Same-Sex Partners / Families
 
Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 12
 
 
TOPICS COVERED: I know when people say "gay family," the picture that pops into our heads is two men, in their mid-thirties, living in San Francisco, proudly toting their newly adopted baby. But if that is the only image we ever think about when we discuss gay marriage or same-sex couples raising children, then I'm afraid we could all be missing the Big Picture. 
 
Because while there are couples like that out there, they aren't representative of gay families in the U.S. today.
 
The real poster child for a gay family isn't that baby. Instead, it's a kid who probably lives in the Deep South. His mom and dad got married too young, but everything seemed okay for a while, until . . . things slowly unraveled. Finally, his mom came out, and his parents got a divorce. Now, Mom's got a girlfriend – and it seems like there isn't another gay couple in the county. The kid's having a hard time dealing with it all. But even he can't tell you if it's that his mom is gay, or the simple fact that his mom and dad got divorced in the first place – no matter what the reason – that is really what is upsetting him.
 
I interviewed a single mother in Massachusetts who has young triplets, born naturally, inseminated from a sperm bank. That this mother is lesbian made almost no difference on the environment the children were raised in. What did make a difference on their daily lives was that they were triplets, and that raising triplets is an enormous strain, particularly if you are single – she was doing this alone. The triplets were also a different race than the mother, and the mother was teaching her children to be proud of their race. It's just simply too easy to say that problems arise out of her sexual orientation, and have that be the end of the discussion.
 
Indeed, that's what experts are saying – that it is wrongheaded to declare that a child's entire development is solely dictated because of a gay parent. In fact, many children of gay parents are also the children of divorce. They, too, grow up being thrust into stepfamilies. They, too, are the products of overworked and exhausted single mothers. The trauma of divorce, the tension of stepfamilies, the hardships of single-parented families – any one of those experiences can have a tremendous impact on a child. So why is it that in media coverage of the children of gays, it's usually only the gay-parent part that ever gets mentioned? And all those other factors are completely ignored?
 
Beware the Fallacy of Categorization, the supposition that the sexual orientation of parents is even related, at all, to whatever issues or dysfunction is being dealt with in a family.
 
Experts estimate that anywhere from 1 to 9 million children in the U.S. have at least one gay parent. Same-sex-oriented parents are building families through adoption, fostering, insemination, and surrogacy. But for the vast majority of those children were born into a heterosexual relationship. 3 to 5 million gays and lesbians have children from previous, opposite-sex relationships. Just for a moment, let's say we go with the idea that five percent of the population is gay. There's significant debate on that (which we'll go into in the stats section below), but that would mean we had a U.S. gay and lesbian population of about 10.5 million men and women.
 
Could it be that a third to almost half of U.S. homosexuals have been in serious opposite-sex relationships – serious enough that they had kids with their partners? We can't say for sure. But there's enough data supporting that idea that we must change the way we think about same-sex marriage and families. The days of the closet are far from over.
 
And if there's any doubt about that, consider that San Francisco is the city with the largest percent of same-sex couple households in the U.S. No surprise there, I grant you. But what I did find stunning is that that same-sex couple households are just 2.7 percent of the city's households. That bears repeating: having just 2.7 percent of its households have same-sex couples makes San Francisco have the nation's largest concentration of same-sex couples. To put that in perspective, the city with the largest percent of opposite-sex unmarried households is Paterson, New Jersey, with 8.9 percent, and the city with the most married-couple households is Gilbert, Arizona, with 69.6 percent of its households containing married couples.
 
What's even more shocking is that the states where same-sex couples are most likely to be raising children are not the Blue States. In fact, they're the reddest of the red! Mississippi, South Dakota, Alaska, South Carolina, and Louisiana. Just to be clear, there aren't as many same-sex couples in those states, but of the ones who are there, more of them are raising kids. How could that be? A lower cost of living? Areas of the country where it's just more important to have kids? Could be. But it could also be couples there get married younger, having kids before they realize they're playing on the wrong team.
 
There are gay and lesbian couple households with children in 96 percent of the countries in the U.S. But they're really lonely. Because there are just two of them for every thousand households with children. And at least one-fourth of those families live in communities that do not have a pronounced gay presence.
 
If your mind isn't reeling yet, consider that historians agree that the Catholic Church didn't oppose same-gender marriages until 1300 A.D.
 
And there are so many more surprises, yet to come . . . .
 
MEMOS ON RELATED INFORMATION: Single Parents (for demographics and other data), Unmarried Partners, Fertility, Delaying Marriage, Family Dissolution, Divorce, Children (Demographics), Family Structures
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 

PAGE INDEX:

 

WHAT WE (SORT OF) KNOW – DEMOGRAPHICS OF GAYS IN THE U.S.

GAYS RAISING CHILDREN

WHERE U.S. GAYS LIVE

SAME SEX COUPLES – INTERNATIONALLY

 
 
 

WHAT WE (SORT OF) KNOW – DEMOGRAPHICS OF GAYS IN THE U.S.

 
 
 
 
1300 A.D.
And there's an apparent consensus among historians that it has only been since 1300 A.D. since the Catholic Church sought to discourage same gender unions. 1.
 
 
 
Now, of course,
a number of religious denominations recognize same gender marriages, and perform ceremonies of marriage for same gender couples, while for still others, homosexuality is grave sin that is grounds for expulsion from the religious community. 2.
 
 
 
An estimated two percent to 10 percent
of the total U.S. population that is gay, lesbian or bisexual. In the last three elections, the Voter News Service exit poll registered the gay vote between 4 percent and 5 percent. 3.
 
 
 
So when does sex equal sexuality?
In the American National Health and Social Life Survey of 1992, only 2.8 percent men and 1.4 percent women reported that they were gay or bisexual. But almost twice of those same men – 4.9 percent – and three times as many of the women – 4.1 percent – reported that they had had at least one same-sex partner since they were 18 years old. Similarly, surveys found that 5.2 percent of British men and 4.1 percent of French men had had a same-sex partner at some point in their lives while 2.7 percent of British women and 2.6 percent of French women had had a same-sex partner. 4.
 
 
 
Gay or straight – men really are all cads?
Well, all we know is that over 90 percent of women marry. 93.8 of lesbians will at some point live with a same-sex partner. And, uh, 32.1 percent of gay men don't ever live with a same-sex partner. So you tell us. What do you think that means? 5.
 
 
 
Closets aren't just for kids in Narnia –

28.7 percent
According to demographers' analysis of the U.S. 1990 Census, 28.7 of the women who identified themselves as lesbian had been previously married. Another 1.2 percent said that they were lesbian and were still married at the time of the survey.

According to demographers' analysis, for two other preeminent U.S. surveys – the National Health and Social Life Survey and the General Social Survey – the number was even higher: 46 percent of lesbians were either married or previously married. The difference between these two amounts should not call both into question. Instead, the second findings actually support the Census finding – in essence, establishing a minimum percentage. Census reports are responses to a question as to marital status at a particular point in time. For example, the Census asks if someone is currently married, but does not always ask if a currently married person was divorced. The other surveys examine sexual behavior and practices over a person's entire life course. 6.
 
 
 
17.2 percent
of the men who identified themselves as gay in the 1990 U.S. Census had been previously married, while another 1.3 percent said that they were gay and still married at the time of the survey. According to another 1990s survey, the number was even higher: 30 percent of gay men were either married or previously married. 7.

 
 
Gays are more educated –
According to 1990 census data, almost 30 percent of American gay men in a relationship had college degrees, and 13 percent of them had done post-graduate studies, about twice the rate as for married men: 17.7 percent of married men had a college degree and 6.8 percent have done post-graduate work. Similarly, 31 percent of lesbians in relationships had a college degrees, and 15.6 percent have done post-graduate studies. Only 17.9 percent of married women had college degrees, and just 4.9 percent had done post-grad work. 8.
 
 
 
But gay men earn less –
In 1990, the average U.S. college educated married man aged 45 to 54 was making $55,623 a year, while his gay partnered counterpart only made $47,541. But lesbian partnered women were making about $6,000 to $9,000 more than the married women. Of course, women are always paid less, so they were still making one-third to one-half less than the men were. 9.
 
 
 
Almost two-thirds
of Fortune 100 companies offer health benefits to same-sex partners. 10.
 
 
 
Four to six years younger
U.S. same-sex couples living together tend to be about four to six years younger than the average married opposite-sex couple. 11.
 
 
 
Six to seven years older
U.S. same-sex couples living together tend to be about six to seven years older than the average unmarried opposite-sex couples who live together. 12.
 
 
 
594,000
The number of same-sex couple households in the U.S., according to the 2000 Census. 13.
 
 
 
301,026
of those are gay male couple households. 14.
 
 
 
293,364
of those are lesbian couple households. 15.
 
 
 
About 314 percent
the increase in number of U.S. same-sex households since the 1990 census. However, the increase is more due to the fact that the families were previously undercounted, not out of a dramatic increase in the families themselves. 16.
 
 
 
By as much as 62 percent
the estimated 2000 census's current undercount of U.S. gay and lesbian families, according to the Human Rights Campaign, a gay and lesbian advocacy group. 17.
 
 
 
30 percent
of gay and lesbian people are living in a committed relationship in the same residence, according to a 2001 Harris Interactive Poll. 18.
 
 
 
7,549
Number of same-sex couples to have registered civil-unions in Vermont since it first became legal on July 1, 2000 and the end of 2004. Of these, 78 were subsequently dissolved. 19.
 
 
 
Peterson and Conrad
Kathleen Peterson and Carolyn Conrad of Brattlesboro, Vermont, were the first U.S. same-sex couple to enter into a registered civil union, on July 1, 2000. (They ended the relationship in December, 2005.) 20.
 
 
 
 

WHAT WE (SORT OF) KNOW – DEMOGRAPHICS OF GAYS IN THE U.S.
WHERE U.S. GAYS LIVE
SAME SEX COUPLES – INTERNATIONALLY

 
 
 

GAYS RAISING CHILDREN

 
 
 
The best book I can recommend on the subject of gays raising children is titled Families Like Mine: Children of Gay Parents Tell It Like It Is by Abigail Garner, published by HarperCollins, 2004. 21.
 
Ms. Garner makes the following very astute points:
 
That gay-friendly media stories usually try to show how incredibly normal and healthy children of LGBT parents are, and in so doing, media representations of LGBT families have yet to catch up to reflect their true diversity.
 
Children with LGBT parents see how they are represented publicly and begin to internalize a paradox: to be accepted for being different, they first have to prove that they are just like everyone else.
 
Because the right for LGBT families to exist is the subject of debate, children begin to figure out that the outcome of this debate rests on how they ‘turn out.’ They are not allowed to be as wacky, troubled, or complex as any other American family.
 
The result: children of same-sex-oriented parents have issues like all children do, at the rate all children do, but they often do not seek help or counsel for their troubles, because they don’t want to reflect badly on their parents and/or same-sex parents in general. They are afraid their parents will be blamed and politically penalized. So they are more likely to hide their problems, and let them grow, untreated. For instance, a child might let her learning disability go undiagnosed. Or a child who hates algebra and skips school might not let anyone know, for fear his parent’s sexual-orientation will be blamed. And worse. Drug use, teen sexuality, depression all get ignored because of fear of the accusation that it has something to do with the orientation of his or her parents.
 
In other words, this public debate is putting children at risk unnecessarily. It is causing youths who need help to forego help.
 
 
Between 1 and 9 million
The estimated number of children in the United States have at least one parent who is lesbian or gay. 22.
 
 
 
Between 3 and 5 million
The estimated number of lesbian and gay parents who have had children during prior opposite-sex relationships. 23.
 
 
 
Most of the children
with lesbian or gay parents were conceived in the context of a heterosexual relationship. Many may have lived with both their heterosexual parents for at least the first few years of their lives. If the lesbian or gay parent decides to "come out," the couple may divorce, but continue to share child-rearing responsibilities. For these families, the gay parents may or may not have homosexual relationships. But in those that do, the issues confronting them are similar to those of heterosexual stepfamilies. 24.
 
 
 
Two out of every thousand
of couples in the U.S. with children are same-sex couples, according to the 2000 Census. 25.
 
 
 
Mississippi, South Dakota, Alaska, South Carolina, and Louisiana –
The states where U.S. same-sex couples are most likely raising children, despite the fact that those states do not have high concentrations of same-sex couples. In fact, one-fourth of same-sex couples with children live in an area with a comparatively low concentration of all same-sex couples. 26.
 
 
 
In 96,000 of
lesbian couple households in the U.S., the children of the householder live with the couple. 27.
 
 
 
That's 33 percent
of U.S. female same-sex householders, nationally. On a regional basis, there are female same-sex householders living in the South (34 percent) than the Northeast (31 percent). 28.
 
 
 
At least 40 percent
of U.S. female same-sex householders in Mississippi, South Dakota, and Utah, live with their children. 29.
 
 
 
In 66,000 of
U.S. gay male couple households, the children of the householder live with the couple. 30.
 
 
 
22 percent
of U.S. male same-sex householders, nationally, live with their children. On a regional basis, there are female same-sex householders living in the South (34 percent) than the Northeast (31 percent). 31.
 
 
 
30 percent or more
of U.S. male same-sex householders in Mississippi, South Dakota, Idaho and Utah, live with their children. In Alaska, 36 percent of male same-sex households have the householder's children living with them. In Florida and Minnesota, it's just under half that (17 percent). 32.
 
 
 
96 percent
of all U.S. counties have at least one same-sex couple with children under 18 in the household, according to the U.S. 2000 Census. 33.
 
 
 
Two out of every thousand
of couples in the U.S. with children are same-sex couples, according to the Urban Institute analysis of the 2000 Census. 34.
 
 
 
 

WHAT WE (SORT OF) KNOW – DEMOGRAPHICS OF GAYS IN THE U.S.
GAYS RAISING CHILDREN
SAME SEX COUPLES – INTERNATIONALLY

 
 
 

WHERE U.S. GAYS LIVE

 
 
 
99.3 percent
of the counties in the U.S. have gay and lesbian families living in them. 35.
 
 
 
It Isn't Just an Expression: There Really is a Boys' Town, and It's Different than Suburbia
Compared to married heterosexual couples, gay and lesbian couples are more willing to live in, and possibly revive, distressed urban areas. They are more likely to live in neighborhoods which are both racially and ethnically diverse and have: more college-educated residents; older housing stock; higher crime rates and higher property values. 36.
 
 
 
California
the U.S. state with the largest percent of same-sex couple households: 1.4 percent. Massachusetts, New York and Vermont are tied for second – they all have 1.3 percent of their households being same-sex couples. 37.
 
 
 
San Francisco –
the U.S. city with a population of over 500,000 that has the largest percent of same-sex couple households. Okay, that probably wasn't a surprise. But this might be. Just 2.7 percent of all San Francisco households are same-sex couples. 38.
 
 
 
Provincetown, Massachusetts
The Cape Cod neighborhood with the U.S.'s highest concentration of same-sex couples – and the self-proclaimed titles as "gayest" town in America. 39.
 
 
 
San Francisco, Fort Lauderdale, Santa Rosa, Seattle, and New York,
The top U.S. metropolitan areas for gay male couples. 40.
 
 
 
Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, San Francisco, and Oakland,
The top U.S. metropolitan areas for lesbian couples. Note that only one of these cities is also on the list of gay male couples. That's because it turns out that gay and lesbians do not live in the same areas. Instead, of the ten metropolitan areas with the highest gay male couple population, only four of those cities are on the same list for the lesbian population. And it isn't just the cities that are different, but the type of cities they are: for example, American gay males tend to live in larger cities that have higher concentrations of gay populations than do lesbians. 41.
 
 
 
Of the top ten states with the highest gay male population, only five of them have the highest lesbian populations. For gay men, the top state is California. For lesbians, it's Vermont – which is tenth on the list for gay males. 42.
 
 
 
The South
is where most U.S. black same-sex couples live. 43.
 
 
 
Texas's metropolitan areas
is where most U.S. Hispanic gay or lesbian couples live. 44.
 
 
 
Almost one in five
of those in a same-sex couple household is at least 55 years old. 45.
 
 
 
At least 30 percent
of the U.S. gay and lesbian couples who live in the upper Midwest – North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming – are over 55 years old. 46.
 
 
 
Alaska and Vermont
have the highest concentration of gay and lesbian coupled seniors in their senior population. 47.
 
 
 
 

WHAT WE (SORT OF) KNOW – DEMOGRAPHICS OF GAYS IN THE U.S.
GAYS RAISING CHILDREN
WHERE U.S. GAYS LIVE

 
 
 

SAME SEX COUPLES – INTERNATIONALLY

 
 
 
11 percent
of Australian same-sex de facto married households with children present, compared with 42 percent of opposite-sex de facto married and 59 percent of registered married. 48.
 
 
 
0.5 percent
In 2001 same-sex de facto married Australians represented 0.5 percent of all persons living as social married. 49.
 
 
1989
The year Denmark established the world's first laws recognizing same-sex unions. Under these laws, which were later adopted in Norway (in 1993) and Sweden (in 1994) gays were entitled to the same legal protections as married couples with three exceptions:
1. There would be no official marriage of the couple.
2. The couple could not be the parents of the same child.
3. The couple could not adopt. (Recently, however, the law has been changed to allow same-sex couples to adopt.). 50.
 
 
 
2001
The year the U.K. Parliament granted a cross-party amendment agreed to grant gay partners the right to make a joint adoption application. 51.
 
 
 
December 2005
Legal recognition of same-sex civil partnerships went into effect in the U.K. A reported 1,200 couples had scheduled union ceremonies with the first three days of the law coming into force. 52.
 
 
 
2001
The year in Portugal that granted some rights to same-sex unions, but excludes in those new rights the right to adoption. 53.
 
 
 
2000
The year Belgium began to have legalized partnerships for gays. 54.
 
 
 
June 1, 2003
The date Belgian law legalizing same-sex marriages became effective. The law allows Belgian gay couples to enter into the existing legal form of marriage with two notable exceptions:
1) in the event of a same-sex spouses, the surviving spouse does not automatically get custody of the decendent spouse's children and
2) they are not allowed to adopt. 55.

 
 
June 6, 2003
The date that the first same-sex couple married in Antwerp, Belgium. 56.
 
 
 
2003
The year same-sex unions became (controversially) recognized in Buenos Aires, Argentina. 57.
 
 
 
December 2005
The year South Africa's highest court ordered to its government to give legal marital rights to same-sex couples within a year's time. 58.
 
___________________________
 
 
1. Jason M. Fields and Charles L. Clark, Unbinding the Ties: Edit Effects of Marital Status on Same Gender Couples, Population Division Working Paper No. 34, Fertility and Family Statistics Branch, U. S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (April 1999). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0034.html#abs
2. See, for example, Jason M. Fields and Charles L. Clark, Unbinding the Ties: Edit Effects of Marital Status on Same Gender Couples, Population Division Working Paper No. 34, Fertility and Family Statistics Branch, U. S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (April 1999). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0034.html#abs and Richard McBrien, Catholicism, New Edition, HarperSanFrancisco (1994), pp. 993-1000. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0060654058/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
3. David M. Smith and Gary J. Gates, Gay and Lesbian Families in the United States: Same Sex Unmarried Partner Households: A Preliminary Analysis of 2000 United States Census Data, Human Rights Campaign Report (August 22, 2001), p. 2. Available at: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/1000491_gl_partner_households.pdf and Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004)(citation omitted). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance. Compare that to Fiona Tasker's "Lesbian Mothers, Gay Fathers, and Their Children: A Review," Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 26:224-240 (2005). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:133808257 Tasker reports that the range is far higher – between four and 17 percent of the population are gay.
4. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
5. Dan Black, Gary Gates, Seth Sanders, Lowell Taylor, "Demographics of the Gay and Lesbian Population in the United States: Evidence from Available Systematic Data Sources," Demography, Vol. 37, no. 2 p. 139-154 (May 2000), p. 143. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0070-3370%28200005%2937%3A2%3C139%3ADOTGAL%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X
6. See Dan Black, Gary Gates, Seth Sanders, Lowell Taylor, "Demographics of the Gay and Lesbian Population in the United States: Evidence from Available Systematic Data Sources," Demography, Vol. 37, no. 2 p. 139-154 (May 2000), pp. 150-151. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0070-3370%28200005%2937%3A2%3C139%3ADOTGAL%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X
7. Dan Black, Gary Gates, Seth Sanders, Lowell Taylor, "Demographics of the Gay and Lesbian Population in the United States: Evidence from Available Systematic Data Sources," Demography, Vol. 37, no. 2 p. 139-154 (May 2000), pp. 150-151. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0070-3370%28200005%2937%3A2%3C139%3ADOTGAL%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X
8. Dan Black, Gary Gates, Seth Sanders, Lowell Taylor, "Demographics of the Gay and Lesbian Population in the United States: Evidence from Available Systematic Data Sources," Demography, Vol. 37, no. 2 p. 139-154 (May 2000), pp. 152. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0070-3370%28200005%2937%3A2%3C139%3ADOTGAL%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X
9. Dan Black, Gary Gates, Seth Sanders, Lowell Taylor, "Demographics of the Gay and Lesbian Population in the United States: Evidence from Available Systematic Data Sources," Demography, Vol. 37, no. 2 p. 139-154 (May 2000), pp. 152. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0070-3370%28200005%2937%3A2%3C139%3ADOTGAL%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X
10. Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
11. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
12. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
13. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
14. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
15. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
16. David M. Smith and Gary J. Gates, Gay and Lesbian Families in the United States: Same Sex Unmarried Partner Households: A Preliminary Analysis of 2000 United States Census Data, Human Rights Campaign Report (August 22, 2001), p. 2-3. Available at: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/1000491_gl_partner_households.pdf
17. David M. Smith and Gary J. Gates, Gay and Lesbian Families in the United States: Same Sex Unmarried Partner Households: A Preliminary Analysis of 2000 United States Census Data, Human Rights Campaign Report (August 22, 2001), pp. 2-3. Available at: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/1000491_gl_partner_households.pdf
18. David M. Smith and Gary J. Gates, Gay and Lesbian Families in the United States: Same Sex Unmarried Partner Households: A Preliminary Analysis of 2000 United States Census Data, Human Rights Campaign Report (August 22, 2001), p. 2. Available at: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/1000491_gl_partner_households.pdf
19. ________, "First Same-Sex Civil Union Ends in Breakup in Vermont," Nation In Brief, Washington Post (December 16, 2005), p. A20. Accessed at: 2http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/12/15/AR2005121501720_pf.html on December 16, 2005.
20. ________, "First Same-Sex Civil Union Ends in Breakup in Vermont," Nation In Brief, Washington Post (December 16, 2005), p. A20. Accessed at: 2http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/12/15/AR2005121501720_pf.html on December 16, 2005.
21. Abigail Garner, Families Like Mine: Children of Gay Parents Tell It Like It Is, HarperCollins (2004). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0060527579/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
22. Ellen C. Perrin, "Technical Report: Coparent or Second-Parent Adoption by Same-Sex Parents," Pediatrics, American Academy of Pediatrics, Vol. 109., No. 2, pp. 341-344 (February 2002), p. 341 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/109/2/341?ijkey=8fbfa0f3bd6e82500ba88e4c6e35e565423e892f Again, Fiona Tasker's estimate is considerably higher: she reports the number of children with gay parents ranging between 2 to 14 million. See Fiona Tasker, "Lesbian Mothers, Gay Fathers, and Their Children: A Review," Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 26:224-240 (2005). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:133808257
23. Jean M. Lynch and Kim Murray, "For the Love of the Children: The Coming Out Process for Lesbian and Gay Parents and Stepparents," Journal of Homosexuality, New York, New York, Vol. 39, Iss. 1, p. 1. et seq. (Jun 30, 2000), pp. 1-2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=490392731&sid=6&Fmt=3&cli entId=3266&RQT=309&VName=PQD
24. See Ellen C. Perrin and the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health, "Technical Report: Coparent or Second-Parent Adoption by Same-Sex Parents," Pediatrics, American Academy of Pediatrics, Vol. 109., No. 2, pp. 341-344 (February 2002), p. 341. Archived at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/109/2/341?ijkey=8fbfa0f3bd6e82500ba88e4c6e35e565423e892f
25. Gary Gates, Gay and Lesbian Families in the Census: Couples With Children, The Urban Institute (May 30, 2003). Archived at: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=900626
26. Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance and Karen McKenzie, and Latricia Good, "The Gay and Lesbian Atlas Displays First Detailed Portrait of Same-Sex Households Across the United States; Available May 3," Press Release, U.S. Newswire (April 19, 2004). Archived at: http://releases.usnewswire.com/GetRelease.asp?id=28949
27. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 11. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
28. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
29. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
30. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 11. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
31. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
32. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
33. Gary Gates, Gay and Lesbian Families in the Census: Couples With Children, The Urban Institute (May 30, 2003). Archived at: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=900626
34. Gary Gates, Gay and Lesbian Families in the Census: Couples With Children, The Urban Institute (May 30, 2003). Archived at: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=900626
35. David M. Smith and Gary J. Gates, Gay and Lesbian Families in the United States: Same Sex Unmarried Partner Households: A Preliminary Analysis of 2000 United States Census Data, Human Rights Campaign Report (August 22, 2001), p. 2. Available at: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/1000491_gl_partner_households.pdf and Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004)(citation omitted). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
36. Karen McKenzie and Latricia Good, "The Gay and Lesbian Atlas Displays First Detailed Portrait of Same-Sex Households Across the United States; Available May 3," Press Release, U.S. Newswire (April 19, 2004). Archived at: http://releases.usnewswire.com/GetRelease.asp?id=28949 Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004)\. Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
37. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
38. Tavia Simmons and Martin O’Connell, Married-Couple and Unmarried-Partner Households: 2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-5 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (February 2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
39. Karen McKenzie and Latricia Good, "The Gay and Lesbian Atlas Displays First Detailed Portrait of Same-Sex Households Across the United States; Available May 3," Press Release, U.S. Newswire (April 19, 2004). Archived at: http://releases.usnewswire.com/GetRelease.asp?id=28949 and Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, "Facts and Findings from The Gay & Lesbian Atlas," Urban Institute, Washington, DC (2004). Archived at: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=900695
40. Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
41. Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
42. Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
43. Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance and Karen McKenzie and Latricia Good, "The Gay and Lesbian Atlas Displays First Detailed Portrait of Same-Sex Households Across the United States; Available May 3," Press Release, U.S. Newswire (April 19, 2004). Archived at: http://releases.usnewswire.com/GetRelease.asp?id=28949
44. Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance and Karen McKenzie and Latricia Good, "The Gay and Lesbian Atlas Displays First Detailed Portrait of Same-Sex Households Across the United States; Available May 3," Press Release, U.S. Newswire (April 19, 2004). Archived at: http://releases.usnewswire.com/GetRelease.asp?id=28949
45. Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
46. Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
47. Gary J. Gates and Jason Ost, Chapter One, The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC (2004). Chapter One excerpt available at: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/chapter1.html The book is available through: http://www.urban.org/pubs/gayatlas/contents.html or http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877667217/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
48. ________, "3310.0 Marriages and Divorces, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (November 26, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/b06660592430724fca2568b5007b8619/893c1288678fd232ca2568a90013939c! OpenDocument on August 13, 2005.
49. ________, "3310.0 Marriages and Divorces, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (November 26, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/b06660592430724fca2568b5007b8619/893c1288678fd232ca2568a90013939c! OpenDocument on August 13, 2005.
50. Jan Trost and Irene Levin, "Scandinavian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 347-363 (2005), p. 355. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
51. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 12 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
52. Alan Cowell, "Gay Britons Signing Up as Unions Become Legal," The New York Times (December 6, 2005). Accessed at: 1http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/06/international/europe/06gays.ht...c=rss&adxnnlx=1133853986-Q9meAvpJSWIIN6EdjpSw7A&pagewanted=print on December 5, 2005 (PST).
53. Karin Wall, The Situation of Families in Portugal in the Late 1990s, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 11. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_portugal_wall_en.pdf
54. Wilfried Dumon, "Families in Belgium: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters, (2004), p. 5. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Belgium.pdf
55. Wilfried Dumon, "Families in Belgium: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters, (2004), p. 8. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Belgium.pdf
56. Wilfried Dumon, "Families in Belgium: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters, (2004), p. 8. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Belgium.pdf
57. Elizabeth Jelin, "The Family in Argentina: Modernity, Economic Crisis, and Politics," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 391-413 (2005). pp. 394, 404. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
58. Craig Timberg, "S. Africa's Top Court Blesses Gay Marriage: Parliament Given One Year to Amend Law," Washington Post (December 2, 2005), p. A16. Accessed at:3ttp://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/12/01/AR2005120100583_pf.html on December 4, 2005.