, website and radio news program. Accessed at http://www.un.org/av/special/womradpr.htm#prog3-4 on August 28, 2005.
50. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), pp. 94-95 (citations omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
51. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 94 (citations omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
52. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 94 (citations omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
53. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 94 (citations omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
54. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 94 (citation omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
55. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 94 (citations omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
56. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 94 (citations omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
J.P. Singh, "The Contemporary Indian Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 129-166 (2005), p. 153 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
 
 
56. Cecilia L.W. Chan, "How the Socio-cultural Context Shapes Women's Divorce Experience in Hong Kong," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302752
57. Cecilia L.W. Chan, "How the Socio-cultural Context Shapes Women's Divorce Experience in Hong Kong," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302752
58. Cecilia L.W. Chan, "How the Socio-cultural Context Shapes Women's Divorce Experience in Hong Kong," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302752
59. Cecilia L.W. Chan, "How the Socio-cultural Context Shapes Women's Divorce Experience in Hong Kong," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302752
 
47. ________, "3307.0.55.001 Divorces, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (March 18, 2005). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/fbc6fedbb2b43180ca256faf0071ce3f!OpenDocument on September 21, 2005.
48. ________, "3307.0.55.001 Divorces, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (March 18, 2005). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/fbc6fedbb2b43180ca256faf0071ce3f!OpenDocument on September 21, 2005.
49. ________, "3307.0.55.001 Divorces, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (March 18, 2005). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/fbc6fedbb2b43180ca256faf0071ce3f!OpenDocument on September 21, 2005.
50. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 8 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
51. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
52. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
53. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 8 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
54. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 8 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
55. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 8 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
56. Cecilia L.W. Chan, "How the Socio-cultural Context Shapes Women's Divorce Experience in Hong Kong," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004)(citation omitted) . Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302752
57. Cecilia L.W. Chan, "How the Socio-cultural Context Shapes Women's Divorce Experience in Hong Kong," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004)(citation omitted) . Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302752
58. Cecilia L.W. Chan, "How the Socio-cultural Context Shapes Women's Divorce Experience in Hong Kong," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004)(citation omitted) . Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302752
59. Cecilia L.W. Chan, "How the Socio-cultural Context Shapes Women's Divorce Experience in Hong Kong," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004) . Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302752
60. Natalie Obiko Pearson, “More Japanese Untie the Knot,” Associated Press, CBSNews,com (January 19, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/01/19/world/main594084.shtml on August 15, 2005.
61. Natalie Obiko Pearson, “More Japanese Untie the Knot,” Associated Press, CBSNews,com (January 19, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/01/19/world/main594084.shtml on August 15, 2005.
62. Natalie Obiko Pearson, “More Japanese Untie the Knot,” Associated Press, CBSNews,com (January 19, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/01/19/world/main594084.shtml on August 15, 2005.
63. Natalie Obiko Pearson, “More Japanese Untie the Knot,” Associated Press, CBSNews,com (January 19, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/01/19/world/main594084.shtml on August 15, 2005.
64. Natalie Obiko Pearson, “More Japanese Untie the Knot,” Associated Press, CBSNews,com (January 19, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/01/19/world/main594084.shtml on August 15, 2005.
65. Natalie Obiko Pearson, “More Japanese Untie the Knot,” Associated Press, CBSNews,com (January 19, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/01/19/world/main594084.shtml on August 15, 2005.
66. Natalie Obiko Pearson, “More Japanese Untie the Knot,” Associated Press, CBSNews,com (January 19, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/01/19/world/main594084.shtml on August 15, 2005.
67. Natalie Obiko Pearson, “More Japanese Untie the Knot,” Associated Press, CBSNews,com (January 19, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/01/19/world/main594084.shtml on August 15, 2005.
68. Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
69. Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
70. Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
71. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 6. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
72. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 6. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
73. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 6. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
74. “Differentials in Divorce By Duration of Marriage and Size of Family” Amer. Sociological Review, p. 239 (Apr. 1950)
75. “Differentials in Divorce By Duration of Marriage and Size of Family” Amer. Sociological Review, p. 239 (Apr. 1950)
76. “Differentials in Divorce By Duration of Marriage and Size of Family” Amer. Sociological Review, p. 239 (Apr. 1950)
77. “Differentials in Divorce By Duration of Marriage and Size of Family” Amer. Sociological Review, p. 234-244 (Apr. 1950)
78. “Differentials in Divorce By Duration of Marriage and Size of Family” Amer. Sociological Review, p. 244 (Apr. 1950)
79. “Find Eight Basic Causes of Marriage Failures,” Science News Letter, Aug. 17, 1957 (p. 105)
80. Ivo Mozny and Tomas Katrnak, "The Czech Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 235-261 (2005), p. 255. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
81. Ivo Mozny and Tomas Katrnak, "The Czech Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 235-261 (2005), p. 254. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
82. “Divorce Rates Climbing,” Science News Letter, May 21, 1949 (p. 326)
83. Philip M. Harris and Nicholas A. Jones, "We the People: Pacific Islanders in the United States," Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-26. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov./prod/2005pubs/censr-26.pdf
84. “Find Eight Basic Causes of Marriage Failures,” Science News Letter, Aug. 17, 1957 (p. 105)
85. "Marriages Patched Up," Newsweek, Jan. 26, 1948 (p. 27)
 
 
Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 5 (citations omitted). Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 18 (citations omitted). Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 18 (citations omitted). Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), pp. 18-19. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 17. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 17. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 5. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf