Asia / Pacific Rim (Part One)
 

Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 48
 
 
This information duplicates items from the rest of The Factbook, selecting only those items that relate to Asia and the Pacific Rim. However, numbers don't mean much without a comparison to family life in other continents. And that is why we may have included a lot of information on certain issues, but it seems like we have less regional information for others. Actually, that isn't the case – we just chose what were for us notable commonalities or exceptions, cross-culturally. For further information about a particular region, see the regional studies reports we've referenced in the footnotes: they probably have any additional information you might need on a particular country or region.
 
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 

HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILY HOUSEHOLDS

 
 
 
 
14.8 million
Number of Australians (82 percent) who lived with at least one other family member in 2001, making up 4.9 million families in total. 5.
 
 
 
 
60 percent
of Australian families – 2.5 million – in 2003 had children in them. 7.
 
 
 
7.6 million
Total number of Australian households. 9.
 
 
 
71 percent
of Australian households – just over 5.4 million – that are family households. 10.
 
 
 

COUPLES OR HOUSEHOLD HEADS ON THEIR OWN?

 
 
 
 
84 percent
of Australian families in 2003 were couple families – 4.6 million. 12.
 
 
 
71 percent
of Australian families with at least one child age 0-17 years in 2003 – 1.8 million – are intact couple families. 13.
 
 
 
 
 
 

HOUSEHOLD SIZE

 
 
 
 
 
74.2 percent
of households in Pakistan have five or more members. 46.
 
 
 
 
3.1
The average size of an Australian family household in 2003. 51.
 
 
 
 
7.4
Average household size in Afghanistan in the 1990s. 52.
 
 
 
6.7
Average household size in Pakistan in the 1990s. 53.
 
 
 
5.4
Average household size in India in the 1990s. 54.
 
 
 
2.7
Japan’s average household size in 2000. 55.
 
 
 
5.4
India’s average household size in the 1990s, a decrease from 5.5, in the 1980s. 56.
 
 

EXTENDED FAMILY HOUSEHOLDS

 
 
 
Four percent
of Australian families in 2003 – 213,800 – lived in multi-family households. 2.
 
 
 
1.8 percent
of Australian households contain more than one nuclear family. 4.
 
 
 
Four percent
of Australian households are extended family households. 9.
 
 

THEORIES AND RESPONSES TO WHY WOMEN DELAY
HAVING CHILDREN AND HAVE FEWER OF THEM

 
 
 
 
However, education and literacy alone do not appear to be the sole determinant of fertility rates. For example, educational attainment has dramatically risen in some Arab and Asian nations, but the fertility rates of those nations have not changed as much as was expected. So there must be other cultural, social and economic factors may diminish or even outweigh the education factor. 2.
 
 
 
 
“Have three or more, if you can afford it” –

In 1970, Singapore had a fertility rate of 3.1. 8.
 
Then after two decades of a “stop at two” policy, and achieving a national fertility rate of just 1.62 – well beneath the replacement rate – Singapore announced in 1987 that families should have three or more children, if they could afford them, and then began to create family-growth policies such as tax incentives for additional children. Within three years, the fertility rate shot up by 15 percent. And the number of third births in 1990 was almost double the rate of them in 1986. 9.

 
 
India’s two-child norm
A change in laws encourages couples to have permanent sterilization – but it is now voluntary – after having a second child, and while giving states the right to impose disincentives for those who decide to have more than two children. Among the new penalties: prohibiting those with more than two children from serving in political office. Hundreds of officials are vulnerable for dismissal, and political foes are apparently using the law to settle old scores. 10.
 
 
 
32 percent
of women in India’s Uttar Pradesh who did not agree that an Indian family should have no more than two children. Those in lower castes believe a larger number of children is ideal, while those in higher castes think a smaller family was better. Muslims wanted more children than Hindus. Women who wanted larger families were: poorly educated, the non-literate, and lower-incomes. Women who were exposed to mass media preferred a small family than those who were not (79 percent vs. 62 percent). Those who had a child die preferred a larger family (74 percent vs. 59 percent). Reasons why the women said that they shouldn't follow the two-child norm? For over half, it was the high child mortality rate. Over a third said that they needed the children's support financially – both from the income from child labor and later, to support them in old age – and the belief that children are a gift from God. 11.
 
 
 
Theory for why Bangladesh’s fertility rate is still high –
Because children are considered assets in the patriarchal society, and may be considered insurance that the parents will be taken care of (by their children) when they are old. 13.
 
 
 
They think the Pill is the answer to increasing births? Do they know what it's for?
Actually, yes. But it's true. In Japan, politicians who want more women to be on the pill won't be condemned for their lack of family values; instead, they may be lauded as being "pronatalist." Here's what happened. A government council that was addressing its plummeting fertility rates found that Japanese women didn't want to marry because most of the available forms of contraception were well, for men to use. And the women had decided that if they couldn't control their own fertility, they wouldn't marry. It's sounds more than a little circular in logic, but basically the idea is, if Japanese women are sure that they don't have to get pregnant during their marriages, then they'll get married . . . and then get pregnant. 14.
 
 
 
"Kinder statt Inder"
Roughly translated as, "Children, not Indians," "Kinder statt Inder" is the name of the contentious German campaign encouraging native Germany citizens have children to provide for its future work force, rather than relying on a supply of Indian immigrants. Germany is not alone in struggling with whether immigration will have to be the answer to its shrinking population. Conversely, experts warns that efforts like that are just examples of the political struggles that are yet to come in all of the more developed nations. Ironically, there would probably a similar controversy in the U.S., but the fact that its fertility rate is falling is masked by the influx of young immigrants who have larger families. And, therefore, the political issue in the U.S. that draws all of the attention is immigration – not the fact that these immigrants are propping up the native-born populations' decreasing birth rates. 15.
 
 
 

FERTILITY RATE

 
 
 
 
The U.S. and New Zealand –
two of the few developed countries in the world to be at the fertility rate replacement level. And both of those are largely due to the presence of a particular ethnic group. In the U.S., it's the Hispanic population: Hispanic women had 20 percent of all births in 2002, and were the only segment of the population to exceed the replacement rate: non-Hispanic whites only had 60 percent of births, black women, 15 percent, and Asians and Pacific Islanders, just 5 percent. Similarly, in New Zealand, it's the Maori who are keeping the fertility rate above replacement level. 22.
 
 
 
 
1.75
Australia's total fertility rate in 2003, down from a rate of 3.5 in 1961, and 2.8 in 1967. 37.
 
 
 
Three
India’s total fertility rate. 38.
 
 
 
Over five
The Total Fertility Rate (total fertility rate) of Bhutan, Maldives and Pakistan, 1995-2000. 39.
 
 
 
Over 100 out of 1000
Number of infant deaths per live births (the infant mortality rate) in 1970-1975 in every South Asian Country but Sri Lanka. 40.
 
 
 
Sri Lanka
the only country in South Asia to have reached the replacement level fertility with a total fertility rate of 2.1. 41.
 
 
 
23
Infant mortality rate in Sri Lanka, 1995-2000 – the only South Asian nation to go down to the 2.1 replacement rate. 42.
 
 
 
6.75
Total fertility rate in Afghanistan. 43.
 
 
 
164
Infant mortality rate in Afghanistan. 44.
 
 
 
1.38
Japanese Fertility Rate (est.) in 2004. 45.
 
 
 
 

FAMILY SIZE AND CHILDLESSNESS

 
 
 
 
20 - 28 percent
The estimated percent of Australian women now in their early thirties who will be permanently childless. 56.
 
 
 
A second wife
In Kenya and Afghanistan, wives' infertility is often resolved by the husbands' marrying a second wife. 58.
 
 
 
 
 

DELAYING HAVING CHILDREN

 
 
 
 
27.6 years old
average age of Australian women having their first child. Almost 25 percent of women there are 35 or older when they have their first child. 75.
 
 
 
Women, aged 30-34
For fourth consecutive years, from 2000 to 2004, the Australian women's age group with the highest fertility were those women aged 30-34 years – with a rate of 113 babies per 1,000 women. 76.
 
 
 
Sri Lanka –
The country in South and Central Asia with the currently highest median age for mothers at first birth – 26.3 years. 84.
 
 
 
 

TEEN PREGNANCY

 
 
 
16.9 years, to 18.4 years
Of all Bangaldeshi women now 45-49 years old, the median age at first birth was 16.9 years old. For women in Bangaldesh now 20 to 24, their median age was slightly older – 18.4 years hold. 85.
 
 
 
 

POPULATION – INTERNATIONAL DEMOGRAPHICS

 
 
 
One-fifth
of the world's population lives in China. 33.
 
 
 
More than one-third
of the world's population lives in China or India. 34.
 
 
 
Having Under Five Percent of the world's population, United States ranked third in terms of total population size in 2000. 35.


 
Almost half of the global population increase from 1950 to 2000
came from just five countries: the United States, India, China, Nigeria, and Indonesia. 36.
 
 
 
 
 
Though the U.S. population is only one-fourth of the size of India's, the United States has more people ages 80 and over than India does. 45.
 
 

46.
 
 
 
 
 
117 males to 100 females
the gender imbalance in China in 2000. For second children born in a family, the disparity was much greater: there were 152 males born to 100 females. 50.
 
 
 
77 years
Average life expectancy for a Japanese man. 51.
 
 
84 years
Average life expectancy for a Japanese woman in 1999. 52
 
 
43.5
Life expectancy, for a female born in Afghanistan in 2000-2005. 53.
 
 
 

AGING - DEMOGRAPHICS

 
 
 
China, India, Japan, Indonesia, and the United States
were the nations that contributed the most to the past decade's growth of the world's elderly population. This was due primarily to the countries' comparatively low mortality rates and their large overall populations. 13.
 
 
 
65 percent
of the world’s oldest old live in ten countries – most of which are the More Developed Countries. China and India are included in the nations' with the most "oldest old" – but that is because of the sheer size of their national populations. No other "less developed countries" are on the top ten list for having the most the oldest old. 14.
 
 
 

CAREGIVING FOR THE AGING

 
 
 
 
 
Living With The Kids?
 
 
 
611,000
elderly people lived alone in Japan in 1975. While there were 931,000 elderly couple households. 67.
 
 
 
3,179,000
elderly people lived alone in Japan in 2001. By that year, the number of elderly couple households had risen to 4,545,000. 68.
 
 
 
More than 80 percent
of elderly in Sri Lanka live with their children. And two-thirds of the nation's elderly live in households with at least four other people. 69.
 
 
 
 

MOTHERS' ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

 
 
 
In cross-cultural comparisons of Japanese and American mothers, researchers found marked differences in their perceptions in their roles as mothers. American mothers saw their responsibilities as primarily raising the child through adolescence. They saw that they need to provide physical care for the child, but that the father should aid them in this. And they felt no particular duty to raise the child in relationship to its lineage. Japanese mothers saw themselves as having a life-long responsibility for their children. They believed that they were a part of their husband's lineage, and that their role in that was to raise their children to be respectful, cooperative, and highly achievement-oriented. 12.
 
 
 
Mother-in-Law
In families in Afghanistan, the mother-in-law is at the pinnacle of the hierarchy of a household that includes not just the mother-in-law herself, but also all of her daughters-in-law and her own daughters. In families with where there are more than one wife present, each wife has a separately furnished room, where she can keep her belongings – she may even prepare meals in this area. 13.
 
 
 
Mom's on their side in India –
In urban India, mothers are increasingly responsible for their children's upbringing. As a result, children look on their mothers as the parent who is their friend and understands their needs more – and may ask her to represent those needs to their comparatively distant, authoritarian father. 14.
 
 
 
– but not quite as much so in China –
Chinese parents are traditionally very demanding. And this is particularly the case for the mothers of daughters, who have been thought to be responsible for ensuring their daughters' chastity before marriage – which has meant that they closely monitor their daughters' activities. However, they seem to be less harsh on their daughters than their sons – which studies indicate that they may less likely to use corporal punishment for girls as they are for their sons. 15.
 
 
 
 
Sati (or, suttee)
The traditional Indian, Hindu practice of female self-immolation. Based in the story of how Sati, the wife of the god Shiva, killed herself when her father insulted Shiva, the custom of widows throwing themselves on their husband’s cremation pyre has gone on since possibly 400 B.C.E. By the middle ages, not only wives were burning, but other female servants and relatives as well. Rarely does it seem that it was an entirely voluntary act. Instead, it was seen as a way to preserve the honor of the family and fulfill a woman's duty to never leave her husband. It also seemed to offer guaranteed instant salvation when faced with the utter misery of widowhood. The practice was officially outlawed in 1829; however, reports of scattered incidents of sati have continued until very recent times. And perhaps it is sati that is the root of the so-called "kitchen fires," the cause of deaths for many young Indian brides, which are widely rumored to be murders by their husbands or relatives. 19.
 
 
 

DAUGHTERS' ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

 
 
 
 
 
Neglect, or worse
The "son preference" in India is so strong that it means that daughters are sometimes severely neglected – to the point that they may have no self-worth when they become an adult, leaving them vulnerable to humiliation, beatings, etc. The neglect is so severe, that girl children die at a rate much higher than boys. 24.
 
 
 
But they might not do the housework or obey their parents –
the reason many Indian parents don't want to educate their daughters. 25.
 
 
 
 
 

FACTS ABOUT DADS AND SONS

 
 
 
 
Strong –
the "son preference" in India.
 
 
 
Uh, so how does that work, exactly?
While 96 percent of Australian fathers believe that mothers and fathers should have equal responsibility in bringing up their children, about 75 percent of them thought that mothers are better nurturers and were better suited to raising children. And half thought that preschool children need their mothers more than their fathers.
 
 
 
 
"Compared with men, women are more encouraged to express their emotions in the Chinese culture. Such a practice can be seen in the popular Chinese saying "nan er liu xie bu liu lei" (a man should drop blood but not tears). Thus, cultural conditions could explain why Chinese adolescents perceive their mothers as more concerned and responsive than their fathers. The relatively higher level of perceived paternal harshness might be explained by the fact that fathers are usually regarded as the "legitimate" agents in administering punishment and are likely to use more force in executing punishment (see Ho, 1986, 1987)."
 
 
 
"Finally, Chinese mothers are charged with the basic socialization and caregiving tasks, reflected in the popular Chinese saying "nan zhu wai, nu zhu nei" (men take care of things outside the family, whereas women take care of things inside the family). The mother's role might explain why they were perceived to be more demanding (in terms of monitoring) than Chinese fathers."
 
 
 
"What conclusions can be drawn from the present findings with respect to the traditional portrait of "strict father, kind mother" in the Chinese culture? If strictness is defined in terms of harshness, the present findings appear to provide some support for the notion of "strict father, kind mother." However, if strictness is defined in terms of demandingness, the data obtained do not show that Chinese fathers are more demanding than Chinese mothers. Therefore, the present findings suggest that there is a need to redefine the notion of "strict father" in the Chinese culture, by broadening it to include both harshness and demandingness."
 
 
 
Party of seven –
Traditionally, the ideal family in South Korea was made up of the parents, and two or three sons, and another one or two daughters. It was expected that the eldest son would live with the parents, while the others would be raise families on their own.
 
 
 
"I hope it's a boy" –
Smaller families in Asia have meant a strong resurgence of the traditional preference for sons.

In 1965, just six percent of Taiwan's potential mothers hoped their first child was a boy.
 
In 1991, 52 percent of Taiwan's potential mothers hoped their first child was a boy.
 
 

GRANDPARENTS – DEMOGRAPHICS AND ROLES

 
 
 
 
 
More of them are on their own –
In East and Southeast Asia, however, while grandparents might have typically lived with their children in a large extended family household 50 years ago, that is becoming less common. Some still live with their children, but growing numbers are just there for a visit. And the wealthier the country, the more likely it is that grandparents are maintaining separate households. 23.
 
 
 
One percent
of all Australian families with children under the age of 17 are headed by grandparents (22,500 families). 24.
 
 
 
 
 

GRANDPARENTS – RAISING THE GRANDKIDS

 
 
 
 
 
It's Because of A Crisis

 
– And in South Asia, grandparents are raising their grandchildren because their parents have emigrated to other nations to find work. 40.

 
 
 
71 percent
of the 31,100 Australian children who live with their grandparents are in skipped generation households: both parents are absent. 42.
 
 
 
Four percent
of Australian families with children age 0-17 are stepfamilies (98,600 families). 23.
 
 
 
Three percent
of Australian families with children age 0-17 are blended families (78,100 families): they have a stepchild but also have a child born to both parents. 24.
 
 
 

Single Parent Demographics
Single Parent Families in Poverty
Effects of Single Parenting

 
 
 
 
31 percent
of babies born in Australia in 2001 were born to unmarried mothers.
 
 
 
But that doesn't mean they were all single –
12 percent of babies born in Australia in 2001 were born to single mothers.
 
 
 
18 percent
of all babies born in Australia in 2001 were by an unmarried mother who was living with the father at the time of the birth. So less than half of the babies by unmarried mothers were actually born by single mothers.
 
 
 
2 percent
of babies born in Australia in 1970 were born to unmarried, cohabiting parents.
 
 
 
18 percent
of babies born in Australia in 2001 were born to unmarried, cohabiting parents.
 
 
 
 

Single Parent Demographics

 
 
 
 
 
14 percent
of all Australian families in 2003 who were one parent families (799,800).
 
 
 
20 percent
of households in Sri Lanka are female-headed. That's the highest proportion of female-headed households in South Asia, "mainly due to the existing political unrest. Consequently a significant number of young widows have emerged as female heads of households. A note worthy feature of female headed households is that the majority are widowed women, and the average size of their households are comparatively small."
 
 
 
22 percent
of all Australian families with children aged 0-17, the proportion that are one parent families.
 
 
 
 
Single Parent Families in Poverty
 
 
 
" . . . Divorced in East and Southeastern Asia women with dependent children face serious constraints as single parents and as breadwinners particularly when they lack marketable skills that could secure them a job"
 
 
 
 
22 percent
of all Australian families with children aged 0-17, the proportion that are one parent families.
 
 
 
83 percent
of Australian lone parents in 2001 who were female (635,100) compared to 17 percent male (127,500).
 
 
 
 
53 percent
the "increase in, between 1986 and 2001, the number of one-parent families in Australia.] In contrast, the number of couple families with children increased by 3 percent."
 
 
 
14 percent
of all Australian families in 2003 who were one parent families (799,800).
 
 
 
35 percent
of Australian lone parents of children aged 0-17 years, who reported that they had never married.
 
 
 
19.9 percent
of Australian Children under 15 were living in single-parent homes in 2003.
 
 
 
2.5 percent
of Australian families with children under 15 are headed by a single-father.
 
 
 
19.3 percent
of Australian families with children under 15 are headed by a single-mother.
 
 
 
AUS$412
"The median weekly income of lone parents with children aged 0-17 years. . . less than half the income of parents in couple families with children ($1,167 per week). In 2003, 58 percent of lone parents received a government pension, benefit or allowance as their main source of income compared to 8 percent of couples with children aged 0-17 years."
 
 
 

TREND ANALYSIS: WORK-LIFE BALANCE

 
 
 
 
 
60 percent
"of Australian couple families with dependent children both parents were employed. . . . Of the 698,800 couple families with dependent children where only one parent was employed, the employed parent was the father in 89 percent of cases."
 
 
 
44 percent
of Japanese women were in the paid labor force in 2000.
 
 
 
33 percent
of Japanese women in the paid labor force in 1950.
 
 
 
 
"In collectivist societies, according to Yang et al. (2000), people's focus is on the family's welfare. Work is seen not as a means of enhancing the self, but as a means of supporting the family. For example, Chinese traditionally view work as more important than leisure, and as contributing to family welfare instead of competing with it (Redding, 1993). Bu and McKeen (2000) found that Chinese business students were more committed to work than were Canadians and expected to work more hours. In addition, there may be less tendency for Chinese and other collectivists to consider home and work as independent domains, which may reflect more of a western point of view that is not universally held."
 
 
"The economies in the Anglo countries tend to be stronger than those in China and Latin America, resulting in a higher average household income. Thus, working longer hours in the Anglo world may appear to be less necessary for family survival. It makes sense that where making a living is more difficult, people would be more accepting of working long hours. Similarly, higher unemployment rates than those in Anglo countries may force managers in less developed areas to protect their jobs by working longer hours. Such extended hours would be tolerated by the family as a necessary evil, or even celebrated as a further guarantee of job security in an uncertain job market where having a management job is certainly an unusual privilege. Furthermore, there may be greater extended family support in collectivist countries on matters such as babysitting children, thereby making it easier for families to manage with one or even both parents working long hours."
 
 
 
 
60 percent
of Australian couple families with dependent children both parents are employed. Of the 698,800 couple families with dependent children where only one parent was employed, the employed parent was the father in 89 percent of cases.
 
 
 
If it's one parent working, it's Dad
Of the 698,800 Australian couple families with dependent children where only one parent was employed, the employed parent was the father in 89 percent of cases.
 
 
 
". . . neither capitalist America nor socialist China had shown real signs of a significant transformation from patriarchal to gender-egalitarian power relationships in the past fifty years. The wife's recent achievement in economic independence via labor force participation does not easily translate into a gender-balanced power structure in the conjugal family. In the case of Detroit, we do not see an expected steady decline in husbands' power since the 1960s' cohorts where women begun to increasingly enter into the labor force. In the case of China, the finding is consistent with previous studies, which revealed that in urban Chinese families husbands tend to dominate the decision-making process."
 
 
 
 
80-90 percent
of Sri Lanka's free trade zone labor force in 2003 was female.
 
 
 
A double-edged sword –
In South Asia, mothers' work gives the families the financial means to provide children with the necessary nutrition. But the children are still malnourished – because the mothers aren't around to ensure that the children are eating proper, nutritious meals. And infants fare even worse, since the working mothers can't breast-feed or establish regular feeding-schedules for their babies because of their work.
 
 
 
 
 
In 57 percent
of Australian families with children, both parents work. That's an increase of 17 percent since 1983.
 
 
 
"The economies in the Anglo countries tend to be stronger than those in China and Latin America, resulting in a higher average household income. Thus, working longer hours in the Anglo world may appear to be less necessary for family survival. It makes sense that where making a living is more difficult, people would be more accepting of working long hours. Similarly, higher unemployment rates than those in Anglo countries may force managers in less developed areas to protect their jobs by working longer hours. Such extended hours would be tolerated by the family as a necessary evil, or even celebrated as a further guarantee of job security in an uncertain job market where having a management job is certainly an unusual privilege. Furthermore, there may be greater extended family support in collectivist countries on matters such as babysitting children, thereby making it easier for families to manage with one or even both parents working long hours."
 
 
 

PAID VS. UNPAID WORK

 
 
 
 
Not surprisingly,
according to studies in the US and Australia, women and men do less unpaid work if they do more paid work. And they do more unpaid work if their spouse works more paid hours. 8.
 
 
 
But not everywhere –
Of Australian partnered men and women with children, men do twice as much paid work than the women, and the women do twice as much unpaid work as the men. 48.
 
 
 
61 percent
of Australian working mothers with partners surveyed said that they were "time stressed." 50.
 
 
 
43 percent
of Australian stay-at-home mothers with partners surveyed said that they, too, were "time stressed." 51.
 
 
 
 

CHILD CARE

 

Who's Doing What How Parents' Work and Education Effect Time with Their Kids

 
 
 
Who's Doing What
 
 
Increased
The amount of time studies have found that U.S. and Australian parents are spending in face-to-face activities with their children, despite a concurrent increase in the children’s increase of time spent at child care centers, preschool, and school programs. 15.
 
 
 
 
How Parents' Work and Education Effect Time with Kids
 
 
 
0.9 hours less –
the difference in hours per day that Australian employed parents spend (2.1 hours per day) in comparison to the number of hours spent by those who are not employed (3.0 hours per day) At least one sociologist argues that if similar findings are made in other nations, then working mothers have not dramatically effected the time spent with their children. 21.
 
 
 
 

WHO'S DOING HOUSEWORK?

 
 
 
 
50-60 percent
Amount of the total domestic work done by Chinese wives, regarding of their employment status. 4.
 
 
 
92.6 percent
of Japanese husbands surveyed who said their wives always or usually do the housework. 18.
 
 
 
97.8 percent
of those men's wives who said that they always or usually do the housework. 19.
 
 
 
____________________________________________________

CHILD CARE

 
 
 
 
One-fourth
of Australian children under the age of 12 were in a formal child care program in 2001. Another one-third of the children were in informal child care settings. The most widely used form of child care in Australia: grandparents. 6.
 
 
 
 
In use for decades –
public child care facilities in China, due to a large number of women in the workforce. And the number of children in those programs has grown from 1,800 in 1950 to over 181,000 in 1998. 15.
 
 
 
One-half
of Australian children under the age of 11 receive child care from someone other than their parents, whether formally or informally. 38.
 
 
 
25 percent
of Australian children under the age of 11 are in formal child care – double the percentage in 1984. 39.
 
 
 
 

PRESCHOOL / EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS

 
 
 
 
80 percent –
of Australian children age three to six years old are in full or part time "early childhood education and care." 36.
 
 
 
Over 90 percent
of Japanese preschoolage children have been enrolled in either preschools and government-run day care centers before they began the formal school system. 37.
 
 

CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN CHILD REARING

 
 
 
 
 
“. . . educated middle-class Anglo-American mothers are found to consider it important to provide early stimulation to children, even during pregnancy, whereas lower-class Black mothers think it is the school's job to ‘teach children.’ Similarly, Mexican -American mothers do not see themselves as ‘teachers,’ but Chinese and Japanese mothers coach and give specific instructions regarding school work.”
 
 
 
 
“Most ethnic minorities in the indus-trialized countries of Europe, North America, and Australia are rather recent immigrants from less developed countries and especially from their rural areas . . . [where] a socially rather than a cognitively oriented conception of competence is valued, stressing conformity – obedience goals, and early learning in the family is based mainly on observation and imitation."
 
 
 
“Indeed, research with ethnic minority families points to this type of parental conception and finds a misfit between this cultural conception of competence and that of the school culture in the host society. For example, Nunes (1993) noted that immigrant Mexican parents in the United States believe, erroneously, that if their children are quiet and obedient and listen to the teacher, then they will succeed in school. Okagaki and Sternberg (1993) similarly found that for immi-grant parents from Cambodian, Mexico, the Philippines, and Vietnam, noncognitive characteristics (i.e., motivation, social skills, and practical school skills) were as important as or more important than cognitive characteristics (problem-solving skills, verbal ability, creative ability) to their conceptions of an ‘intel-ligent first-grade child’– but not for Anglo-American parents. Furthermore, parents’ beliefs about the importance of conformity correlated negatively with children’s school performance, and American-born parents favored developing autonomy over conformity.”
 
 
 
 
 
 
48,000
Number of Korean-born adopted children under 18 in the U.S. Korea is the largest single-country source of foreign-born adopted children, accounting for nearly one-fourth (24 percent) of them. Almost half of foreign-born adopted children are originally from Asia. 18.
 
 
 
21,616
Number of immigrant visas for orphans coming to the United States to be adopted in 2003. That is an increase of over 7,300 from a decade earlier. Common countries of origin for the children: China and Russia. 19.
 
 
 
 
29 percent
of Australian children do not live in the same family arrangement their entire childhood. Of these, about half live in two family arrangements, while the remaining live in three or more.
 
 
 
More than double –
Australian children who live in single-parent, step or blended families have double the rate of depression, conduct disorder, or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder than do children in intact families.
 
 
 
71 percent
of Australian children live in the same family arrangement their entire childhood.
 
 
 
 
One-third
of the world's children age five and under live in just two countries: India and China.
 
 
 
About 60 percent
of the world's growth of in the number of children under the age of 15 during the 1990s came from just the following five countries: India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Ethopia, Congo (Kinshasa).
 
 
 
1.35
Average number of children for a Japanese woman in 2000.
 
 
 
One or two
Average number of children in an affluent Sri Lankan family.
 
 
 
Four to eight –
Average number of children in a poor Sri Lankan family.
 
 
 
60 percent
of all Australian families in 2003 were families with children.
 
 
 
2.5 million
Number of Australian families with at least one child age 0-17 years in 2003. The majority, 1.8 million (71 percent), were intact couple families.
 
 
 
22 percent
of all Australian families with children aged 0-17, the proportion that are one-parent families.
 
 
 
1.1 million
Australian children under the age of 18 – 23 percent – had a biological parent who does not live with them. 76 percent of these children live in one parent families, 13 percent in step families and 9 percent in blended families. For 84 percent, it's the father who is the parent not living with the child.
 
 
 
CHILDREN IN THE HOUSEHOLD / FAMILY STRUCTURE
 
 
 
31 percent
of Australian grooms who were remarrying, and already had children from a previous marriage. For brides the proportion remarrying with children was similar at 33 percent. Twenty years ago the comparative proportions were lower, 17 percent each for both grooms and brides.
 
 
 
22,500
Number of Australian grandparent families with children aged 0-17, around one percent (1 percent) of all families with children aged 0-17 years.
 
 
 
71 percent
of the 31,100 Australian children living with their grandparents, the percent who are not living with their natural parents.
 
 
 
 
CHILD POVERTY
 
 
 
India and Senegal have similar levels of per capita income, but Indian children are more at risk of malnutrition – while Senegalese children are more at risk of losing out on schooling.
 
 
15.2 percent
of Taiwanese children living with a single mother lived in poverty in 1995.
 
 
 
5.1 percent
of Taiwanese children living with two parents lived in poverty in 1995.
 
 
 
 
 
CHILD DEMOGRAPHICS
 
 
 
 
 
Chart of Top 10 Countries By Under 5
 

 
 
 
"Pakistan and Indonesia had larger proportions of their population under age 15 than the United States in 2000. However, the United States’ overall larger size offset the younger age distributions of Pakistan and Indonesia so that each country accounted for a roughly similar share of the world’s under-15 population."
 
 
____________________________________________________
 
 

VIOLENCE COMMITTED AGAINST CHILDREN

 
 
 
 
 
More than half
of Chinese parents surveyed responded that they are likely to beat their children for failing an examination or for not working hard enough at school. 39.
 
 
 
68 percent
of Chinese parents surveyed responded that use force to make their children obey them. 40.
 
 
 
44 percent
of substantiated child abuse cases in Australia occur in single-parent homes – a disproportionate rate, since just 18 percent of children live in single-parent families. 41.
 
 
 
 
 

CHILD POVERTY

 
 
 
 
 
India and Senegal have similar levels of per-capita income – but Indian children are more at risk of malnutrition while Senegalese children are more at risk of losing out on schooling. 81.
 
 
 
 

EDUCATION INTERNATIONALLY

 
 
 
Over 120 million
Number of children worldwide who are shut out of primary schools, the majority being girls. 32.
 
 
 
84 percent –
In 1975, over 80 percent of South Korean elderly had never received a formal education. 33.
 
 
 
54 percent –
By 1995, just 20 years later, the percentage of South Korean elderly who had never received a formal education had fallen to 54 percent. 34.
 
 
 
 
 

INTENDED AND UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES OF EDUCATION


 
 
 
 
Yeah, there are fish in the sea, but you might not want them –
A study in Australia found that there's an "increasing mismatch of available men and women." While women are becoming more educated and better employed, men are having a harder time as breadwinners. So they're less appealing to the women looking for mates. And men don't usually want women who are more educated or make more than they do anyway. 43.
 
 
 

WHAT MAKES A GROWN UP
LEAVING HOME

 
 
 
A growing prestige –
In Afghanistan, a woman's power and social status continue to grow throughout her life, increasing as she transitions from "child to bride to mother to grandmother."
 
 
 
41 percent
of Australians aged 20 to 24 years old still live with their parents.
 
 
 
16 percent
of Australians in their late 20s still live with their parents.
 
 
 
31 percent
of young Australian adults in their twenties who were living in the parental home in 1999, an increase from 1986’s 27 percent.
 
 
 
149 men to 100 women
In Australia, the ratio of men in their twenties who live with their parents compared to the number of women of the same age who also still live at home. In fact, the past decade has seen a greater increase in women staying home – but the young men at home still far outnumbers the women.
 
 
 
____________________________________________________________________
 
 
 
0.8 percent
of Taiwanese women in their 30s who had never married in 1905.
 
 
 
 
11.6 percent
of Taiwanese women in their 30s who had never married in 2000.
 
 
 
99.5 percent
of women aged 30 to 34 in South Korea had been married in 1960.
 
 
 
89.3 percent
of women aged 30 to 34 in South Korea had been married in 2000. While still a very high marriage rate, that's a more than a twenty-fold increase in women who hadn't gotten married, from 0.5 percent to 10.7 percent, in just 30 years.
 
 
 
9.9 percent
of Japanese men aged 30 to 34 were unmarried in 1960.
 
 
 
42.9 percent
of Japanese men aged 30 to 34 were unmarried in 2000.
 
 
 
18.57 –
of average age of a first marriage for a Chinese woman in 1949.
 
 
 
24.02 years –
average age of a first marriage for a Chinese woman in 1996.
 
 
 
72 percent
of Australian men will marry in their lifetimes, down from 79 percent 12 years ago. According to 1997-1999 trends.
 
 
 
77 percent
of Australian women will marry in their lifetimes, down from 86 percent 12 years ago. According to 1997-1999 trends.
 
 
 
 
27
"Mean rate of a woman’s marriage in Japan, 1991/1997, 2000"
 
 
 
30
Mean rate of a man’s marriage in Japan, 1991/1997
 
 
 
 
"Among Chinese populations, non-marriage was similarly rare (around one per cent of women aged 40-44 in Taiwan, for example, though higher in. . . Hong Kong and Singapore)."
 
 
 
 
 
Approximately Three-Fourths –
"Number of Japanese-American women and Chinese-American women who] said that it was the lack of appropriate suitors that prevented them from marrying. Many of the respondents added that dating Asian-American men was difficult because of the different gender role expectations. While the men wanted to marry women that they perceived to be more submissive like their mothers, the women wanted men who would share household and child care responsibilities."
 
 
 
 
From 4.6 percent to 18.5 percent –
the proportion of females never married in the age group 20-24 in Bangladesh, the period of 1970 and 2000.
 
 
 
 
In 1948, Parents' Magazine essayist/expert wrote, “The first fact is that the rate of marriage in this country has been higher than in virtually any other in the world. In 1947 there were 14 marriages for every 1000 popu-lation in the United States. The nearest to this record were New Zealand and Czechoslovakia, each of which had a marriage rate of almost 11 per 1000 population. Last year at least 2,000,000 couples in this country were married. In 1946, an all-time peak of 2,-250,000 marriages took place – 60 percent more than in prewar 1939.”
 
 
 
 
 
In Asia, "Men, typically perceived as providers for their families, appear to respond to the pressure to secure skills training, employment, and their financial situation before getting married. These endeavors tend to keep an increasing number of single men busy up to their mid-thirties. But women are more inclined to spend their first decade of adulthood 'enjoying' the experience of employment before fulfilling the personal --and social-- goal of getting married."
 
 
 
In Australia, "From the mid-1970s, however, the trends reversed sharply. The female median age at first marriage rose from 21.0 years in 1974 to 26.0 years in 1998, and the male median from 23.5 to 28.0 years over the same period."
 
 
 
 
 
In East and Southeast Asia, the mean age at first marriage increases with economic development, even if different tests are used (i.e. use of electric power, GDP per capita).
 
 
 
 
 
"In Myanmar and the Philippines, non-marriage was more acceptable. Both have a long history of high celibacy rates. In Myanmar, “the unmarried adult is a built-in and important part of the going social order, not an anomaly.” In the Philippines, the key factor is probably the value placed by Catholicism on celibacy and taking holy orders."
 
 
 
 
 
 
" In Sri Lanka, for example, where the SMAM has increased during this century by 6 years (from 18.5 years in 1901 to 24.4 years in 1981), rise in female education and the jobs that such education enables have become crucial factors in increasing the desirability of women in the marriage market. A simultaneous shift has occurred towards marriages arranged by the couple or "love marriages" rather than marriages arranged by parents, indicating the diminishing role of the family."
 
 
 
 
 
"In the past, marriage was close to universal in most Asian countries. The proportion of women aged 45-49 remaining unmarried exceeded 2 percent only in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and the Philippines. But this is no longer the case. Over the past two decades some dramatic changes have taken place in Southeast and East Asia: non-marriage for women is becoming much more common, and in many of the big cities, it is even more common that it is in Western countries, notwithstanding the sharp declines in marriage prevalence in Western countries in recent times."
 
 
 
In the U.S., "Co-habitation without children or marriage needs to be viewed not only as a legitimate end-state in itself, but also as a legitimate form of pre-marriage: Premarital cohabitation is clearly being used by many couples in the West to determine compatibility and the potential for co-parenting and marriage. In 1981-82, in a national survey or 18-34 year olds in Australia, "55 percent of females and 62 percent of males agreed that "it is good to have a trial marriage," by which they meant cohabitation (Carmichael, 1985, pp. 98-100). These findings clearly reflect the way in which many Western young adults use and view premarital cohabitation. As of 1988, approximately 60 percent of all first cohabitations in the U.S. ended in marriage (Bumpass & Sweet, 1989)"
 
 
 
Japanese-American women and Chinese-American women in the survey also "added that dating Asian-American men was difficult because of the different gender role expectations. While the men wanted to marry women that they perceived to be more submissive like their mothers, the women wanted men who would share household and child care responsibilities."
 
 
 
Japanese-American women and Chinese-American women in the survey also reported that "Gender and birth order also played an important role in their decision to stay unmarried. Being the eldest daughter meant that they had to serve the men in their family of origin and had to take care of siblings in the household or work to provide additional support for the family."
 
 
 
 
"The figures on family formation in Asia do not indicate a trend towards permanent singlehood but rather towards postponement of marriage. A clear sign of this trend is that the large majority of men and women in the all age cohorts from age 30 onwards are married."
 
 
 
The general trend in South-East and East Asia is that rates of non-marriage are rising.
 
 
 
 
Traditionally, "Among Malay-Muslim populations of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Southern Thailand, half of any given cohort of women were married before reaching age 18; the proportion of women remaining never-married in their 40s was less than one percent, and those few women generally remained unmarried because they were suffering from physical abnormality or mental illness."
 
 
 
Two-Thirds
Number of Japanese-American women and Chinese-American women in a survey who reported that the fact that their parents' marriages had been based on responsibility and obligation instead of love, had greatly influence their decision to remain single.
 
 
 
"When examining reasons for Chinese-American women and Japanese-American women choosing to never marry, Ferguson (2000) found four factors consistently related to their never-married status: their parent's marriage, their status as elder daughters, their educational goals, and the perceived lack of suitors."
 
 
 
 
 
________________________________________________
 
 
5. ________, "Living Arrangements: Changing Families," Australian Social Trends: Family and Community, Australian Bureau of Statistics (April 22, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/abs@.nsf/94713ad445ff1425ca25682000192af2/ea563423fdbffd30ca256d39001bc33c!OpenDocument on August 13, 2005.
6. As of 2003. Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
7. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
8. ________, The State of the Nation’s Housing, 2004, Report by the Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University (2004), p. 11. Accessed at: http://www.jchs.harvard.edu/publications/markets/son2004.pdf on August 15, 2005.
9. As of 2003. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
10. As of 2003. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
11. Ruth Katz and Yoav Lavee, "Families in Israel," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 486-506 (2005), p. 487. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
12. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
13. As of 2003. Note that this means that both parents are present; it does not indicate whether or not the couple is married. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
46. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 4. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
51. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
52. Indralal De Silva, Table No. 7 of "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003). Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
53. Indralal De Silva, Table No. 7 of "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003). Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
54. Indralal De Silva, Table No. 7 of "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003). Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
55. Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 17. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
56. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 4. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
 
2. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
4. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 91. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
9. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 91. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
 
 
2. See analysis in Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf and
8. _______, Wall Chart, "World Fertility Patterns – 2004," Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York, New York (2004). Available at: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/Fertilitypatterns_chart/WallChart_Fert2004_web.pdf
9. Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of Low Fertility and Ageing Prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p. 63. Archived at: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
10. ________, "Enforcing vs. Promoting the Two-Child Norm in India," Reproductive Health Matters (May 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:118687842
11. According to a survey of 10,000 women. ________, "Enforcing vs. Promoting the Two-Child Norm in India," Reproductive Health Matters (May 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:118687842
13. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 27. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
14. Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 28 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
15. See, for example, Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf and Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 5. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf and Walter Bien, The Situation of Families in Germany, 2000-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_germany_bien_en.pdf Spain is another European nation already struggling with this issue. Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf
22. Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), pp. 7-8. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf and ________, "Percentage of Childless Women 40 to 44 Years Old Increases Since 1976, Census Bureau Reports," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 23, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/fertility/001491.html on August 15, 2005. See also Gordon A. Carmichael, "Taking Stock at the Millennium: Family Formation in Australia," Journal of Population Research (September 1, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:105657377
37. ________, "3301.0 Births, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (November 25, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/ff9e15176d6887d8ca2568a9001393b2!OpenDocument on August 13, 2005 and Gordon A. Carmichael, "Taking Stock at the Millennium: Family Formation in Australia," Journal of Population Research (September 1, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:105657377
38. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 1. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
39. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 1. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
40. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 3. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
41. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 1. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
42. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 3. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
43. 2005 est. ________, Afghanistan, The CIA World Factbook (2005). Online edition at: http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/af.html See also Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 3. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
44. 2005 est. ________, Afghanistan, The CIA World Factbook (2005). Online edition at: http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/af.html See also Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 3. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
45. ________, Japan, The CIA World Factbook (2004). Online edition at: http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/print/ja.html
56. Gordon A. Carmichael, "Taking Stock at the Millennium: Family Formation in Australia," Journal of Population Research (September 1, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:105657377
58. Edward K. Mburugu and Bert N. Adams, "Families in Kenya," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 3-24 (2005), p. 18. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 and Nancy Hatch Dupree and Thomas E. Gouttierre, "The Society and Its Environment," Chapter 2, "Family" section, Afghanistan, Library of Congress Country Study (1997). Available in on-line edition at: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/aftoc.html
75. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 73. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
76. ________, "3301.0 Births, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (November 25, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/ff9e15176d6887d8ca2568a9001393b2!OpenDocument on August 13, 2005.
82. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
83. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
84. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 3. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
85. As of 2003. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 3. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
 
____________________________________________________
 
33. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
34. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
35. Source for text: Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2002), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf Source of Chart: Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
36. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2002), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
45. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2002), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
46. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2002), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
50. Arthur E. Dewey, "China: Human Rights Violations and Coercion in One Child," Congressional Testimony Statement of Arthur E. Dewey Assistant Secretary Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration, U.S. Department of State Committee on House International Relations, Federal Document Clearing House (12/14/2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1P1:103775231
51 That is a 1999 estimate. Junko Kuninobu, "Japan," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Ponzetti, James J. (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA (2002). p. 969. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
52. That is a 1999 estimate. Junko Kuninobu, "Japan," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Ponzetti, James J. (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA (2002). p. 969. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
53. De Silva, Indralal, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 15. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf
____________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
 
 
13. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
14. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
67. Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), pp. 20-22 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
68. Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), pp. 20-22 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
69. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 18. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf
 
____________________________________________________
 
 
12. Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Family And Human Development Across Cultures: A View From The Other Side, Lea / Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Mahwah, New Jersey (1996), p. 31 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0805820760/qid=11237769December sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
13. Nancy Hatch Dupree and Thomas E. Gouttierre, "The Society and Its Environment," Chapter 2, "Family" section, Afghanistan, Library of Congress Country Study. (1997). Available in on-line edition at: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/aftoc.html
14. J.P. Singh, "The Contemporary Indian Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 129-166 (2005), p. 149. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
15. Daniel T. Shek, "Adolescents' Perceptions of Paternal and Maternal Parenting Styles in a Chinese Context," The Journal of Psychology (September 1, 1998) http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21083549
19. John Renard, Responses to 101 Questions on Hinduism, Paulist Press (March 1999). Available throught: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/080913845X/104-9145697-0978338?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
24. J.P. Singh, "The Contemporary Indian Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 129-166 (2005), p. 147. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
25. J.P. Singh, "The Contemporary Indian Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 129-166 (2005), p. 148. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
 
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Kwang-Kyu Lee, "South Korean Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 167-176 (2005), p. 170. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
Yu-Hua Chen and Chin-Chin Yi, "Taiwan's Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 177-198 (2005), p. 182. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
Tai Yu-Hua Chen and Chin-Chin Yi, "Taiwan's Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 177-198 (2005), p. 182. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
J.P. Singh, "The Contemporary Indian Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 129-166 (2005), p. 147. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
According to a national survey. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 73 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
Daniel T. Shek, "Adolescents' Perceptions of Paternal and Maternal Parenting Styles in a Chinese Context," The Journal of Psychology (September 1, 1998) http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21083549
 
23. Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003) (p. 20). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
24. _______, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
40. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 11. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
42. _______, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
 
23. _______, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
24. _______, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
____________________________________________________
 
 
________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 5. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
________, "3310.0 Marriages and Divorces, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (November 26, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/b06660592430724fca2568b5007b8619/893c1288678fd232ca2568a90013939c! OpenDocument on August 13, 2005.
________, "Living Arrangements: Changing Families," Australian Social Trends: Family and Community, Australian Bureau of Statistics (April 22, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/abs@.nsf/94713ad445ff1425ca25682000192af2/ea563423fdbffd30ca256d39001bc33c!OpenDocument on August 13, 2005.
________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
Australian Social Trends, Australian Bureau of Statistics National and state summary tables Family and Community: National Summary
Australian Social Trends, Australian Bureau of Statistics National and state summary tables Family and Community: National Summary
Australian Social Trends, Australian Bureau of Statistics National and state summary tables Family and Community: National Summary
________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 70 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 70 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 72 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 72 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 72 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
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“The Parent’s Wages,” The Survey, p. 284, (Dec. 1, 1926)
Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 26 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 26 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
Shanfa Yu, "A Cross-national Comparative Study of Work–Family Stressors, Working Hours, and Well-being: China and Latin America versus the Anglo World," Personnel Psychology (March 22, 2004)(citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:114785362
Shanfa Yu, "A Cross-national Comparative Study of Work–Family Stressors, Working Hours, and Well-being: China and Latin America versus the Anglo World," Personnel Psychology (March 22, 2004)(citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:114785362
________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
Xiaohe Xu, "Convergence or Divergence: The Transformation of Marriage and Relationships in Urban America and Urban China," Journal of Asian and African Studies (May 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:20980086
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 44. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), pp. 25-26. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
 
 
________________________________________________________________________________
 
Shanfa Yu, "A Cross-national Comparative Study of Work–Family Stressors, Working Hours, and Well-being: China and Latin America versus the Anglo World," Personnel Psychology (March 22, 2004)(citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:114785362.
David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 81. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
 
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8. Michael Bittman, Paula England, Nancy Folbre, and George Matheson, When Gender Trumps Money: Bargaining and Time in Household Work, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University (April 2001).
15. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
21. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review (December 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:127196291
48. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 73. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
50. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 84 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
51. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 84 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
 
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4. Xiaohe Xu, "Convergence or Divergence: The Transformation of Marriage and Relationships in Urban America and Urban China," Journal of Asian and African Studies (May 1, 1998). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:20980086
18. Note that this isn't really who is doing it, but who they perceive to be doing it. Shannon N. Davis and Theodore N. Greenstein. "Cross-national Variations in the Division of Household Labor," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 1260-1271 (December 2004). Available at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4DBEBB15FCDFA6098EC5
19. Note that this isn't really who is doing it, but who they perceive to be doing it. Shannon N. Davis and Theodore N. Greenstein. "Cross-national Variations in the Division of Household Labor," Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 1260-1271 (December 2004). Available at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4DBEBB15FCDFA6098EC5
 
 
6. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA (2005), p. 74. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
7. Hans-Joachim Schulze, General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 11. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Netherlands.pdf
15. Xuewen Sheng, "Chinese Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 99-128 (2005). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
36. ________, Table 1.21, "Percent of married/cohabiting mothers and lone mothers, employed in selected OECS countries and percentage of young children in out of home ECEC," The Clearinghouse for International Developments in Child, Youth and Family Policies at Columbia University, New York, NY (updated July 2004), citing Sheila B. Kamerman, "Early Childhood education and care . . . ," International Journal of Educational Research, 33, pp. 7-29. Available at: http://www.childpolicyintl.org/ecectables/Table%201.21%20Percent%20of%20married%20cohabiting%20mothers%20and%20lone%20mothers%20employed.pdf
37. Ronald E. Dolan and Robert L. Worden (eds), Library of Congress Country Study: Japan (1994), section on preschool and day care. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress under the Country Studies/Area Handbook Program sponsored by the Department of the Army. Online edition at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/jptoc.html
38. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 73. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
39. As of 2002. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 73. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
 
 
Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Family And Human Development Across Cultures: A View From The Other Side, Lea / Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Mahwah, New Jersey. (1996), p. 31 (citations omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0805820760/qid=11237769December sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Family And Human Development Across Cultures: A View From The Other Side, Lea / Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Mahwah, New Jersey. (1996), p. 44. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0805820760/qid=11237769December sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Family And Human Development Across Cultures: A View From The Other Side, Lea / Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Mahwah, New Jersey. (1996), p. 44. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0805820760/qid=11237769December sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
 
 
__________________________________________________________________
 
18. ________, "Facts for Features: National Adoption Month," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (9/20/2004). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/002683.html on 8/15/2005.
19. ________, "Facts for Features: National Adoption Month," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (9/20/2004)(citation omitted). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/002683.html on 8/15/2005.
 
 
Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
9 (Intern’l Encyc. of Marriage and Family, p. 969)
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 27. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 27. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
As of 2003. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
US Census Dept., Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2003 p. 9 (PDF file).
________, "3310.0 Marriages and Divorces, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (November 26, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/b06660592430724fca2568b5007b8619/893c1288678fd232ca2568a90013939c! OpenDocument on August 13, 2005.
________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
________, "Key Facts on Poverty," Press Kit for State of the World's Children, 2005, UNICEF. Accessed at http://www.unicef.org/sowc05/english/press_facts.html on September 18, 2005.
________, "Key Facts on Poverty," Press Kit for State of the World's Children, 2005, UNICEF. Accessed at http://www.unicef.org/sowc05/english/press_facts.html on September 18, 2005.
Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 60 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 60 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), pp. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 14-16. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 89. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 86. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 89. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
 
___________________________________________________
 
39. Xuewen Sheng, "Chinese Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 99-128 (2005), p. 106, 109-110. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
40. Xuewen Sheng, "Chinese Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 99-128 (2005), p. 110. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
41. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 87. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
81. ________, "Key Facts on Poverty," Press Kit for State of the World's Children, 2005, UNICEF. Accessed at http://www.unicef.org/sowc05/english/press_facts.html on September 18, 2005.

32. ________, "Key Facts on Poverty," Press Kit for State of the World's Children, 2005, UNICEF. Accessed at http://www.unicef.org/sowc05/english/press_facts.html on September 18, 2005.
33. Kwang-Kyu Lee, "South Korean Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 167-176 (2005), p. 174. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
34. Kwang-Kyu Lee, "South Korean Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 167-176 (2005), p. 174. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
43. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), pp. 69, 71 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
________, "Family Formation: Young Adults Living in the Parental Home," Australian Social Trends 2000: Family, Australian Bureau of Statistics (November 18/2002). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/abs@.nsf/94713ad445ff1425ca25682000192af2/041f6b186438fe55ca256a7100188a54!OpenDocument on August 13, 2005.
________, "Family Formation: Young Adults Living in the Parental Home," Australian Social Trends 2000: Family, Australian Bureau of Statistics (November 18/2002). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/abs@.nsf/94713ad445ff1425ca25682000192af2/041f6b186438fe55ca256a7100188a54!OpenDocument on August 13, 2005.
Nancy Hatch Dupree and Thomas E. Gouttierre, "The Society and Its Environment," Chapter 2, "Gender Roles" section, Afghanistan, Library of Congress Country Study. (1997). Available in on-line edition at: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/aftoc.html
David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 74. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 74. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
________________________________________________
 
Reneé Spraggins, We the People: Women and Men in the United States, Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-20. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-20.pdf
Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf (Compare to Intern’l Encyc. of Marriage and Family, p. 969, which reports the first age of marriage is 27, but of all marriages is 28.2 (includes second marriages))
Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf (Compare to Intern’l Encyc. of Marriage and Family, p. 969, which reports the first age of marriage is 28.8, but of all marriages is 30.4 (includes second marriages))
Reneé Spraggins, We the People: Women and Men in the United States, Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-20. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-20.pdf
Gavin W. Jones, "The 'Flight From Marriage' in South-East and East Asia," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 1 p. 92, et seq. (Winter 2005), p. 94 (citation omitted).
Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856
William M. Pinsof, "The Death of 'Til Death Us Do Part,': The Transformation of Pair-Bonding in the 20th Century," Family Process (June 22, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:90301620
Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 2. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
Reneé Spraggins, We the People: Women and Men in the United States, Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-20. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-20.pdf
Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
Gordon A. Carmichael, "Taking Stock at the Millennium: Family Formation in Australia," Journal of Population Research (September 1, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:105657377
Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), pp. 3-5. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
Gavin W. Jones, "The 'Flight From Marriage' in South-East and East Asia," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 1 p. 92, et seq. (Winter 2005), p. 94 (citation omitted).
Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004)(citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
Gavin W. Jones, "The 'Flight From Marriage' in South-East and East Asia," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 1 p. 92, et seq. (Winter 2005), p. 93 (citation omitted).
William M. Pinsof, "The Death of 'Til Death Us Do Part,': The Transformation of Pair-Bonding in the 20th Century," Family Process (June 22, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:90301620
Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856
Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856
Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
Gavin W. Jones, "The 'Flight From Marriage' in South-East and East Asia," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 1 p. 92, et seq. (Winter 2005), p. 94 (citation omitted).
Reneé Spraggins, We the People: Women and Men in the United States, Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-20. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2005), p. 6. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-20.pdf
Gavin W. Jones, "The 'Flight From Marriage' in South-East and East Asia," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 1 p. 92, et seq. (Winter 2005), p. 94 (citation omitted).
Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856
Phyllis A. Gordon, "The Decision to Remain Single: Implications for Women Across Cultures." Journal of Mental Health Counseling (January 1, 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:96619856
of Taiwanese women in their 30s who had never married in 1905. Yu-Hua Chen and Chin-Chin Yi, "Taiwan's Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 177-198 (2005), p. 179. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
Yu-Hua Chen and Chin-Chin Yi, "Taiwan's Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 177-198 (2005), p. 179. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
of women aged 30 to 34 in South Korea had been married in 1960. Gavin W. Jones, "The 'Flight From Marriage' in South-East and East Asia," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 1 p. 92, et seq. (Winter 2005), pp. 94-95.
of women aged 30 to 34 in South Korea had been married in 2000. While still a very high marriage rate, that's a more than a twenty-fold increase in women who hadn't gotten married, from 0.5 percent to 10.7 percent, in just 30 years. Gavin W. Jones, "The 'Flight From Marriage' in South-East and East Asia," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 1 p. 92, et seq. (Winter 2005), pp. 94-95.
of Japanese men aged 30 to 34 were unmarried in 1960. Gavin W. Jones, Table No. 4, "The 'Flight From Marriage' in South-East and East Asia," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 1 p. 92, et seq. (Winter 2005), p. 103.
of Japanese men aged 30 to 34 were unmarried in 2000. Gavin W. Jones, Table No. 4, "The 'Flight From Marriage' in South-East and East Asia," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 1 p. 92, et seq. (Winter 2005), p. 103.
of average age of a first marriage for a Chinese woman in 1949. Xuewen Sheng, "Chinese Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 99-128 (2005), p. 103. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
average age of a first marriage for a Chinese woman in 1996. Xuewen Sheng, "Chinese Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 99-128 (2005), p. 103. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
of Australian men will marry in their lifetimes, down from 79 percent 12 years ago. According to 1997-1999 trends. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 79. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
of Australian women will marry in their lifetimes, down from 86 percent 12 years ago. According to 1997-1999 trends. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 79. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846