Industrialization / Urbanization
 
Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 6
 
TOPICS COVERED: This memo covers the way industrialization and urbanization have dramatically changed the shape of families, including the gender roles. Industrialization and urbanization are probably concepts you studied for about 10 minutes in a high school or college history class, but other than that, you never gave much thought to them. And it may seem that Henry Ford building a new car factory has little to do with the modern family. But actually, both industrialization and urbanization utterly transform family interaction. And I use the word "transform" in the present tense, because, despite how it seemed in history class, they are not just a historic period in the U.S. and Europe. Instead, industrialization and urbanization are revolutionary processes that continue today. Actually, out of all of our research, the articles on how families in developing nations are currently responding to rapid industrialization were some of the most intriguing works we read. Because they shed light on what is going on those nations, and they also helped us better understand the experience of families in the U.S. and Europe over the last century.

I personally believe that the prototype of a strong-and-silent father was a consequence of industrialization; images of men off on their own, precursors to the Marlboro Man, helped men cope with being separated from their families. The prototypical mother changed as well, in an equal and opposite direction. (But don't be fooled: more women went into those factories than we customarily recognize).

And because industrial jobs are in cities, this memo also covers the migration of people from rural areas to urban centers.
 
MEMOS ON RELATED INFORMATION: Migration, The Rise of Suburbia, and Population (General Demographics)
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 

PAGE INDEX:

 

EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION AND URBANIZATION

URBANIZATION BY THE NUMBERS

 
 
 
 

EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION AND URBANIZATION

 
 
 
 
". . . it is worth mentioning that the destination of migrants plays an important role in shaping the values they acquire along with the material goods. Most Egyptians migrate to oil-rich countries in the Gulf, where pro-natalist values predominate, as these countries have vast resources and relatively small populations. On the other hand, Moroccan migrants as well as Tunisians usually seek work opportunities in Europe, where small families have become the norm. Consequently, the decline in Moroccan fertility was larger than that of Egyptian fertility. Furthermore in Morocco, quite often the emigrant’s family leaves the village and moves to the city so as to make better use of the money sent from abroad. In this move, they adopt urban reproductive norms. Also compulsory education is more readily observed in the cities. With increasing educational attainment for girls, continued reduction in fertility behavior is expected." 1.
 
 
 
 
 
The following are effects migration to urban areas has had on South Asian families – both good and bad.

Urbanized spouses have a greater possibility for egalitarian and intimate relationships between spouses, because the couple is away from the husband’s mother-in-law.
 
The family structure changes from one of an extended, multigenerational family system to a nuclear family of the parents and their children.
 
Urban families are significantly smaller: the women have less children.
 
Women have more opportunity to enter the work-force, which helps the family financially, while also increasing the women’s independence.
 
The urban families adopt a “fast food culture.” These families seem to forget their traditional diet, and while there is usually more food available in urban areas – so there's less risk of starvation – the food they do eat is potentially more unhealthful than their traditional diet.
 
The families suffer from increased stress arising out of the heightened conflict between the demands of family and work.
 
They live in unhealthy housing: it's overcrowded, polluted. Often it's they're living in shanty or slum conditions.
 
There's a creation of a new urban middle class that has increased exposure to global cultural influences (e.g. imported movies and television), consumerism, and information technology. 2.

 
 
 
"In general, research in the West supports the notion that mothers are primary socializing agents for their daughters. In rapidly developing Islamic populations, however, the role model that mothers provide may be in conflict with their daughters’ experiences in a modern world." 3.
 
 
 
In three decades, the United Arab Emirates have gone from "a desert life of sheep and camels to a highly developed modern nation." 4.
 
 
 
"To study family life in the [United Arab] Emirates and much of the Gulf is to work in a setting of rapid and dramatic social change. The super highways, luxury autos, density of cell phones, radio, television, and glitzy shopping malls dominate daily life. The abundant life has come for most and it has been welcomed. The abundant life, however, has come very fast; there was no industrial revolution or gradual development of a production economy. With vast oil resources, life was changed in just a few short years. The young women in this study have not known any other life, but their parents and grandparents have often been in a state of cultural shock as they look out the window of today and clearly remember the world in which they were reared." 5.
 
 
 
"Parents and grandparents of the respondents in this study [in the United Arab Emirates] were raised in a world almost totally alien to that of the young female students at Zayed University. Little or no transportation, poor medical care, a lack of formal education, and variations of tribal life characterized previous conditions. In contract, the young women at Zayed University have grow up in a world of great comfort, conveniences, and modern technology. They have access to modern healthcare and hospitals, ample amounts of food, modern automobiles, cell phones, television, domestic help, and direct opportunities in higher education." 6.
 
 
 
96.9 percent
of United Arab Emirates female college students were born in a hospital. 7.
 
 
 
90.3 percent
of those students' mothers were born at home and / or in a tent. 8.
 
 
 
96.8 percent
"in a survey of United Arab Emirates female college students and their mothers, the percentage of the students’ fathers who were born at home and / or in a tent." 9.
 
 
 

EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION AND URBANIZATION

 
 
 

URBANIZATION BY THE NUMBERS

 
 
 
28 percent
of the U.S. population lived in metropolitan areas in 1910. 10.
 
 
 
80 percent
of the U.S. population lived in metropolitan areas in 2000. 11.
 
 
 
Near one-third
of Americans lived in a metropolitan area with five million or more residents in 2000. 12.
 
 
 
25 percent in cities, 75 percent in rural areas
of blacks in the U.S. lived in rural areas in 1910. 13.
 
 
 
75 percent in cities, 25 percent in rural areas
In just 50 years, that had completely reversed – 75 percent of U.S. blacks lived in cities by 1960. 14.
 
 
 
29.1 percent
of the world's population lived in urban areas in 1950. 15.
 
 
 
49.2 percent
of the world's population lived in urban areas in 2005. 16.
 
 
 
60.8 percent
of the world's population will live in urban areas by 2030. 17.
 
 
 
Two-thirds
of the world's population – 6 billion people – will be living in urban areas by the year 2050. 18.
 
 
 
 
Over 3 billion
Of the world's urban residents of 2050, more than one-half, that's over 3 billion, will be living in slums. 19.
 
 
 


On the left is our chart illustrating the change in urbanization, by continent. The red column is the urbanized population in 1950, the blue is today's percentage, and the green is the United Nations's projected percentages by the year 2030.

By this, you can see that the percentage of those living in urban environments has more than doubled in Africa and Asia in the past 50 years, and Latin America's is almost double.

Already comparatively urbanized, Europe and North American urbanization is continuing, but at a less dramatic rate. 20.

 
 
From less than a quarter to almost half
23.1 percent of the population in South Asia lived in urban areas in 1980. By 2000, 32.8 percent lived in urban areas. By 2020, the United Nations projects that 47.7 percent of the South Asian population will live in urban areas. 21.
 
 
 
Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru –
All went from having a majority of their populations living in rural areas, to a majority living in urban areas, within the last 50 years (1950-2000). 22.
 
 
 
8 million
Number of rural people in Iran to have migrated to urban areas within the past 20 years. 23.
 
 
 
11 percent
of the population in Sub-Saharan Africa lived in urban areas in 1950. 24.
 
 
 
32 percent
of the population in Sub-Saharan Africa lived in urban areas by 1996. 25.
 
 
 
49 percent
of the population in Sub-Saharan Africa will be living in urban areas by 2025. 26.
 
 
 
Less than 10 percent
of Chinese people lived in urban areas at the turn of the Twentieth Century. 27.
 
 
 
Around 32.1 percent
of Chinese people lived in urban areas by 2000. 28.
 
 
 
23.1 percent
of the population in India lived in urban areas in 1980. 29.
 
 
 
32.3 percent
of the population in India lived in urban areas by 2000. About half of this growth is due to a natural increase in the population, while half is from migrants moving from rural to urban areas. 30.
 
 
 
47.3 percent
of the population in India is projected to be living in urban areas by 2020. 31.
 
 
 
78.8 percent
of Japanese living in urban areas in 2000, just a slight increase from 77.4 percent in 1990. 32.
 
 
 
58.6 percent
of Filipinos lived in urban areas in 1990, an increase from 48.8 percent just 10 years earlier. 33.
 
 
 
35.3 percent
of Peru's population lived in urban areas in 1950. 34.
 
 
71.9 percent
of Peru's population lived in urban areas in 2000. 35.
 
 
 
28.5 percent
of Ecuador's population lived in urban areas in 1950. 36.
 
 
 
62.7 percent
of Ecuador's population lived in urban areas in 2000. 37.
 
 
 
36.5 percent
of Brazil's population lived in urban areas in 1950. 38.
 
 
 
79.9 percent
of Brazil's population lived in urban areas in 2000. 39.
 
 
 
78 percent
of the Uruguayan population lived in urban areas in 1950. 40.
 
 
 
92.6 percent
of the Uruguayan population lived in urban areas in 2000. 41.
 
 
 
59 percent
of the Mexican population lived in urban areas in 1970. 42.
 
 
 
71 percent
of the Mexican population lived in urban areas in 2000. 43.
 
 
 
11.4 percent
of Nigeria's population lived in urban areas in 1950. 44.
 
 
 
48.3 percent
of Nigeria's population lived in urban areas in 2005. 45.
 
 
Discovery of oil transformed most Gulf countries into urban societies:
 

59.2 percent
of Kuwait's population lived in urban areas in 1950. 46.
 
 
 
96.4 percent
of Kuwait's population lived in urban areas in 2005. 47.
 
 
 
63.8 percent
of Bahrain's population lived in urban areas in 1950. 48.
 
 
 
90.2 percent
of Bahrain's population lived in urban areas in 2005. 49.
 
 
 
 
51.9 percent
of the United Arab Emirates' population lived in urban areas in 1950. 50.
 
 
 
85.5 percent
of the U.A.E.'s population lived in urban areas in 2005. 51.

 
____________________________________________________
 
 
1. Nazek Nosseir, "Family in the New Millennium: Major Trends Affecting Families in North Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtnosseir.pdf
2. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), pp. 14,18, 24. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
3. Paul L. Schvaneveldt, Jennifer L Kerpelman and Jay D Schvaneveldt, "Generational and Cultural Changes in Family Life in the United Arab Emirates," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 1; Research Library Core, p. 77 et seq. (Winter 2005), p. 80.
4. Paul L. Schvaneveldt, Jennifer L Kerpelman and Jay D Schvaneveldt, "Generational and Cultural Changes in Family Life in the United Arab Emirates," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 1; Research Library Core, p. 77 et seq. (Winter 2005), pp. 77-78.
5. Paul L. Schvaneveldt, Jennifer L Kerpelman and Jay D Schvaneveldt, "Generational and Cultural Changes in Family Life in the United Arab Emirates," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 1; Research Library Core, p. 77 et seq. (Winter 2005), p. 88.
6. Paul L. Schvaneveldt, Jennifer L Kerpelman and Jay D Schvaneveldt, "Generational and Cultural Changes in Family Life in the United Arab Emirates," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 1; Research Library Core, p. 77 et seq. (Winter 2005), p. 82.
7. According to a survey. Paul L. Schvaneveldt, Jennifer L Kerpelman and Jay D Schvaneveldt, "Generational and Cultural Changes in Family Life in the United Arab Emirates," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 1; Research Library Core, p. 77 et seq. (Winter 2005), p. 84.
8. Paul L. Schvaneveldt, Jennifer L Kerpelman and Jay D Schvaneveldt, "Generational and Cultural Changes in Family Life in the United Arab Emirates," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 1; Research Library Core, p. 77 et seq. (Winter 2005), p. 84.
9. Paul L. Schvaneveldt, Jennifer L Kerpelman and Jay D Schvaneveldt, "Generational and Cultural Changes in Family Life in the United Arab Emirates," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 1; Research Library Core, p. 77 et seq. (Winter 2005), p. 84.
10. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
11. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
12. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
13. New York Public Library and Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, "The Great Migration," "The Diaspora," The New York Public Library African American Desk Reference, . New York, New York, J. Wiley & Sons (1999) p. 101. Available at: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0471239240/104-4683855-3160754?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
14. New York Public Library and Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, "The Great Migration," "The Diaspora," The New York Public Library African American Desk Reference, . New York, New York, J. Wiley & Sons (1999) p. 101. Available at: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0471239240/104-4683855-3160754?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
15. Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision. Accessed at: http://esa.un.org/unpp on November 9, 2005.
16. Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision. Accessed at: http://esa.un.org/unpp on November 9, 2005.
17. Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision. Accessed at: http://esa.un.org/unpp on November 9, 2005.
18. Kofi Annan, "In Message to Mark World Habitat Day," Department of Public Information, News and Media Division, United Nations, New York, New York, (October 3, 2005). Accessed at: http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2005/sgsm10130.doc.htm on November 10, 2005.
19. Kofi Annan, "In Message to Mark World Habitat Day," Department of Public Information, News and Media Division, United Nations, New York, New York, (October 3, 2005). Accessed at: http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2005/sgsm10130.doc.htm on November 10, 2005.
20. Source of Data: Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision. Accessed at: http://esa.un.org/unpp on November 9, 2005.
21. Indralal De Silva, Table 17, "Percentage of Population Residing in Urban Areas by South Asian Countries." "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003). Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
22. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
23. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 12. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
24. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 5, 11 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
25. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 5, 11 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
26. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 5, 11 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
27. Xuewen Sheng, "Chinese Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 99-128 (2005), p. 100. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
28. Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 26. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
29. Indralal De Silva, Table 17, "Percentage of Population Residing in Urban Areas by South Asian Countries." "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003). Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
30. Indralal De Silva, Table 17, "Percentage of Population Residing in Urban Areas by South Asian Countries." "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003). Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
31. Indralal De Silva, Table 17, "Percentage of Population Residing in Urban Areas by South Asian Countries." "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003). Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
32. Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 26. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
33. Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 26. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
34. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
35. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
36. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
37. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
38. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
39. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
40. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
41. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
42. Godfrey St. Bernard, "Table 9: Percentage of Population Living In Urban Areas – Central America and the Caribbean," Major Trends Affecting Families in Central America and the Caribbean," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 23, 2003)(citation omitted). Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbtables.pdf
43. Godfrey St. Bernard, "Table 9: Percentage of Population Living In Urban Areas – Central America and the Caribbean," Major Trends Affecting Families in Central America and the Caribbean," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 23, 2003)(citation omitted). Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbtables.pdf
44. Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision. Accessed at: http://esa.un.org/unpp on November 9, 2005. See also Yahya El-Haddad, "Major Trends Affecting Families in the Gulf Countries," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (200_), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtelhaddad.pdf
45. Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision. Accessed at: http://esa.un.org/unpp on November 9, 2005. See also Yahya El-Haddad, "Major Trends Affecting Families in the Gulf Countries," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (200_), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtelhaddad.pdf
46. Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision. Accessed at: http://esa.un.org/unpp on November 9, 2005. See also Yahya El-Haddad, "Major Trends Affecting Families in the Gulf Countries," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (200_), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtelhaddad.pdf
47. Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision. Accessed at: http://esa.un.org/unpp on November 9, 2005. See also Yahya El-Haddad, "Major Trends Affecting Families in the Gulf Countries," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (200_), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtelhaddad.pdf
48. Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision. Accessed at: http://esa.un.org/unpp on November 9, 2005. See also Yahya El-Haddad, "Major Trends Affecting Families in the Gulf Countries," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (200_), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtelhaddad.pdf
49. Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision. Accessed at: http://esa.un.org/unpp on November 9, 2005. See also Yahya El-Haddad, "Major Trends Affecting Families in the Gulf Countries," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (200_), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtelhaddad.pdf
50. Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision. Accessed at: http://esa.un.org/unpp on November 9, 2005. See also Yahya El-Haddad, "Major Trends Affecting Families in the Gulf Countries," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (200_), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtelhaddad.pdf
51. Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision. Accessed at: http://esa.un.org/unpp on November 9, 2005. See also Yahya El-Haddad, "Major Trends Affecting Families in the Gulf Countries," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (200_), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtelhaddad.pdf