Keeping Up With the Joneses
 
Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 11
 
TOPICS COVERED: In 1926, Mary Ross elegantly complained: “Men and women whose grandparents measured their income in barrels of apples and potatoes stored in the cellar for winter use; in rows of hams hanging from the rafters; in the bags of wool from sheep-shearing; in piled wood in the dooryard and the corn in the silo; and the hay stacked high to the peak of the barn; in butter and wool and preserves, now see that income in terms of the pay envelope at the end of the week, and what that will buy at the chain grocery, the five-and-ten, the department store.”

By 1950, sociologist Ray H. Abrams criticized the middle-class family of “constantly endeavoring to raise its standard of living by securing better houses, auto-mobiles, medication, radio and television sets, and in a not too aggressive fashion by attempting to climb the social ladder with all of its neat class stratifications. To marry off one’s sons and daughters into ‘nice’ and ‘successful’ families is an achievement highly to be desired.” *

Ouch. So – uh, anyway – how are you doing compared to those ubiquitous Joneses? Do you keep up? Is their grass greener? How do you compare? In this page, although we have a couple international numbers, we're primarily taking a look at snapshots of the American economy from a few different perspectives. In "Rich vs. Poor," we look the disparity in income between those at the top and bottom of our economy. In "Race vs. Race," we have information about how the major races / ethnicities compare. "Men vs. Women" has facts on men and women's income and employment. "Have vs. Have Not" begins with a section on how much – and how little – a job covers (There's more information on that in the Poverty memo.). The section continues with how many "have and have not" health insurance, and just how much the cost of child care effects a family pocket book. While these comparisons are helpful, we'd recommend reading them in light of the Related Memos on Poverty and Housing. Together, they will give a much fuller picture of the economic circumstance of families in the U.S. Also, for more information about the finances of a particular demographic group, go to that Related Memo as well.
 
 
 
MEMOS ON RELATED INFORMATION: American Dream, Poverty, Housing, Ozzie and Harriet Land, Child Care, Caregivers in the Workforce. For collected information about particular U.S. ethnic groups: African-American Families, Asian-American Families, Hispanic-American Families, Pacific Islanders Families in the U.S.
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 
 
 

PAGE INDEX:

 

RICH VS. POOR

RACE VS. RACE

MEN VS. WOMEN

HAVE VS. HAVE NOT –

Health Insurance Child Care Expenses

 
 
 

RICH VS. POOR

 
 
 
$44,389
The U.S. Median household income in 2004. 1.
 
 
 
$10,264
Median income of a U.S. household in the lowest quintile of income. 2.
 
 
 
$151,593
Median income of a U.S. household in the highest quintile of income. 3.
 
 
 
3.4 percent
of combined U.S. household incomes are held by the households in the lowest quintile of income. 4.
 
 
 
50.1 percent
of combined U.S. household incomes are held by the households in the highest quintile of income. 5.
 
 
 
The chart on the left illustrates the unequal distribution of income within U.S. households – a fifth of the households take home over one-half of all households' earnings. The wealthiest two-fifths of U.S. households take home 73.3 percent of all household income earnings – while the bottom two-fifths of households have just 12.1 percent of the earnings. 6.

 
 
At least the rich don't always get richer, and the poor don't always get poorer –

49.5 percent of the people in the U.S. who were in poverty in 1996, were not in poverty in 1999. 7.
 
Of households in the lowest income quintile in 1996, 38 percent of them were in a higher quintile by 1999. 8.
 
Of the households in the highest income quintile in 1996, 34 percent of them were in a lower quintile by 1999. 9.

 
 
New Hampshire, New Jersey, Maryland, Connecticut, and Minnesota –
The states with highest median household incomes – $57,352, $56,772, $56,763, $55,970 , and $55,914, respectively. 10.
 
 
 
West Virginia, Arkansas and Mississippi –
The states with the lowest median household incomes – $32,589, $33,948 and $33,659, respectively. 11.
 
 
 

RICH VS. POOR
MEN VS. WOMEN
HAVE VS. HAVE NOT –
Health Insurance Child Care Expenses

 
 

RACE VS. RACE

 
 
 
Making less than the national median household income –
Blacks, Native Americans and Alaskans, Hispanics. 12.
 
 
 
Making more than the national median household income –
Whites, Non-Hispanic Whites, Asians, and Pacific Islanders. Okay, so there was one surprise in the group. 13.
 
 
 
The table at the left is a U.S. Census report on the median household income over a three- or two- year average. Note that the Census Department considers "Hispanic" to be an ethnicity, not a race, which is why there are two categories for White, and which means that the Hispanic entry may include Hispanics of any race. 14.

 
$30,355 –
Median household income for Blacks in the U.S. – which was 62 percent of the median for non- Hispanic White households ($48,977). 15.
 
 
 
45 percent
of Asians in the U.S. work in management, professional, or related occupations – above the U.S. national rate of 34 percent. Once again, Asian Indians are even further ahead: 59.9 percent are in management, professional, or related occupations. 16.
 
 
 
$57,518 –
Median household income for Asians in the U.S. – which was 117 percent of the median for non-Hispanic White households ($48,977). 17.
 
 
 
$40,700
Median income for Asian men in the U.S. in 2000 – higher than the national median of $37,100. For Asian Indian men, the median income is even higher still: $51,900. 18.
 
 
 
$31,000
Median income for Asian women in the U.S. in 2000 – higher than the national median of $27,200. For Asian Indian women, the median income is even higher still: $35,200. 19.
 
 
 
$9,000
Amount the median income of Asian families in the U.S. in 2000 was higher than the U.S. national median for families ($59,000 vs. $50,000). But it depends on the Asian group: Asian Indian and Japanese median incomes are $70,000, whereas the Hmong median is only $32,400. 20.
 
 

RICH VS. POOR
RACE VS. RACE
HAVE VS. HAVE NOT –
Health Insurance Child Care Expenses

 
 

MEN VS. WOMEN

 
 
 
81.5 million
Number of U.S. men aged 15 and older who were working in 2004. An estimated 73.7 percent of them worked full-time, year-round. 21.
 
 
 
72.0 million
Number of women age 15 and older was 72.0 million who were working in 2004. About 58.8 percent of them worked full-time, year-round. 22.
 
 
 
$40,798
The median earnings of U.S. men in 2004. 23.
 
 
 
$31,223
The median earnings of U.S. women in 2004. 24.
 
 
 
61 percent
of Pacific Islander women in the U.S. are employed – higher than the national average of 58 percent. 25.
 
 
 
Just over 71 percent
of Pacific Islander men in the U.S. are employed – almost exactly the national average. 26.
 
 
 
$34,241 –
Median household income for U.S. Hispanics in 2004 – which was just 70 percent of the median for non-Hispanic White households ($48,977). 27.
 
 
 
 
$21,600
The median income for a Hispanic woman in the U.S., compared to the national median of $27,200. 28.
 
 
 
$25,400
The median income for a Hispanic man in the U.S., compared to the national median of $37,100. 29.
 
 
 
$34,000
The median income for a U.S. Hispanic family in 1999. 30.
 
 
14.6 percent
of Hispanic men in the U.S. are in management, professional, and related occupations, behind the U.S. total population (31.4 percent). 31.
 
 
22.9 percent
of Hispanic women in the U.S. are in management, professional, and related occupations, behind the U.S. national rate (36.2 percent). 32.
 
 
 
$31,000
The median income for a Pacific Islander male in the U.S., under the national men's median of $37,100. 33.
 
 
 
$25,700
The median income for a Pacific Islander female in the U.S., under the national women's median of $27,200. 34.
 
 
 
$45,900
The median income for a Pacific Islander family in the U.S., under the national median of $50,000. 35.
 
 
 
Median Income for Pacific Islanders in the U.S.
is lower than the median for Asian households, but it is higher than the medians for Black households, Hispanic households, and American Indian and Alaska Native households and wasn't statistically different from the median for non-Hispanic White households. 36.
 
 
 
 

RICH VS. POOR
RACE VS. RACE
MEN VS. WOMEN

 
 

HAVE VS. HAVE NOT –
Health Insurance Child Care Expenses

 
 
 
In other words, there's less to go around, and it has to go around farther.
In the Netherlands, couples who don't yet have children and those whose children have already grown and moved out have substantially better economic positions than when these couples have children. Because these couples with children have less participation in work, and less income, but that lower income is being shared by a higher number of family members. In fact, families with children have as much as a quarter to one third less purchasing power than couples who aren't raising children. 37.
 
 
 
$55,327
The median household income for U.S. families in 2004. 38.
 
 
 
$63,813
The median household income for 58,000 U.S. married-couple families in 2004. 39.
 
 
 
$29,826
The median household income in 2004 for the 14,000 U.S. families with a female householder and no husband present. 40
 
 
 
$44,923
The median household income in 2004 for 4,900 U.S. families with a male householder and no wife present. 41.
 
 
 
$59,544
what a family in Boston would need to get by on just to meet basic needs. 42.
 
 
 
Just 30 percent
of basic costs of living are covered by welfare-leaver earnings, in a survey of 10 U.S. communities. 43.
 
 
 
A $10 an hour job
in Boston would cover just 42 percent of basic costs of living. 44.
 
 
 
17 percent
of Australian couple families with children are spending more money each week than they earn. They make the difference by living off savings, money from others, or just going into debt. 45.
 
 
 
Almost 30 percent
of Australian single parents with children are spending more money each week than they earn. They make the difference by living off savings, money from others, or just going into debt. 46.
 
 
 
 
Health Insurance
 
 
 
245.3 million
people in the U.S. have health insurance coverage – an increase of 2.0 million since 2003. That is 84.3 percent of the population. 47.
 
 
 
45.8 million
people in the U.S. don't have health insurance coverage. And those that "have not" also saw an increase since 2003, though a much smaller 0.8 million. 48.
 
 
 
Texas
State with the highest percentage of people without health insurance: 25.1 percent don't have any coverage. 49.
 
 
 
Minnesota
State with the highest percentage of people with health insurance: 91.5 percent have coverage. 50.
 
 
 
5.6 months –
the average length of time it took for someone without health insurance to get coverage. 51.
 
 
 
Child Care Expenses
 
 
 
6 percent
of a U.S. middle class family’s income goes to the cost of child care. 52.
 
 
 
13 percent
of a U.S. working class family’s income goes to the cost of child care. 53.
 
 
 
Almost one-third
of a U.S. working poor family’s income goes to the cost of child care. 54.
 
_________________________________________________________________________
 
* Mary Ross, “Shall We Join the Gentlemen?,” The Survey, p. 264, (Dec. 1, 1926). Ray H. Abrams, "The Concept of Family Stability," Annals of the Amer. Acad. of Political and Social Science, Vol. 272, pp. 1-8 (November 1950).
1. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
2. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), Table A-3. Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2004 , p. 40. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
3. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), Table A-3. Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2004 , p. 40. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
4. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), Table A-3. Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2004 , p. 40. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
5. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), Table A-3. Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2004 , p. 40. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
6. Source of data for chart: Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
7. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
8. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
9. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
10. Based on a three-year average. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 22-23, "Table 9. Income of Households by State Using 2- and 3-Year-Average Medians: 2002 to 2004." Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
11. Based on a three-year average. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 22-23, "Table 9. Income of Households by State Using 2- and 3-Year-Average Medians: 2002 to 2004." Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
12. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 6. "Table 1. Income of Households by Race . . . ." Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
13. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 6, "Table 1. Income of Households by Race . . . ." Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
14. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 6. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
15. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p.5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
16. Terrance J. Reeves and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Asians in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-17. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-17.pdf
17. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
18. Terrance J. Reeves and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Asians in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-17. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 15. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-17.pdf
19. Terrance J. Reeves and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Asians in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-17. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 15. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-17.pdf
20. Terrance J. Reeves and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Asians in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-17. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 16. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-17.pdf
21. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 6. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
22. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
23. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
24. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
25. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 4, "Table 1: Income and Earnings . . . ." Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
26. Philip M. Harris and Nicholas A. Jones, "We the People: Pacific Islanders in the United States," Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-26. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 13. Archived at: http://www.census.gov./prod/2005pubs/censr-26.pdf
27. Philip M. Harris and Nicholas A. Jones, "We the People: Pacific Islanders in the United States," Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-26. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 13. Archived at: http://www.census.gov./prod/2005pubs/censr-26.pdf
28. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
29. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 15. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
30. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 15. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
31. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
32. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 13. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
33. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 13. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
34. Philip M. Harris and Nicholas A. Jones, "We the People: Pacific Islanders in the United States," Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-26. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov./prod/2005pubs/censr-26.pdf
35. Philip M. Harris and Nicholas A. Jones, "We the People: Pacific Islanders in the United States," Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-26. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov./prod/2005pubs/censr-26.pdf
36. Philip M. Harris and Nicholas A. Jones, "We the People: Pacific Islanders in the United States," Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-26. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov./prod/2005pubs/censr-26.pdf
37. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 6. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
38. Hans-Joachim Schulze and Peter Cuyvers, The Situation of Families in The Netherlands in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), pp. 3-4 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_netherlands_schulze_cuyvers.pdf
39. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 4, "Table 1: Income and Earnings . . . ." Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
40. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 4, "Table 1: Income and Earnings . . . ." Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
41. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 4, "Table 1: Income and Earnings . . . ." Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
42. _______, Coming Up Short: A Comparison of Wages and Work Supports in 10 American Communities, Report by Wider Opportunities for Women, Washington, DC (Summer / Fall 2004), p. 4. Archived at: http://wowonline.org/docs/dynamic-CTTA-43.pdf
43. _______, Coming Up Short: A Comparison of Wages and Work Supports in 10 American Communities, Report by Wider Opportunities for Women, Washington, DC (Summer / Fall 2004), p. 4. Archived at: http://wowonline.org/docs/dynamic-CTTA-43.pdf
44. _______, Coming Up Short: A Comparison of Wages and Work Supports in 10 American Communities, Report by Wider Opportunities for Women, Washington, DC (Summer / Fall 2004), p. 4. Archived at: http://wowonline.org/docs/dynamic-CTTA-43.pdf
45. According to 1998-1999 national survey. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 84 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
46. According to 1998-1999 national survey. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 84 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
47. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 16. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
48. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 16. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
49. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 27, "Table 11. Percentage of People Without Health Insurance Coverage by State Using 2- and 3-Year Averages: 2002 to 2004." Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
50. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 27, "Table 11. Percentage of People Without Health Insurance Coverage by State Using 2- and 3-Year Averages: 2002 to 2004." Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
51. During the 1996–1999 period. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
52. Among those who use paid care. Diana M. Pearce, How Work Supports Impact Family Budgets: An Analysis of the Interaction of Public Policies and Wages, Center for Women’s Welfare, School of Social Work, University of Washington, Wider Opportunities for Women (July 2004). p. 3 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.wowonline.org/docs/dynamic-CTTA-45.pdf
53. Among those who use paid care. Diana M. Pearce, How Work Supports Impact Family Budgets: An Analysis of the Interaction of Public Policies and Wages, Center for Women’s Welfare, School of Social Work, University of Washington, Wider Opportunities for Women (July 2004). p. 3 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.wowonline.org/docs/dynamic-CTTA-45.pdf
54. Among those who use paid care. Diana M. Pearce, How Work Supports Impact Family Budgets: An Analysis of the Interaction of Public Policies and Wages, Center for Women’s Welfare, School of Social Work, University of Washington, Wider Opportunities for Women (July 2004). p. 3 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.wowonline.org/docs/dynamic-CTTA-45.pdf