Marriage, Part One (Societal and Historical Views)
 
Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 17
 
TOPICS COVERED: First and foremost, news reports usually focus on the demographics of marriage - how many people are and are not getting married. And we've got that information for you in our Marriage Part Two Memo, if you have to have it. But we'll steal our own thunder and report to you that, at least in the U.S., marriage remains almost universal. That isn't the case in other countries, however. Which means that, for us, we think the much more interesting questions are things like: Why do people get married? Who's the ideal mate? How do families celebrate marriages? Has marriage always been a religious institution? Has it always been a government-recognized institution? And so those are the questions we're tackling below. (Please note that while we have covered some traditions of marriage, there is more information – particularly the history of marriage in the U.S. – in the memos on Family Structures.)
 
MEMOS ON RELATED INFORMATION: Love, Family as a Social Institution, Marriage Part Two (By the Numbers) (for demographic information, including probability of marriage), What Makes You a Grown-up? (for how marriage relates to the process of becoming an adult), Delaying Marriage (for information on timing of marriages), Unmarried Partners / Families (for information about cohabitation, and probability of cohabiting couples transitioning into marriage), Family Structures
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 

PAGE INDEX:

 
 

WHY GET MARRIED?

WHO'S THE LUCKY GUY (GIRL)?

CULTURAL TRADITIONS IN MARRIAGE AND WEDDINGS

RELIGIOUS AND STATE INVOLVEMENT IN MARRIAGES, HISTORICALLY

ARRANGED MARRIAGES

 
 

WHY GET MARRIED?

 
 
 
"Wherever, in the history of civilization, woman has ceased to be an economic asset in marriage, marriage has decayed; and sometimes civilization has decayed with it.”
-- Will Durant, The Story of Civilization 1.

 
 
Live together first, then, if you have a kid, get married.
Up until 1545, European marriages commonly had two ceremonies. First, a couple had a betrothal ceremony, after which the engaged couple was able to live together. Then, the couple had a child, that was taken to be the consummation of their marriage, so then they might (or might not) have the actual marriage ceremony. 2.
 
 
 
In fact, the prevailing attitude was that weddings routinely came after pregnancy and childbirth continued until the 1700s, and some scholars believe that the current decline in marriage and increase in unmarried women's births may actually be a return to that earlier tradition. 3.
 
 
 
Always a Love Match
While other countries relied upon arranged marriages, most scholars seem to believe that U.S. has always predominantly had its marriages based in love matches – and that such a tradition had been in place literally since the Pilgrims were here. The Pilgrims' views came from a Protestant belief that marriage was a holy expression of God's love for man – a radical view elsewhere in the world (including the Catholic tradition which still saw marriage as a civil institution). 4.
 
 
 
An Unequal marriage of equals?
 
Marriage matches were historically a based in union of families and political dynasties, and families were hierarchies just as everything else was. And, while loveless, the low number of divorces in England until the late Nineteenth Century indicate that these marriages may have been more stable than the modern U.S. type of love matches between two equal partners. 5.
 
And in fact, historically, divorces are almost just as much a part of the American marriage tradition as are love matches. 6.
 
 
 
A union of families –

In North Africa, most marriages are still arranged, and from within the same ethnic community or tribe. That's because marriages there are still still considered to be unions between two families – not just a union between two individuals. 7.
 
While arranged marriages are no longer common in Hong Kong, the belief there is still that the purpose of marriage is never to unite two individuals, but to continue the husband's family lineage, and to "unite two surnames" – meaning unite two family lineages. 8.

 
 
I will never get married if I'm not in love –
What 86 percent of U.S. students said in a 1995 survey. 9.
 
 
 
I will get married even if I'm not in love –
What 76 percent of students in India – where arranged marriages are still common – said in a 1995 survey. 10.
 
 
 
Two-Thirds
Number of surveyed Japanese-American women and Chinese-American single women who explained that their refusal to get married was in large part due to the fact that their parents had gotten married because of familial responsibilities and obligations, rather than on love. 11.
 
 
 
“Black women are less likely to marry, stay married, and remarry. Those who marry do so at an older age than do whites. The differences between blacks and whites . . . are greater than they were a generation ago. As a result, black women spend far less of their life in a marriage than do white women. . . . white women now can expect to spend less than half of their lives married. But among black women, the corresponding figure has plunged from 40 percent to 22 percent – about the same proportion of life that the average college-educated person spends attending school. Marriage has become just a temporary stage of life for blacks, preceded by a lengthening period of singlehood and followed by a long period of living without a spouse. . . . For blacks, even more so than for whites, a long, stable marriage is the exception rather than the rule.” 12.
 
 
 
What do you get the single woman who has everything? A good . . . wife . . . ?
In the Igbo tribe of Nigeria, women who are elderly, or the only heir in the family, may marry a woman, in order to keep the family wealth and name intact. She is socially recognized as the husband. And if her wife becomes pregnant (through known about liaisons), the children are the woman's – they continue on the family line. 13.
 
 
 
"I don't":
There were four reasons why surveyed Chinese-American and Japanese-American women were not married: their parents's marriage was not love based, their status as elder daughters who had to care for their family, their educational goals, and their belief that there wasn't anyone appropriate to marry. 14.
 
 
 
In 1886, Reverend Talmage wrote, in a collection of sermons, “Better for a woman to live alone, though she live a thousand years, than to be annexed to one of these masculine failures with which society is surfeited. The patron saint of almost every family circle is some such unmarried woman, and among all the families of cousins she moves around, and her coming in each house is the morning, and her going away is the night.” 15.
 
 
 
In 1886, Reverend T. DeWitt Talmage wrote, in a collection of sermons, “That marriage is the destination of the human race is a mistake that I want to correct before I go further. There are multitudes who never will marry, and still greater multitudes who are not fit to marry. In Great Britain to-day there are nine hundred and forty-eight thousand more women than men, and that, I understand, is about the ratio in America. By mathematical and inexorable law, you see, millions of women will never marry. The supply for matrimony greater than the demand, the first lesson of which is that every women ought to prepare to take care of herself if need be. Then there are thousands of men who have no right to marry, because they have become so corrupt of character that their offer of marriage is an insult to any good woman.” 16.
 
 
 
In 1948, a Parents' Magazine essayist wrote that women have always had the upper hand in marriage. As he explained, “The opportunity for marriage and for family life has been particularly favorable to our women. In large part, this happy situation reflects our pioneer traditions as well as our good social and economic conditions. The preponderance of young people, the relative scarcity of women, and the fact that it is impossible to hew a civilization out of a wilderness without the aid of large families were conducive to early marriages. The responsibility of pioneer wives made their position in our society secure.” 17.
 
 
 
In Kuwait, "Non-marriage is considered a social problem. Popular media and informal discussion with Kuwaiti men and women suggest that societal perceptions of the major appropriate role for a woman continue to be that of a wife and mother. She is expected to combine this role with her role in the labor force if working; her work role is not seen as an alternative to her wife-mother role. Furthermore, it is socially undesirable for an unmarried Kuwaiti woman to live by herself. An overt expression of the concern with the increasing proportion of single women in the population is the formation of a social committee (Al-lajnat-al Othman al-Khairiya, i.e., Al-Othman committee for social welfare) aimed at encouraging the marriage of single women, as second wives of married men, if necessary." 18.
 
 
 
Almost 50 percent
of Israelis believe that the purpose of marriage is to have children. 19.
 
 
 
Marriage just isn't seen as complete until there's a child – ideally, a son – in South Africa. 20.
 
 
 
A successful marriage, with many sons
The goal for most Afghan women . . . and Afghan men. 21.
 
 
 
11.2 percent
of Israelis believe it is better to be unhappily married, than to be not married at all. 22.
 
 
 
In South-Eastern and Eastern Asia, marriage has been almost universal.
While there are a couple Asian countries where nonmarriage (usually for religious reasons) is acceptable, in most of Asia, marriage has been almost universal. Malay, until about three decades ago, over 50 percent of the Muslin women there were married before they were 18, and over 99 percent of them were married by the time they'd reached their 40s. And what were just about only reasons for not getting married? If the women were mentally ill, or physically deformed. But there are indications that this may be changing. Certainly, women are getting married much later than they had – but it's too early yet to to know if "no" means "never" or just "not yet." 23.
 
 
 
If she doesn't want to marry, it's the parents' fault?
In Korea, a woman's decision to not marry is sometimes seen as her parents' failure: they failed in their duty to her since they haven't found her a mate. 24.
 
 
 
The practice of polygyny has been on the decline around the world – but it does still continue. In Afghanistan, polygyny has been less prevalent – but divorce holds greater stigma than does a second wife, so a problem with a first wife – such as her inability to have children, or the fact that all of her children have been girls – may be a reason for an Afghani man to take another wife. 25.
 
 
 
A second wife
Getting another wife is more common than divorce and remarriage in Kenya. 26.
 
 
 
Muslim men in Nigeria
are expected to be polygynous – they can (and do) marry up to four wives. 27.
 
 
 
Christian men in Nigeria
are expected to be monogamous – to have just one wife. Unless, of course, he's a convert to Christianity who already has more than one wife, in which case, he should keep them all. 28.
 
 
 
Two to 12 percent
of marriages in most Arab nations are polygamous. In most of these, it's about five percent. Tunisia (the only Arab nation where it’s illegal, since 1956). 29.
 
 
 
Tunisia
the only Arab nation where polygamous unions are illegal (since 1956). 30.
 
 
 
96 percent
of Kuwaiti women are against second marriages. 86 percent of men are also against them. 31.
 
 
 
Five percent
of Kuwaiti women report that they are in a polygynous union. But, interestingly (and a little inexplicably), twice that (over 10 percent) reported that their husbands had at some point been in a polygynous marriage. 32.
 
 
 
16 percent
of currently married women in Kenya are in polygynous marriages, a decrease of 30 percent from 30 years earlier. 33.
 
 
 
In sub-Saharan Africa, "A critical continuity in African family patterns relates to the persistence of polygynous practices. The much-anticipated decline in polygynous households is still far from a social reality in most African countries. In rural areas, polygyny survives largely because of the imperatives established by the sexual division of labor that marks the sphere of agriculture. Multiple wives, and by extension, many children, are valued because they continue to provide essential labor services in rural agricultural production. But in most African urban areas, polygyny, once fairly common, is becoming rare, in particular among the younger generations. Comparative studies from Cameroon, Kenya, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania show that monogamous households have taken a greater hold on society." 34.
 
 
 

WHY GET MARRIED?
CULTURAL TRADITIONS IN MARRIAGE AND WEDDINGS
RELIGIOUS AND STATE INVOLVEMENT IN MARRIAGES, HISTORICALLY
ARRANGED MARRIAGES

 
 
 
 

WHO'S THE LUCKY GUY (GIRL)?

 
 
Twice as many
U.S. black men have a spouse of a different race or origin than do black women: 10 percent of black men are in an inter-racial or ethic marriage while only five percent of black women are in one. 35.
 
 
 
Marry within
Amongst Indian Hindus, caste compatibility and cultural background are still often more important than couple's having similar educational and financial backgrounds: coming from a different caste or culture is seen as a legitimate reason to disapprove of a marriage. 36.
 
 
 
Checking out his horoscope –
In India, it isn't a pick-up line in the bar. Astrologists are consulted to see if the couple is a good match. If he is, they'll even pick the day for the ceremony. 37.
 
 
 
I'll tell you what you think of him –
While this has been changing in recent years, even after an initial introduction, a prospective Indian couple still doesn't have much direct interaction before marriage. They may meet a few times, but really any ongoing communication goes on between the couple's parents or go-betweens. 38.
 
 
 
Traditional requirements for an Indian Hindu man in order to be considered marriageable:

He can't be insane.
He can't be impotent.
He can't have a terrible disease. 39.

 
Traditional requirements for an Indian Hindu woman in order to be considered marriageable:

She cannot have been married before.
If she isn't the oldest, then her older sisters must already be married.
She must be want to bear children for her husband.
She must be physically attractive.
She must be practical, and know how to manage a household.
She must be docile.
She must be eager to satisfy her husband sexually. 40.

 
 
25 percent
of Taiwanese marriages in 2002 were between a Taiwanese man and a bride from elsewhere in Southeast Asia. This influx of brides is largely due to the fact that blue-collar men, farmers, and older veterans of the Chinese Civil War have had a hard time finding brides amongst the increasingly urbanized, educated Taiwanese women. The marriages aren't trouble-free. The foreign brides are more frequently abused, and their children – with mothers lacking knowledge of Taiwanese culture and Chinese language skills, and fathers lacking financial resources – are noticeably behind in their educations. 41.
 
 
 
Don't want to be their mothers –
Three-fourths of Japanese-American women and Chinese-American women surveyed said that dating Asian-American men was difficult, because the men wanted the women to adopt traditional, submissive gender roles, while the women were looking for men who would share child-rearing and household responsibilities. 42.
 
 
 
"Recycled" Men
According to one study in Brazil, there is a shortage of marriageable men, due to the fact that men tend to marry women significantly younger than they are, and that there 's a larger populations in younger birth cohorts – meaning there are more young women. The men have "solved" the problem by having one marriage, and then, later in life, having a consensual, but unmarried relationship with someone else. 43.
 
 
 
$13,000, US.
A sort of wedding present from the Kuwaiti government to the Happy Couple. Half of the money is a gift, to start their married life together on the right financial foot, and the other half is an interest-free loan. The only requirement is that both of them must be Kuwaiti nationals, but that's 90 percent of all marriages in Kuwait. 44.
 
 
 
But for those other 10 percent . . .
sanctions apply. Children born into a marriage between a Kuwaiti wife and a foreign husband, and even raised in Kuwait, are not Kuwaiti citizens. Instead, because Kuwait is a patriarchal society, they inherit the father's nationality. For Kuwaiti men who marries non-Kuwaitis, his children are awarded Kuwaiti nationality at birth. For their wives, achieving nationality a process that can take up to 15 years. 45.
 
 
 
Zero
The number of European nations that prohibit marriage between first cousins. 46.
 
 
 
24
The number of U.S. states that prohibit marriage between first cousins. Of the 26 states that do allow first-cousin marriages, a number of them have special requirements for marriages between relatives. In Wisconsin and, of all places, Utah, cousins can only get married if they won't have any children. In Maine, the marriage can go forward, but only after the related couple has first had genetic testing to see if a child from the marriage would be at risk from a commonly-held gene for disease. 47.
 
 
 
An estimated 20 percent
of all marriages, worldwide, are between first cousins. 48.
 
 
 
80 percent
of marriages are between cousins, historically. 49.
 
 
 
15 percent
of Indian women who have married, married a blood relative. 50.
 
 
 
20-25 percent
of those in Turkey are married to a relative. 51.
 
 
 
35 percent
of Kuwaitis in a study were married to a relative. 19.3 percent were married to their first cousin. Another 10.4 percent had married a second cousin, while 5.5 percent were married to a more distant relative. That's a dramatic decrease in just two decades. In 1983, an estimated 54.3 percent of Kuwaitis were married to relatives. 52.
 
 
 
32.8 percent
of Israeli Arabs are married to a relative. 53.
 
 
 
50.5 percent
of those in the United Arab Emirates are married to a relative. 54.
 
 
 
52 percent
of those in the Saudi Arabia are married to a relative. 55.
 
 
 
54 percent
of those in Oman are married to a relative. 56.
 
 
 
They don't want to marry "up" –
In the early 1980s, Saudi Arabian men were reluctant to marrying a working woman, even if she was a university graduate. "However, the situation is radically changing. A working wife is currently preferred to help the husband in meeting the heavy financial demands of the new urban life. Hence, martial life is now based on true and real partnership as far as supporting household needs. The wife now has a say in the living conditions of her family and shares in decision-making. This transformation was not anticipated a few years ago. However, several socio-cultural groups resist it, although developments show that it is likely to expand and become a more widespread phenomenon." 57.
 
 
 

WHY GET MARRIED?
WHO'S THE LUCKY GUY (GIRL)?
RELIGIOUS AND STATE INVOLVEMENT IN MARRIAGES, HISTORICALLY
ARRANGED MARRIAGES

 
 
 
 

CULTURAL TRADITIONS IN MARRIAGE AND WEDDINGS

 
 
 
In the Hawaiian language, the root of the word for marriage is "to try." Now, is that "try" as in attempt to accomplish something, or as in “get on my very last nerve,” I don’t know. 58.
 
 
 
In 17th Century Maryland, "Paternal control was most evident in the father's dominant role in his children's marriages. In order to marry, a child had to have not only his parents' consent but also their economic support in the form of a marriage settlement." 59.
 
 
 
Television shows and "supermatchmakers" –
are Taiwanese favorites for introducing eligible men and women for possible mates. 60.
 
 
 
Bringing English traditions with them, “Late marriages of men and women in strict birth order, delays in the transference of real and personal estates from fathers to sons, and residence of married children on their father’s lands were characteristic of many New England families in the seventeenth century and must of the eighteenth.” 61.
 
 
 
Bridewealth
in South Africa, goes from the husband's family to the bride's – and is considered to be compensation for the bride's family loss of the ability to control her ability to have children. 62.
 
 
 
Bridewealth
In Kenya, it is the money that is paid by the groom's family to the bride's family. In a survey, 90 percent of married Kenyans had said that bridewealth was being or had been paid for their marriage. But the goal of bridewealth isn't really to buy the bride from her family. Instead, it is to establish a continuing tie between the two families – so the goal isn't actually to pay the amount off. In fact, while most of it is paid before the marriage, it may be that a small portion of the payment lasts for years – sometimes, it will even continue by the sons after the husband has died. 63.
 
 
 
Changing roles and rules in the Persian Gulf –

It used to be that dowries were given before marriage – but now things are changing. Dowries are being delayed because of the prospect of divorce – and the fact that women need guarantees before entering into marriage. 64.
 
At the same time, marriage contracts there now may include conditions set by the bride, including the right to study, work, and have the family live in their own house, apart from the husband's parents. Some even insist on the right to divorce if the husband decided to get a second wife. 65.

 
 
So it's supposed to comes out even – but it doesn't.
In Afghanistan, there's a brideprice – the amount that the groom pays the bride's family for his wife – and a dowry. Normally, they're supposed to be equal. But the amount is of huge importance, and the subject of heavy negotiations. And much more than just money is at stake. The bride's social status in the family is set by the value of the brideprice and the dowry. It will determine not only her role, but the quality of the dowry will also be key to the prestige of both the bride's and the groom's family. Just what is in the dowry? Enough clothing – that the bride and her family members have embroidered, woven, and tailored themselves – bedding, and household utensils which are expected to last the couple for the first fifteen years of their marriage. So preparing the daughter's dowry is a fundamental activity in any Afghani home. 66.
 
 
 
In India,
"In cities like New Delhi, elaborate processions wind through the streets as the groom heads for the wedding on his white horse. Even families of modest means will incur enormous debts to provide feasts and dowries for their daughters. Many families retain the services of marriage brokers, whose task is to seek out eligible prospective daughters-in-law who meet the qualifications set out by the parents of either bride or groom. Traditional marriage brokers are specialists in genealogy. Many families also refer to marriage ads that are a regular feature of newspapers." 67.
 
 
 
The Year of the Tiger –
is thought by Chinese and Taiwanese to be a year of war, disagreement and disaster. Thus, in 1998, a Year of the Tiger, there was a sharp drop in the number of marriages and babies born in Taiwan. 68.
 
 
 
The Year of the Dragon –
is thought by Chinese and Taiwanese to be a good year for both marriage and family. Thus, in 2000, a Year of the Dragon, Taiwan saw a sharp increase in both. 69.
 
 
 
Giving the Bride Away –
In a traditional Hindu wedding, the beginning of the rite is when the groom comes to the bride's home, asking her father for his bride. When he approves, Brahmin priests read the families' genealogies. 70.
 
 
 

WHY GET MARRIED?
WHO'S THE LUCKY GUY (GIRL)?
CULTURAL TRADITIONS IN MARRIAGE AND WEDDINGS
ARRANGED MARRIAGES

 
 
 
 

RELIGIOUS AND STATE INVOLVEMENT IN MARRIAGES, HISTORICALLY

 
 
Generally, in the UK/US Anglo-Saxon tradition, civil and religious rule grew in parallel over the centuries, really taking root following the Norman Conquest. Civil law would recognize nullification while religious law would come up with rules like don’t marry your sister. both religious and civil courts ruled over issues such as consummation (required), eligibility to marry, etc. Actually, it wasn’t until the 12th century that the Church recognized marriage as an official sacrament and therefore required church approval, and not until 1563 (when Henry VIII was giving the world headaches) that a priest had to marry for it to be recognized. Which is not to say that you couldn’t get in trouble with the church before that; married women could be excommunicated for being adulterous sluts hundreds of years before that (men were just slapped on the wrist because we’re expected to be unfaithful). 71.
 
 
Anglo-Saxon (and subsequent) courts have always recognized the importance of the marital state to the society and have therefore limited the ability to regulate marriage.
 
 
In the Anglo-Saxon tradition, the marriage contract – remember it’s a real contract – is really between the husband, wife and the state, whereas in other traditions, it's a contract between families. Regardless, the contract was that a husband promise to her and the state that you will provide for your wife and your progeny. The contract can be, to a certain extent, modified by the real parties in interest (take care of me or else). The state will go along with those “contract modifications” if they are reasonable, and don’t discourage creation of marriages. That’s why Pre-Nup’s are so controversial in the U.S., because they are thought to encourage divorce. (It wasn’t until 1983 that there was a Uniform Antenuptial Agreement Act for the states to discuss/review). In Islamic marriages, there's frequently a negotiated contract of marriage, with specific terms – what the wife must do, what the husband can't do, what during the marriage will constitute grounds for divorce, etc. 72.
 
 
 
. . . and let no man tear asunder . . . .
That was actually the concern of marriages in the Middle Ages. Parents arranged their children's marriages. They also ordered those same marriages ended, if they became politically or financially inconvenient. So the Catholic Church's steps to declare marriage indissoluble were not originally based in a religious belief that marriage was a sacrament. Instead, it was began as an effort to protect couples from the continued interference in the marriage by their parents. 73.
 
 
1753
The year English state and church control began to regulate marriages and weddings. Prior to that, couples married in secret, paid off clergy, etc. Not having any regulation had "helped serial bigamists, those who held out a title or wealth for marriage, then deserted shortly thereafter. An estimated 250,000 such marriages took place between 1694 and 1754, providing large profits for unscrupulous clergy who were little more than marriage brokers. Half of the brides were pregnant for the marriage, which no one had a problem with." 74.
 
 
 
Originally intended to stop titled gentry from eloping, which they’d been doing with regularity, the Act was far more reaching than that. The Act required: marriage under Church of England law / procedure / services (even for Catholics! although Jews and Quakers were exempt); parental consent for marriage up to the age of 21, and other wedding formalities (even time of day). (If you were rich enough, you could pay for a special license to get out of it.) Women with previously “valid” common law marriages (eg those who’d jumped the broom) that were not licensed were suddenly whores with bastard children: the common law marriages were no longer recognized. 75.
 
 
 
It wasn’t until 1836! that British Catholics could marry in their own chapels. 76.
 
 
 
"Some scholars have noted that although civil laws in many Arab societies are deduced from European legislation, family laws regulating marriages, divorces inheritance and custody of children are derived from the Qur’an and Sunna. With respect to marriage, it is considered the duty of every believer to be married." 77.
 
 
 

WHY GET MARRIED?
WHO'S THE LUCKY GUY (GIRL)?
CULTURAL TRADITIONS IN MARRIAGE AND WEDDINGS
RELIGIOUS AND STATE INVOLVEMENT IN MARRIAGES, HISTORICALLY

 
 
 
 

ARRANGED MARRIAGES

 
 
At varying times, arranged marriages have occurred pretty much everywhere (except the U.S., but they were present there occasionally), although currently the majority of them seem to be occurring in Asian and Middle Eastern cultures, or within their expat communities. While currently on the decline to about 9.9 percent of marriages in Japan, Japanese have a tradition of arranged marriages. They do, as well, in Thailand and Korea, too. Hmongs, Hasidic Jews and well, maybe some “ultra-Orthodox Jews” (who definitely use marriage brokers, but they would say that it is the introductions, and not the marriages which are arranged).
 
 
 
By the 1800s, the Victorian Age was in full swing. Women had no property or legal rights. And women/girls were at the mercy of their parents in arranging marriages. And virginity was de rigueur, of course. 78.
 
 
 
At least one historian claims that, since the Norman Conquest, before the modern era's Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Charles, all but two monarchs had arranged marriages: “Three basic principles have governed the choice of a royal consort. First, international prestige demanded that the ruler marry someone of suitable status; second, a royal marriage was a valuable diplomatic asset not to be wasted; third, a spouse should be a foreigner, since to marry within a realm was to risk disturbing the balance of internal politics.” 79.
 
 
 
"Brown (1994) notes that college students in Korea may not be happy with their family being involved in marriage decisions; nevertheless, they do not doubt their legitimacy in making these important life decisions. As Talbani and Hasanali (2000) point out, "The arranged marriage has been a key instrument for economic, social and political stability in South Asian culture. It has been used to make political alliances, solidify economic positions, and secure social stability among large families, tribes, and communities" (p. 625)." 80.
 
 
 
In the Middle East, it is also cultural, not exactly religious, that marriages are arranged. Muslim, Sikh, Buddhist, and yes, Indian Tamil Catholics and other denominations of Christians, do it, too. 81.
 
 
 
85 to 90 percent
of India's marriages are arranged, regardless the couple's religious belief. 82.
 
 
 
Forced Marriages –
are just that – those where one (or more) of the parties has not freely consented to the marriage. They are literally being forced to marry, under the threat of violence to themselves or other loved ones. The difference between “a forced marriage” and just your run of the mill “arranged marriage” is important to remember, and unfortunately, Western news reports sometimes blur their use of the terms. Failing to see the distinction is criticized within the affected communities: Arabic Muslim journalists say such that it smacks of “Islamophobia” and Western media’s sloppiness. 83.
 
 
 
The ability to marry someone of one's choosing, voluntarily, is considered a human right, and as such is included in the United Nations' Universal Declaration on Human Rights and other international treaties. That is significant on two points – first, it underscores the importance of the issue, and also that governments must address forced marriages by migrants from other nations. In the United Kingdom, with its growing Muslim emigrant population, its law enforcement community has taken special efforts to understand the different types of arranged marriages, and how to identify when an arranged marriage is actually a forced marriage. Just being able to identify a forced marriage, however, is not the end of the problem. Getting married is, unless a spouse is underage, generally not illegal, and if the only evidence of a forced marriage is a statement that a parent has ordered a child to marry, it's difficult to prove when a crime has actually been committed. At the same time, those who have been making the threats of violence – and perhaps their threatened victims – are in their home country, making it next to impossible for U.K. officials to investigate the matter. There are, unfortunately, cases with physical violence. But for many forced marriages, it is a domestic violence of the mind. 84.
 
 
___________________________________________________________
 
1. Will Durant, The Story of Civilization, Simon and Schuster, New York (1935 et seq.) p. 44.
2. Margot Patterson, "Theology of Marriage Evolving: Since Vatican II, Church Challenged by Richer Understanding of Sacrament," National Catholic Reporter (December 28, 2001). Archived at: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1141/is_8_38/ai_82066336/print
3. David Johnson, "Publish or Be Damned, David Johnson describes the Infamous Marriage Act of 1753, which made marriage a tightly-regulated institution governed by church and state," History Today (November 2003)(Between 1694 and 1754, "Half of the brides were pregnant for the marriage, which no one had a problem with."). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:110621789 and Margot Patterson, "Theology of Marriage Evolving: Since Vatican II, Church Challenged by Richer Understanding of Sacrament," National Catholic Reporter (December 28, 2001). Archived at: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1141/is_8_38/ai_82066336/print
4. See Margaret Talbot, Love, American Style,” New Republic (April 14, 1997) and ________, "Arranged Marriages and the Place They Have in Today's Culture," NPR Talk of the Nation trans. (July 20, 1999). Archived at: http://www.newsbank.com and Margot Patterson, "Theology of Marriage Evolving: Since Vatican II, Church Challenged by Richer Understanding of Sacrament," National Catholic Reporter (December 28, 2001). Archived at: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1141/is_8_38/ai_82066336/print
5. Margaret Talbot, Love, American Style,” New Republic (April 14, 1997).
6. Margaret Talbot, Love, American Style,” New Republic (April 14, 1997).
7. Nazek Nosseir, "Family in the New Millennium: Major Trends Affecting Families in North Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtnosseir.pdf
8. Cecilia L.W. Chan, "How the Socio-cultural Context Shapes Women's Divorce Experience in Hong Kong," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004)(citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302752
9. Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856
10. Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856
11. Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856
12. Andrew J. Cherlin, Marriage, Divorce, Remarriage, Revised and Enlarged Ed., Harvard University Press, USA (1992), p. 95 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/067455082X/ref=sib_rdr_dp/104-0887680-4192712?%5Fencoding=UTF8&no=283155&me=ATVPDKIKX0DER&st=books
13. Innocent Victor Ogo Modo, "Nigerian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 25-46 (2005), p. 28. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
14. Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856
15. Rev. T. DeWitt Talmage, The Marriage Ring: A Series of Sermons in the Duties of the Husband and Wife, and On the Domestic Circle, p. 25 (1886).
16. Rev. T. DeWitt Talmage, The Marriage Ring: A Series of Sermons in the Duties of the Husband and Wife, and On the Domestic Circle p. 10 (1886)
17. Louis I. Dublin, “Look at the Bright Side of Marriage: Some Facts and Figures Concerning American Family Life,” Parents' Magazine, Vol. 23, pp. 11, 68-70 (December 1948).
18. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
19. Ruth Katz and Yoav Lavee, "Families in Israel," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 486-506 (2005), p. 489. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
20. Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 49. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
21. Nancy Hatch Dupree and Thomas E. Gouttierre, "The Society and Its Environment," Chapter 2, "Gender Roles" section, Afghanistan, Library of Congress Country Study. (1997). Available in on-line edition at: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/aftoc.html
22. Ruth Katz and Yoav Lavee, "Families in Israel," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 486-506 (2005), p. 489 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
23. Gavin W. Jones, "The 'Flight From Marriage' in South-East and East Asia," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 1 p. 92, et seq. (Winter 2005), p. 94 (citation omitted).
24. Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856
25. Nancy Hatch Dupree and Thomas E. Gouttierre, "The Society and Its Environment," Chapter 2, "Family" section, Afghanistan, Library of Congress Country Study. (1997). Available in on-line edition at: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/aftoc.html
26. Edward K. Mburugu and Bert N. Adams, "Families in Kenya," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 3-24 (2005), p. 19. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
27. Innocent Victor Ogo Modo, "Nigerian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 25-46 (2005), p. 27-28. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
28. Innocent Victor Ogo Modo, "Nigerian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 25-46 (2005), pp. 27-28. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
29. Nazek Nosseir, "Family in the New Millennium: Major Trends Affecting Families in North Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtnosseir.pdf and Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
30. Nazek Nosseir, "Family in the New Millennium: Major Trends Affecting Families in North Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtnosseir.pdf and Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
31. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004) citing The Arab Times, March 16, 1992. Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
32. According to a 1992 survey. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004) citing The Arab Times, March 16, 1992. Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
33. Edward K. Mburugu, and Bert N. Adams, "Families in Kenya," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 3-24 (2005), pp. 7-8. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
34. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 7 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
35. Rose M. Kreider, Marital Status: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR-30. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 4 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/c2kbr-30.pdf
36. See Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856 and John Renard, Responses to 101 Questions on Hinduism, Paulist Press (March 1999). Available throught: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/080913845X/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
37. John Renard, Responses to 101 Questions on Hinduism, Paulist Press (March 1999). Available throught: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/080913845X/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
38. John Renard, Responses to 101 Questions on Hinduism, Paulist Press (March 1999). Available throught: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/080913845X/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
39. John Renard, Responses to 101 Questions on Hinduism, Paulist Press (March 1999). Available throught: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/080913845X/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
40. John Renard, Responses to 101 Questions on Hinduism, Paulist Press (March 1999). Available throught: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/080913845X/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
41. John Renard, Responses to 101 Questions on Hinduism, Paulist Press (March 1999). Available throught: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/080913845X/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
42. Yu-Hua Chen and Chin-Chin Yi, "Taiwan's Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 177-198 (2005), pp. 193-194 (citations omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
43. Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856
44. Elizabeth Fussell and Alberto Palloni, "Persistent Marriage Regimes in Changing Times," Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 66, pp. 1201-1213 (December 2004), p. 1206.
45. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
46. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
47. Mahmoud M. Awad, "First Cousins Denied Marriage," Arab American News (April 8, 2005). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1P1:109159436
48. Mahmoud M. Awad, "First Cousins Denied Marriage," Arab American News (April 8, 2005). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1P1:109159436
49. Mahmoud M. Awad, "First Cousins Denied Marriage," Arab American News (April 8, 2005). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1P1:109159436
50. J.P. Singh, "The Contemporary Indian Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 129-166 (2005), p. 142. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
51. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
52. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
53. As of 1991-1998. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
54. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
55. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
56. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
57. Yahya El-Haddad, "Major Trends Affecting Families in the Gulf Countries," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (200_), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtelhaddad.pdf
58. Will Durant, The Story of Civilization, Simon and Schuster, New York (1935 et seq.).
59. Lorena S. Walsh, "'Till Death Us Do Part': Marriage and Family in Seventeenth Century Maryland," The Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century: Essays on Anglo-American Society, Thad W. Tate and David L. Ammerman, eds., Univ. of North Carolina Press (1979), p. 126. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0807813605/qid=1123776483/sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
60. Yu-Hua Chen and Chin-Chin Yi, "Taiwan's Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 177-198 (2005), p. 179. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
61. Lorena S. Walsh, "'Till Death Us Do Part': Marriage and Family in Seventeenth Century Maryland," The Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century: Essays on Anglo-American Society, Thad W. Tate and David L. Ammerman, eds., Univ. of North Carolina Press (1979), p. 126 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0807813605/qid=1123776483/sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
62. Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 49. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
63. Edward K. Mburugu, and Bert N. Adams, "Families in Kenya," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 3-24 (2005), p. 8. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
64. Yahya El-Haddad, "Major Trends Affecting Families in the Gulf Countries," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (200_), p. 7 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtelhaddad.pdf
65. Yahya El-Haddad, "Major Trends Affecting Families in the Gulf Countries," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (200_), p. 8 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtelhaddad.pdf
66. And here Ashley thought she was doing well to have enough clean laundry to get her through the week. Nancy Hatch Dupree and Thomas E. Gouttierre, "The Society and Its Environment," Chapter 2, "Family" section, Afghanistan, Library of Congress Country Study. (1997). Available in on-line edition at: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/aftoc.html
67. John Renard, Responses to 101 Questions on Hinduism, Paulist Press (March 1999). Available throught: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/080913845X/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
68. Yu-Hua Chen and Chin-Chin Yi, "Taiwan's Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 177-198 (2005), p. 182. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
69. Yu-Hua Chen and Chin-Chin Yi, "Taiwan's Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 177-198 (2005), p. 182. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
70. John Renard, Responses to 101 Questions on Hinduism, Paulist Press (March 1999). Available throught: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/080913845X/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
71. Will Durant, The Story of Civilization, Simon and Schuster, New York (1935 et seq.)
72. For a history of U.S. premarital agreements – including the public policy concerns, and their enforcement in the United States – see the majority opinion and dissent discussions of the history of premarital agreements in ________, In re the Marriage of Susann Margreth and Barry Lamar Bonds, Slip Op., Court of Appeal for State of California, First App. Dist., Div. Two, A075328/A076586. Archived at: http://fl.bna.com/fl/19990427/75328.htm
73. Margot Patterson, "Theology of Marriage Evolving: Since Vatican II, Church Challenged by Richer Understanding of Sacrament," National Catholic Reporter (December 28, 2001). Archived at: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1141/is_8_38/ai_82066336/print
74. David Johnson, "Publish or Be Damned, David Johnson describes the Infamous Marriage Act of 1753, which made marriage a tightly-regulated institution governed by church and state," History Today (November 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:110621789
75. David Johnson, "Publish or Be Damned, David Johnson describes the Infamous Marriage Act of 1753, which made marriage a tightly-regulated institution governed by church and state," History Today (November 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:110621789
76. David Johnson, "Publish or Be Damned, David Johnson describes the Infamous Marriage Act of 1753, which made marriage a tightly-regulated institution governed by church and state," History Today (November 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:110621789
77. Nazek Nosseir, "Family in the New Millennium: Major Trends Affecting Families in North Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtnosseir.pdf
78. David Johnson, "Publish or Be Damned, David Johnson describes the Infamous Marriage Act of 1753, which made marriage a tightly-regulated institution governed by church and state," History Today (November 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:110621789
79. Eric Ives, "Marrying for Love: The Experience of Edward IV and Henry VIII," History Today (December 2000). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:68147615
80. Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856
81. See, for example, ________, Tami Catholic Weddings, Kalyanam.com, T. Nagar, Chennai, India (1990-2000). Accessed at: http://www.kalyanam.com/background/tamilchristian.asp on October 21, 2005 and ________, "Christian Goan Weddings," Weddings In India, IncredibleIndia.org, Department of Tourism, Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Government of India 2002. Accessed at: http://www.tourismofindia.com/exi/christian.htm on October 21, 2005.
82. John Renard, Responses to 101 Questions on Hinduism, Paulist Press (March 1999). Available throught: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/080913845X/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
83. ________, "Forced Marriage and International Human Rights Norm," ArabicNews.com. Regional/Culture section, (March 12, 2001). Accessed at: http://www.arabicnews.com/ansub/Daily/Day/010312/2001031230.html on October 19, 2005.
84. Yunas Samad and John Eade, Community Perceptions of Forced Marriage, Community Liasion Unit, Foreign & Commonwealth Office, London, England, United Kingdom (Undated). Archived at: http://www.fco.gov.uk/Files/kfile/clureport.pdf and ________, Dealing with Cases of Forced Marriage – Guidelines for Police, Association of Chief Police Officers, Foreign & Commonwealth Office, United Kingdom, Home Office, United Kingdom, and the Association of Chief Police Officers, Scotland (February 24, 2003). Archived at: http://www.lbp.police.uk/publications/dealing_with.htm