Migration
 
Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 39
 
TOPICS COVERED: This is one of our largest memos. And it should be. When people move, whether pursuing economic opportunity or fleeing violence and/or persecution, it dramatically upsets family life. The more this goes on, the greater the challenge to hold families together and retain traditions. While you might assume this page is just about international emigration, it actually relates to everyone: there is not a family today that has not been tested by migration at some point in the last hundred years. Migration also includes the movement of people within a country. In the geographically-enormous United States, families were broken apart by the movement westward, toward the frontier, and by the two phases of African-American migration to the north. Today, the Mexican migration to the United States is the largest sustained international population movement in the world. The movement of elderly to the sunbelt has put grandparents farther away, as well. Very often the troubles that haunt a family today have their roots in migration that occurred a generation earlier.

And who doesn’t have a sibling or cousin who moved across the country for a job, or an education, or just to get away?

In the Third World today, waves of people are leaving rural areas and crowding the already-overbloated cities. This type of migration – and its history – is discussed in the related memo, Industrialization/Urbanization. And the trend in the United States to do the opposite – to flee to the suburbs – is covered in another related memo, The Rise of Suburbia. Despite the fact that today people imagine suburbs to be the best place for families, when people first started making the move, it was very controversial, because it left the elderly in the cities and ended the three-generational household – more evidence that the impact of migration on family structure is so pervasive, that we usually can't even see it. Instead, we just think that it's always been that way.
 
MEMOS ON RELATED INFORMATION: Industrialization / Urbanization, The Rise of Suburbia, Population, Family Structures
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 

PAGE INDEX:

 
 

WHO IS MIGRATING?

WHERE ARE THEY GOING?

WHY MIGRATE?

THE GREAT MIGRATION – U.S. Blacks Move North

THE LARGEST MIGRATION IN THE WORLD TODAY – Mexicans Move North

IMPACT OF MIGRATION ON FAMILY LIVES

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF MIGRATION

 
 
 
 

WHO IS MIGRATING?

 
 
They are families –
Families migrate together as a group, or, if individual family members do migrate alone, they bring with them a clear expectation that the others in their families will soon join them.

 
More than eight million
of those who migrated to Germany between 1973 and 1994 who were relatives of migrants already living there. 1.
 
 
More than 600,000
of those emigrating to the U.K. between the early 1970s and the early 1990s had relatives already living there. 2.
 
 
727,000
of those who emigrated to Switzerland during 1968 and 1995 had relatives already living there. 3.

 
 
They are women –

 
More than twice as many
19,000 Filipino female migrants were working in Italy in 1995, while there were only 8,700 Filipino men there. 4.
 
 
22,000
Yugoslav female migrants were working in the Netherlands in 1995 – almost equal number to the number of Yugoslav males there (23,800). 5.
 
 
Over 400,000
Women made up 75 percent of the labor force that had migrated from Sri Lanka in 2003. And a lot of them were mothers leaving young children behind. Of surveyed Sri Lankan children with mothers abroad, 80 percent of the children were under 15. 6.

 
 
They are men –
 
 
About 50,000
Egyptians, mostly single, unskilled men, were working as laborers on construction sites in elsewhere in the Middle East in 1995. Before 1974, the Egyptian emigrant population was a small number, primarily of professionals. 7.
 
 
40 percent
of South Africa's male labor force, aged 20-39, is away in South Africa at any given time. 8.
 
 
 
They are married –

 
The majority of migrants who have emigrated from South Asia in search of temporary employment abroad were married, and had children. 9.
 
 
 
36 percent
of immigrants to Ireland in 2001 were married. According to a study. 10.

 
 
52 percent and 44 percent
of the legal, and illegal immigrants in Greece in 1997 were married. 11.
 
 
 
They are children –

 
 
2.0 million
Number of children worldwide forced from their homes and communities by conflict during the 1990s. 12.
 
 
 
One out of every four
children in Sweden has their roots in other parts of the world. In its larger cities, that figure rises to almost half. 13.
 
 
 
1,200
Number of unaccompanied children who immigrated to Finland in approximately the past ten years. Over half were Somali. 14.
 
 
 
5,400
immigrants to Ireland in 2001 – 20.5 percent of all those who immigrated there that year – were under 14 years old. According to a study. 15.
 
 
 
13 percent
of children adopted in the U.S. are foreign-born. 16.
 
 
 
Four percent
of children in the U.S. who live with their biological parents are foreign-born. 17.
 
 
 
Four percent
of children in the U.S. who live with stepparents are foreign-born. 18.
 
 
 
 
1.6 million
children in the U.S. are undocumented immigrants. Another 3 million children are U.S. citizens, with parents who are undocumented. 19.

 
They are the ones they probably want to keep at home – more educated and younger
The émigrés of Central Europe, Jordan, and Syria have higher than the nations' average educational attainment. In Central Europe, the majority also tend to be younger than the rest of the population, aging 20-35 years old. 20.
 
 
 
 
30-40 percent
of Ukrainian households have had at least one household member who has experienced at least one move abroad. 21.
 
 
 
Every country in North Africa –
Algeria, Egypt, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Sudan and Tunisia – all had negative net migration during the 1990s, meaning more people left those nations than came to them. 22.
 
 
 
One-sixth
of all foreigners living in the E.U. are Turkish. That’s 3 million, making it the largest expatriate community in all of Western Europe. 23.
 
 
 
550,000
Estimated number of Sri Lankan workers who were working abroad in 2003. 24.
 
 
 
Over 7 million –
South Koreans live outside of their nation of origin. Of these, half left home after 1965. 25.
 
 
 
About eleven million
Number of Lebanese living "outside Lebanon in different parts of the world. The government allows double nationality for Lebanese but does not have an official policy to regulate migration to foreign countries." 26.
 
 
 
Half a million
The estimated number of Pakistani workers who were reported to have left, as labor migrants, from 1984-1989. 27.
 
 
 
A couple hundred
Number of the Pakistani labor migrants, from 1984-1989, who were women (mostly nurses and domestic workers). 28.
 
 
 
More than 60 million
people emigrated from Europe between 1800 and 1960. more than 60 million people emigrated from Europe to another continent. About 40 million people left for North America; and another 20 million, to South America, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand or the Asian parts of Russia. 29.
 
 
 

WHO IS MIGRATING?
WHY MIGRATE?
THE GREAT MIGRATION – U.S. Blacks Move North
THE LARGEST MIGRATION IN THE WORLD TODAY – Mexicans Move North
IMPACT OF MIGRATION ON FAMILY LIVES
ECONOMIC IMPACT OF MIGRATION

 
 
 
 

WHERE ARE THEY GOING?

 
 
 
98 million
The projected net number of international migrants to more developed regions during 2005-2050 – 2.2 million annually. For the developed world, the migration will largely offset the expected excess of deaths over births during 2005-2050, which is projected to be a loss of 73 million people. On the other hand, the immigration will barely seem to effect the developing world, since the 98 million emigrants will be less less than four percent of those nations' expected population growth. 30.
 
 
 
The United States


33.5 million
the foreign born population in the United States in 2002, up from 31 million in 2000, and from 19.8 million in 1990. This group constituted 11.7 percent of the population in the highest percentage since 1930 – when they composed 11.6 percent of the total population. But that still is substantially below 1890's 14.8 percent foreign-born population. 31.
 
 
 
53.3 percent
of the U.S. foreign born population in the United States were born in Latin America. 25.0 percent of them were born in Asia, 13.7 percent in Europe, and the remaining 8.0 percent in other regions of the world. 32.
 
 
 
21.3 million
of them arrive and then initially live in six "gateway" states: California, New York, Texas, Florida, Illinois, and New Jersey. Over 1 million foreign-born people reside in each of these states. That amount would, if the states weren't states, but European countries, put them near the top E.U. nations with the highest numbers of foreign-born populations. In California in 2000, the number of foreign-born residents was just under 1.2 million – equivalent to the entire U.S. annual increase of foreign-born population. 33.
 
 
 
Over 1.2 million
the number of new immigrants to the U.S. each year since 2000, according to government estimates. 34.
 
 
 
13.6 percent
of the U.S. foreign born in the U.S. in 2003, had entered the United States since 2000. 35.
 
 
 
Approximately 40 percent
of the U.S. foreign born population aged 5 and over are United States citizens. 36.
 
 
 
 
Approximately 26 percent
of the U.S. foreign born population are undocumented immigrants. 37.
 
 
 
Over 10 million
The estimated number of undocumented immigrants in the U.S. Of these, 60-75 percent entered the U.S. illegally, while the remaining 25-40 percent entered on a legal basis, but subsequently overstayed their visa or otherwise violated the terms of their admission (e.g. they had student visas but are working, etc.). 38.
 
 
Approximately five percent
of the U.S. work force is undocumented immigrants. 39.
 
 
 
17 percent
of U.S. children lived with a foreign-born householder in 2000. 40.
 
 
 
5.6 Million
Number of foreign-born people who moved to the United States from abroad in the period of 1995 and 2000. 41.
 
 
 
Two out of five–
foreign-born Hispanics in the U.S. – 46 percent – entered the United States between 1990 and 2000. 42.
 
 
 
40 percent
of Hispanics in the U.S. in 2000 were foreign born. About 71 percent – seven out of every 10 Hispanics residing in the United States – were either native or naturalized citizens, compared with 93.4 percent – over 9 out of every 10 people – in the total population. 43.
 
 
 
43 percent
of the Asian population in the U.S. entered the country between the years 1990 to 2000. 44.
 
 
 
69 percent
of all Asians in the U.S. are foreign born, compared to the total U.S. population of 11.1 percent. 45.
 
 
 
But 65.4 percent
of Asians in the U.S. are either native or naturalized citizens. 46.
 
 
 
44 percent
of Pacific Islanders who are foreign born and in the U.S. arrived between 1990 and 2000. 47.

 
 
Europe


Higher than in the U.S.
In 2002, net migration to the European Union was higher than the net migration to the U.S. 48.
 
 
 
18.69 million
Number of the European Union population who were third-country nationals in 2002. One-third of these were actually citizens of another EU nation. 49.
 
 
 
Five percent
of the European Union population were third-country nationals in 2002. 50.
 
 
 
About four million
Number of non-citizens living in Western European nations in 1950. That number doubled within 20 years. Between 1970 and 2000, the number almost doubled again. 51.
 
 
 
More than one million
By the 1990s, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and Switzerland each had at least 1 million immigrants within their borders, which make them the most important immigration countries in Western Europe. 52.
 

 
And that's probably an undercount
There is a rising number of criminal networks that smuggle illegal immigrants – usually labor migrants – into the E.U., usually through Central and Eastern Europe. 53.
 
 
 
26,300
The non-citizen population of Ireland in 2001, more than three times what it had been just five years earlier (8,000 in 1996). While much less than other nations' immigrant populations, the sudden increase hit a small country that traditionally sees itself of as country people emigrate from, not emigrate to. The result was that this rapid growth caused serious social and political tensions. 54.
 
 
 
A five-fold increase
In 1991 there were only 167,000 immigrants in Greece. By 2001, the number had risen to 797,000 – making the foreign-born population over seven percent of the total population. The clear majority of these immigrants – 440,000 of them – are from Albania. That is 56 percent of the total immigrant population. The next largest share of the immigrant population were Bulgarians, and they're just five percent of the immigrants to Greece. 55.
 
 
 
Over 90 percent
of the population increase in Greece over the past decade has been due to immigration. The natural increase (that is, from births) has only increased the population by 22,600. But the population of Greece has increased by over 650,000 during that same period – about 630,000 of whom were immigrants. 56.

 
 
South Americans have tended to emigrate within the region –
During the economic turmoil of 1990s, South Americans have increasingly chose the U.S., Europe, and to a lesser extent, Japan, for their countries of destination. But usually, South Americans have tended to emigrate to other countries within the region. Paraguayans move to Argentina and Brazil; Ecuadorians go to Colombia, Bolivians head to Argentina, Chile and Brazil, while Chileans and Uruguayans go to Argentina. 57.
 
 
 
The U.K., the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand –
destinations for South Asian professionally and technically qualified persons. 58.
 
 
 
The Middle East –
destinations, since the 1970s, for skilled, semiskilled and unskilled labour from South and Central Asia. 59.
 
 
 
28 percent
of Australians were born overseas. 60.
 
 
 
Iraq
was a labor-importing nation until its second war, and to facilitate that, it used to give free entrance without a visa to all Arabs. 61.
 
 
 
Prior to World War I, Arab African and Latin America countries were countries that received Lebanese immigrants. But after the First World War, migration then shifted afterwards to the Gulf countries, particularly to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. 62.
 
 
 

WHO IS MIGRATING?
WHERE ARE THEY GOING?
THE GREAT MIGRATION – U.S. Blacks Move North
THE LARGEST MIGRATION IN THE WORLD TODAY – Mexicans Move North
IMPACT OF MIGRATION ON FAMILY LIVES
ECONOMIC IMPACT OF MIGRATION

 
 
 
 

WHY MIGRATE?

 
 
 
To find work –
 
 

The survival of every household
of Lesotho is directly or indirectly dependent on monthly payments sent home from migrants to South Africa. 63.
 
 
 
Cheap labor from the former colonies –
During the 1950s and 1960s, there was a mass migration movement of laborers from former colonies to the respective former ‘mother countries’ These migrants more willing to migrate, and the countries were more eager to receive them because they already spoke the language, there were systems in place to grant them residency or even citizenship. So Indians and Pakistanis migrated to Great Britain, Moroccans and Algerians moved to France; and people from Surinam who migrated to The Netherlands. 64.
 
 
 
Ten-Fold
The increase in migration from Egypt to the oil / Gulf countries in need of outside labor from 1975 to 1984. 65.
 
 
 
So many laborers had left, that they had to import replacement labor –
Beginning in 1950, increasing unemployment in Jordan meant that the government began to allow laborers to leave the country for Europe, Australia and the U.S.A. But by 1976-1982, so many people had left, that Jordan started having labor shortages in certain positions, and they had to start importing workers to fill those positions. So they became, at the same time, a country that both imported and exported labor. Since then, Jordan’s migration polices have included bilateral agreements with some countries. 66.
 
 
 
Making it easier to emigrate –
In Germany, where the future prospects of a sufficiently large workforce keep dwindling with the countries' falling birth rates, an effort has begun to improve the conditions for immigration, especially for highly skilled laborers. While there's a debate over the extent to which this should be done, the first set of changes needed to attract these workers have already been completed. 67.
 
 
 
About 25,000 factories
moved from Hong Kong to China, from the mid-1980s to 1990s, while still other entities began to open Chinese locations. The result has been large numbers of Hong Kong employees work in these Chinese facilities for long periods of time. 68.
 
 
 
More money, at the cost of everything else
Most women migrating from South Asia end up as housemaids, having considerably less status than they enjoyed at home, or even in comparison to their men emigrating from the same region. Still, the desire to earn money for their families is more important than this. 69.

 
 
To find peace and stability –
 
 

Political exiles
aren't always the glamorous ones fleeing a country on a jet, and their stories may not contain the drama of a spy thriller. But they are usually the people publicly involved in a nation's politics. They are often the urban, and, economically, are in the middle or upper class. They're often educated. Or, perhaps they occupy a position of leadership in a trade union or peasant community. 70.
 
 
 
Displacement, on the other hand
effects entire populations – men, women and children, elderly and infirm. And it has even more of an impact in the rural and remote populations. 71.
 
 
 
27 million
people were refugees who had fled their native countries in 1997. That is more than double the number it was 15 years earlier (11 million in 1987) and almost ten times the number it was in 1970 (2.5 million). 72.
 
 
 
Another 30 million
people were displaced, within their own country, for one reason or another, at any given time during the 1990s. 73.
 
 
 
One-third
of the world’s refugees were in Africa in 1995. About 10 million are victims of forced migration, sometimes ironically resulting in neighboring countries having with each others’ refugees (e.g. there are Mailan refugees in Mauritania . . . and Mauritanian refugees in Mali). 74.
 
 
 
450,000-600,000
Estimated number of those in Peru who were displaced due to the military repression and strife with civilian “self-defense” and paramilitary forces during the 1980s, during a conflict between a guerrilla group, Sendero Luminoso. (Additionally, an estimated 30,000 died during this period.) Then, in the early 1990s, a new Peruvian government implemented a program of resettlement, sending hundreds of thousands of peasants back to the villages they had abandoned. 75.
 
 
 
7 million
people left the European continent in the years between 1945 and 1960. 76.
 
 
 
More than 11.6 million
Number of people who migrated from Eastern Europe and the Balkans between 1950 and 1995. 77.
 
 
 
More than 1 million
fled the states of the former Yugoslavia, for the safety of Western Europe between 1991 and 1998. 78.
 
 
 
More than 2 million
Estimated number of persons were displaced during the last fifteen years in Colombia because of political conflict (which includes military, drug juntas, etc). 79.
 
 
 
194,000
Hungarians fled their homeland after the national uprising there in 1956. 80.
 
 
 
170,000
Czechs and Slovaks fled during the 1968 crisis in Czechoslovakia. 81.
 
 
 
250,000
Poles left Poland during the 1980s, because of political oppression. However, when they got to their destination, Western Europe, they weren't seen as heroically escaping the government as much as they were seen as escaping the bad economic situation in Poland. 82.
 

 
To find a lost cultural and ethnic identity –
 
 

3.4 million
Under a policy which gave ethnically-German Eastern Europeans an unlimited right to return to Germany, about 3.4 million of them immigrated to Germany from 1950 to 1995. Most of them arrived from 1989 to 1995, because travel restrictions from Eastern-bloc nations were eased. Almost half of the returning Germans were from Poland (44.6 percent). Another 36 percent came from the former Soviet Union (36 percent), while the rest come from Romania (12.8 percent), the Czech Republic, Hungary and the former Yugoslavia (6.6 percent). So many were coming that, in the early 1990s, the German government attempted to limit the immigration of ethnic Germans to 220,000 people per year. 83.
 
 
 
One trigger for ethnic migration – forming new (or restoring old) countries
"Large-scale moves were observed among the new countries that were formerly within the ex-USSR, for example the return of Russians back to Russia. Analogous moves were observed among countries that comprised ex-Yugoslavia as well as between the Czech and Slovak republics. Large groups of ethnic Germans returned to Germany from the Ukraine, Russia, Romania." 84.
 
 
 
Even to find a wife –

Because of the combined effect of the one-child policy and the traditional son-preference in Asia, many single men in Hong Kong and Taiwan, especially those who are older, or lower working classes, cannot find a bride in their native lands. So they have been increasingly going abroad to find a wife. Men from Hong Kong find wives in China, while the Taiwanese are looking for love in China, Vietnam, and Indonesia. 85.

 
 
Tom Wolfe could have warned them: going home doesn't always work out . . . .

About 300,000 Turkish-Bulgarians left Bulgaria in 1989-1990 to settle in Turkey. Two out of every three of them were back in Bulgaria within three years. 86.
 
 
 
Some can't go home again, even if they want to –
because of unstable political or economic conditions in their native lands. 87.
 
 
 
In Jordan, workers came home to find that they had lost their properties. Still others were a generation or two away from those who had emigrated, so they weren't eligible for international aid. They had problems finding work or housing. 88.

 
 

WHO IS MIGRATING?
WHERE ARE THEY GOING?
WHY MIGRATE?
THE LARGEST MIGRATION IN THE WORLD TODAY – Mexicans Move North
IMPACT OF MIGRATION ON FAMILY LIVES
ECONOMIC IMPACT OF MIGRATION

 
 
 

THE GREAT MIGRATION

 
 
The Great Migration
is the term often used to describe the movement of U.S. African-Americans, the vast majority of whom lived in the Southern states, to the Northern and Western states. It happened in two phases, from 1915-1930, ending with the Depression, and 1940-1965, resuming with the economic boom of the WWII and post-War period. Therefore, some historians refer to this entire movement, as "The Great Migration," while others refer to both periods individually (i.e., The First and Second Great Migrations). As many as 6 million blacks left the South during this period. Actually, even more whites left the South than blacks during this same period, but the term, "Great Migration" does not include U.S. white population movements that occurred at the same time, because it is the rapid, dramatic dispersal of the blacks in the U.S. throughout the United States that was so historic. 89.
 
 
 
At least 1.25 million, up to as many as 2 million
Blacks in the U.S. relocated from Southern states to Northern states in the years 1915-1930. 90.
 
 
 
More than 4 million
Blacks in the U.S. relocated from Southern states to Northern states in the years 1940-1965. 91.
 
 
 
90 percent
of blacks in the U.S. lived in Southern states in 1900-1910. 92.
 
 
 
60 percent
of blacks in the U.S. lived in Southern states in 1960. 93.
 
 
 
55 percent
of blacks in the U.S. lived in Southern states in 1994. 94.
 
 
 
15,000
The number of blacks living in Chicago in 1890. 95.
 
 
 
44,000
The number of blacks living in Chicago in 1910. 96.
 
 
 
About 60,000
blacks moved to Chicago just from 1916 to 1919. 97.
 
 
 
110,000
The number of blacks living in Chicago in 1920 – an increase of almost 150 percent in a single decade. 98.
 
 
 
More than 230,000
The number of blacks living in Chicago in 1930. 99.
 
 
 
77 percent
the increase in the black population in Chicago during the 1940s – from 278,000 to 492,000. 100.
 
 
 
Another 65 percent
the increase in the black population in Chicago during the 1950s – from 492,000 to 813,000. At one point, more than 2,000 blacks a week were moving there. 101.
 
 
 
34,451
The number of blacks living in Cleveland in 1920. 102.
 
 
 
85,000
The number of blacks living in Cleveland in 1940. 103.
 
 
 
251,000
The number of blacks living in Cleveland in 1960. 104.
 
 
 

WHO IS MIGRATING?
WHERE ARE THEY GOING?
WHY MIGRATE?
THE GREAT MIGRATION – U.S. Blacks Move North
IMPACT OF MIGRATION ON FAMILY LIVES
ECONOMIC IMPACT OF MIGRATION

 
 
 
 

THE LARGEST MIGRATION IN THE WORLD TODAY – Mexicans Move North

 
 
 
"Mexican migration to the U.S. is currently the largest sustained international population movement in the world, and in some areas of Mexico migration has become a common and massive phenomenon." 105.
 
 
 
875 percent
The increase of the number of foreign-born Mexicans living in the U.S. from 1970 to 2000. 106.
 
 
 
20.9 million
Number of Mexicans in the U.S. as of 2000 – making them more than half of all U.S. Hispanics (59.3 percent). 107.
 
 
 
Over 300,000
The average number of people who left Mexico every year from 1995 to 2000. To put that in perspective, just a tenth of that, 30,000 annually left Guatemala during that same period, 12,000 from Nicaragua, and 8,000 from El Salvador. Specifically, that is the countries' annual net, out-migration, from 1995 to 2000. 108.
 
 
 
40 percent
of household heads in Western Mexico have some migration experience to the U.S. In some Mexican communities, over 70 percent of all household heads have migrated to the U.S. at least once. 109.
 
 
 
0.8 million
Number of foreign-born Mexicans living in the U.S. in 1970. 110.
 
 
 
7.8 million
Number of foreign-born Mexicans living in the U.S. in 2000. By point of comparison, that is roughly the same amount that left the entire European continent in the 15 years following WWII. 111.
 
 
 
Over 3.8 million
of the foreign-born Mexicans living in the U.S. – 49 percent – emigrated to the U.S. between the years 1990 and 2000. 112.
 
 
 
Over 75 percent
of U.S. Hispanics speak a language other than English at home. Almost all of them - 99 percent – speak Spanish. 113.
 
 
 
Almost $7 billion
The amount that, upon his election in 2000, Mexican President Vicente Fox said Mexicans in the United States remitted annually to their families in Mexico. 114.
 
 
 
Over 72 percent
of Mexican migrants in Mexico send money home while they are in the U.S. 115.
 
 
 
$222
The average amount Mexicans in the U.S. send home each month. 116.
 
 
 
Nearly 65 percent
of Mexican migrants who had returned to Mexico had sent money home when they were in the U.S. 117.
 
 
 
Just over $1,000
of Mexican migrants who had returned to Mexico had sent money home when they were in the U.S. 118.
 
 
 
The real thing they bring home doesn't seem to be money, but entrepreneurism –
Men who have returned to Mexico after having been gone for at least two years are 15 percent more likely to own a house, 67 percent more likely to start a business, and 82 percent more likely to acquire land. 119
 
 
 
" . . for men in Western Mexico migration has become a central strategy for achieving family objectives." 120.
 
 
 
Mexican migrants are less likely to get married when they are abroad, but having lived in the U.S. increases the likelihood that a migrant will marry when he returns to Mexico. 121.
 
 
 
An "oversupply" of women –
There is a such a high rate of Mexican men migrating to the U.S., that there is an oversupply of marriageable women left in Mexico. Which means, particularly in Western Mexico, that the men remaining there are less willing to make a commitment to marriage. 122.
 
 
 
23 years old
The median age for marriage migrating men in Mexico, which is a year earlier than the median age for non-migrating men. 75 percent of migrating men are married by 27, which is almost two years earlier than non-migrating men. And only 5 percent of migrating men don’t marry, compared to 11 percent of non-migrating men. 123.
 
 
 
5.3 million
The estimated number of undocumented Mexicans in the U.S. – 57 percent of all those without legal status. 124.
 
 
 
 

WHO IS MIGRATING?
WHERE ARE THEY GOING?
WHY MIGRATE?
THE GREAT MIGRATION – U.S. Blacks Move North
THE LARGEST MIGRATION IN THE WORLD TODAY – Mexicans Move North
ECONOMIC IMPACT OF MIGRATION

 
 
 
 

THE IMPACT OF MIGRATION ON FAMILY LIVES

 
 
What happens when you leave the family behind . . . .
 
 
Approximately 2-3 years
The duration of stay by South Asian labor migrants in Middle East countries. 125.
 
 
 
Away from their families, the men lose their place in the family –
In the migrant destination, the men may be lonely, working under difficult conditions, and have little money of their own since they send it all back home, so they look forward to returning home. But home may be profoundly different than the one they left.

In traditional Arabic families, the husbands are responsible for managing the family's interaction with the outside world. But when they leave, their wives take over their jobs of running of the household, even having control of the finances, which they would never have had before. Other divisions of labor, family arrangements take place, the longer the husbands stay away. The women may have established their own households – moving out of their husbands' parents' house, where they had lived when the husband was present – and have they now have little to do with his family.

And the families aren't willing to return to the old patriarchal relationships once the husbands have returned. 126.
 
 
 
In parts of Africa, even though their husbands have left to find work, the wives and family end up being even worse off than before. And the women become responsible with not just raising the family, but all of the other economic and social activities of the family – from having a subsistence farm to taking produce to market. 127.
 
 
 
In Swaziland, families are less stable because so many women have been left to raise the children alone. 128.

 
 
Away from their families, the men have affairs –
 

When labor migration separates the men from their families, the men typically have been known to have extramarital affairs. In China, Lesotho, Hong Kong, Sri Lanka and some areas of Africa, the affairs have turned into the opportunity for the men to have polygynous relationships: they marry other women, and either keep separate wives and families in each region they've lived in, or simply abandon the first wife and family. 129.
 
 
 
Divorce rates are higher in Sri Lanka amongst couples who have had a spouse leave the country for work. 130.
 
 
One out of 10
Lesotho married men working in South Africa has abandoned his wife and taken on new ones in South Africa. Most of the abandoned wives become single parents and many of their children are not catered for adequately. Further compounding the tragedy – the abandoned wives often become the targets of married men – which leads to more marriage break-ups. 131.

 
 
The population has aged –
So many younger men and women in Sri Lanka have emigrated, that the average age of households is skewing older than it was before. 132.
 
 
 
Gambling, alcoholism, child neglect, devaluation of morals, extramarital affairs, wasteful consumption of money, even some suicides
are some of the negative effects seen in Sri Lanka that have been identified as the direct or indirect result of labor migration. 133.
 
 
 
With just educated women left, they are re-ordering family structure –
Since in Lesotho, it is the most educated men who migrate for work, their migration has fundamentally altered the educational profile of those who remain – meaning the women who are left behind are more educated than the men who remain. This, in turn, has meant that 66 percent believe that education of women has changed the family pattern – the educated women now want to live with men without getting married. For those willing to get married, the men are older when they marry, because the younger ones can't afford the higher bride-price for the educated women. And, when they get married, it's still a problem: 32 percent said that it was women's higher amount of education that was responsible for what are now incessant marriage break-ups. 134.
 
 
 
New aspirations
In Egypt and Morocco, the wealth of the emigrant laborer changes the consumption patterns of the family – to the point that directly or indirectly, the family acquires new aspirations for upward mobility. And in that, is often a decision not to have additional children, who would hinder the family's chances for greater economic success. 135.
 
 
 
The absence of migrating parents hits children hard –

Researchers have found that Arabic children are profoundly effected by their father's absence in those traditionally patriarchal societies. With a father present, they would develop a concept of fathers as an authority figure, as well as a source of protection and security. But since their fathers are gone, the children seem to be more fearful. Suffering poorer self-esteem and self-confidence, they have difficulty in forming peer relationships. 136.
 
In South Asia, older children are forced to take on responsibilities once held by their absent parents – which means that they sometimes must drop out of school in order to take care of younger siblings or other household chores. 137.

 
 
Extended Family Back on the Rise –
An unexpected result of parental migration in some South Asian and Arab countries is that, in areas where the extended family tradition had appeared to be weakening, there's a resurgence of the extended family structure. In these areas, since parents have left, other members of the family are raising their children. Grandparents are more involved: the elderly are also called upon to raise this second set of children. Other relatives may help the newly single mothers whose husbands have gone abroad. 138.
 
 
 
Strangers in a foreign land . . . .
 
 
 
The relatives who have emigrated –
before often become role models for the rest of the family. If it goes well, other members of the family may copy their example and emigrate themselves – to the same place, and to do the same thing. If, on the other hand, their emigration experience was a bad one, it may dissuade others from going at all. 139.
 
 
 
The relatives who are already there –

are fundamental sources of information about the new cultures. It isn't just that they have a common frame of reference, although that is vital, it is also that they are trustworthy sources, in a nation full of strangers. 140.
 
 
often are considered to have a moral obligation to help newly arriving family members find places to live, get jobs, etc. – even if they are distant relations – and to prepare an environment that will help families reunite in the new country. 141.
 
 
become a buffer from between the immigrants and the new society: "the more negatively members of the receiving society react to the presence of migrant families, the more the family turns into the only place where the people in that family can develop a positive self-image. The family, then, is regarded as a refuge, a place where one can feel safe and secure from the rejection of others." 142.

 
 
Having family members to join also extends the period of time someone will stay abroad. 143.
 
 
 
Assimilation –

While migrants may initially maintain high birth rates, and other family behaviors that they had maintained from their countries of origin, research shows that migrants – especially those from developing countries who move to more developed countries – gradually change their behavior to match that of their new homes: marriage rates, age of marriage, age of births, fertility rates, even out-of-wedlock births, all show a tendency to go to the levels of the families' new nations. These changes increase with following generations. 144.
 
 
 
Marriage rates, age at marriage, adolescent births, fertility rates, and extra-marital births all show a tendency to converge to the levels of the receiving country. Some immigrants will even have less children or marriage rates than the natives of their new homes. 145.
 
 
 
On the other hand, families from less developed countries, and especially their rural areas, have more difficulty assimilating after migrating to more developed countries. Their marriage rates remain high; their age at marriage and first birth remain comparatively lower. Their fertility remains high. Family relations remain more traditional – often retaining a patriarchal structure. Because of this, they tend to be more self-isolating – remaining not just within their own migrant community but within their own family. Which, in turn, reinforces the isolation and the retention of the traditions from their countries of origin. 146.
 
 
 
And while family members are aids to assimilation – they can also be hinderances to it as well. Familial pressure to maintain traditions, to remain within the family's community, etc., may also serve to isolate members, and lessen their exposure to the new culture. 147.

 
 
Over 90 percent
of British Indian, Bangladeshi, and Pakistani marriages that are within the same ethnic group. 148.
 
 
 
Mixed marriages
While immigrants initially tend to marry other immigrants with the same background – from common nations of origin to ethnicity to religion – or they bring spouses from their native lands, they gradually begin to marry outside their ethnic community. Immigrants from developed countries tend to marry outside their group more rapidly than those who are immigrating from lesser developed countries. 149.
 
 
 
57.2 percent
of the U.S. foreign born are married, compared to 52.2 percent of native citizens. Among the U.S. foreign-born population, foreign-born naturalized citizens are more likely than non-citizens to be married (66.3 percent compared with 57.5 percent). 150.
 
 
 
Variations on a theme –

Since migration of families tends to be generational, not hierarchical, where a young couple might have lived with the husband's family in their country of origin, a migrating couple might likely move in with the husband's brother. And it is the brother, who has lived in the new country longer, who becomes the younger couple's advisor for family problems and issues.
 
And the parents, who are too far away to do anything, become much less influential than they would have been if their children had not immigrated. 151.

 
 
Families that have migrated as a whole
tend to stay in their new residence longer before returning home, or make it a permanent one. 152.
 
 
 
Migrant families tend to be closer knit, and rely on an extended family structure, if not extended family household.
Of Turkish migrants in Germany, 50 percent of the daughters and 60 percent of the sons identify at least one brother or sister as an important reference person – and while that may be based on growing up in the same household, the relationship continues even if they are no longer living together. 153.
 
 
 
But then, it maybe that they're just stuck with him –
 
Migrant women often are the targets of discrimination – both because they are migrants, foreigners and women – and they are therefore frequently limited in the options they have in a new country, especially in trying to find employment. It means that they may be more willing to accept exploitation by employers – seeing little alternative.

Similarly, this discrimination also may force a migrant woman to remain with husband whatever her relationship with him is, because the women are less able to becoming financially independent, or question the actions that their husbands take, since they have no other resources. They then focus on trying to provide a household that satisfies their husbands, hoping to prevent any potential strife between the couple. 154.
 
 
 
The families are disadvantaged –
When displaced, the families often are without housing or medical care. 155.
 
 
 
The children are behind in school –
Children who voluntarily emigrate or have been forcibly displaced are often behind in school – because of the difference between the national school systems, and language barriers. Many just do not go to school at all. 156.
 
 
 
23 percent
of children in the U.S. who live with a foreign-born householder speak only English at home – compared to 93 percent of those living with a native householder spoke. Children living with a foreign-born householder were more likely to live with a householder who did not have a high school diploma (46 percent) than were children living with a native householder (14 percent). 157.
 
 
 
Almost four times as likely
Children in the U.S. who live with a foreign-born householder are much more likely to be living with a householder who is much less educated than the population as a whole. For 46 percent of these children, the householder who did not have a high school diploma (46 percent) – compared to just 14 percent of children of native householders. 158.
 
 
 
The growth of the foreign population in Europe is due to immigration, but it's also due to:

the fact that most groups of foreigners have a higher fertility rate than do the native citizens.
 
Immigrants tend to be younger than the receiving countries' total population, so they have a greater number of births, while the aging native population has a greater number of deaths. 159.

 
 
A re-ordered family structure –
For Algerian women living in France, the women have became much more important in decision-making than they would have been in had they remained in Algeria. There, they would have been isolated, and the husbands would had been responsible for contacts with anyone other than their family.

But in France, the husbands are often consumed by their new jobs. Which means it falls to the women to make decisions concerning their children’s education, their matrimonial choices. They're even responsible not just for establishing the family's relationships to the new society, but maintaining the relationship with the home country as well. So while few Algerian women work outside the home, they are having contact with the new countries' government bureaucracies, in such things as schooling and health care. And where their husbands once would dictate all of these interactions, their husbands – who are often illiterate – can be little if no help in these matters.

Once in the larger society, the Algerian women have been taking increasingly public roles – from becoming religious leaders to shopkeepers; they are tenants of public baths for purification rituals, and singers of ritual chants performed during feasts and such familial events as births, circumcisions and weddings.
 
However, these new roles, according to the women, are not the result of their exposure to French ideas of an autonomous womanhood. Instead, they see their increased activity as fulfilling their responsibility to the family, do not seem to consider their autonomy and competence to be the result of the liberation ideology propagated by Western women. Instead, their role is to do what men can no longer do. 160.

 
 
 

WHO IS MIGRATING?
WHERE ARE THEY GOING?
WHY MIGRATE?
THE GREAT MIGRATION – U.S. Blacks Move North
THE LARGEST MIGRATION IN THE WORLD TODAY – Mexicans Move North
IMPACT OF MIGRATION ON FAMILY LIVES

 
 
 
 

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF MIGRATION

 
 
 
The poorest in Britain
are individuals of Bangladeshi/Pakistani origin. 60 percent of them live in households with less than half the average income. And, in case there was any doubt, their children are much more likely to live in low income families than their native, white, British peers. 161.
 
 
 
16.6 percent
of the U.S.'s foreign born population in the lives below the poverty level, compared with 11.5 percent of natives. Those who were not citizens are twice as likely to be in poverty as those foreign-born who are citizens – 20.7 percent to 10 percent, respectively. And actually, those who become citizens have a slightly lower percent in poverty than the national average (11.5 percent). 162.
 
 
 
23 percent
of children in the U.S. who live with a foreign-born householder are in poverty. That's a substantially higher rate than the national average of 15 percent. 163.
 
 
 
"An acute risk"
the level of risk of poverty facing refugee and asylum-seeking children and families in the U.K. 164.
 
 
 
"In all cases [of South American migration], but more so when the migratory flow is to the economic North, remittances are part of the picture, although among the countries in South America, the economic significance of remittances is not as high as in Central America, the Caribbean and Mexico." 165.
 
 
 
Because most of the men have gone,
there are large numbers of single women in Swaziland – and their unmarried status has increased poverty levels, yet paradoxically, they "have more control of household resources and are freer to channel more resources towards health than women who live with men." 166.
 
 
 
$300 Million
Estimated remittances from abroad to relatives in Argentina during 2002. In the 1990s, Argentina had been an importer of workers from other South American countries, but then during its financial crisis, and the subsequent devaluing of its peso in 2002, the migrant workers went home – and it was the Argentines who were now migrating in search of work. 167.
 
 
 
Up 17.6 percent –
the growth in remittances in Latin America during 2002 – which is expected to continue to grow. 168.
 
 
 
10 percent
of Ecuador’s GNP is remittances from abroad. 169.
 
 
 
43.7 percent
of Lesotho’s GNP, in 1990, that was remittances from abroad. 170.
 
 
 
$2 billion
the amount of money sent home by Egyptian workers abroad as early as early as 1979. That is approximately the same amount the nation earned from earnings from cotton exports, Suez Canal transit fees, and tourism, combined. Amount in U.S. Dollars. 171.
 
 
 
12.1 percent
of Egypt’s GNP in 1984/1985, that was remittances from abroad. 172.
 
 
 
31.7 percent
of Jordan’s GNP in 1984/1985, that was remittances from abroad. 173.
 
 
 
52 percent
of Lebanon’s GNP in 1988, that was remittances from abroad. 174.
 
 
 
48 percent
of foreign residents of Finland were unemployed in 1996, when Finland was in a deep recession. The percentage varied by migrant group: for Somalis, it was 81 percent unemployment. (There are about 4,400 Somalis living in Finland.). 175.
 
 
___________________________________________________
 
 
 
1. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), pp. 11-12 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
2. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), pp. 11-12 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
3. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), pp. 11-12 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
4. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 26 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
5. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 26 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
6. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 44. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
7. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9 (Arabic language citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf See also Nazek Nosseir, "Family in the New Millennium: Major Trends Affecting Families in North Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 13. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtnosseir.pdf
8. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
9. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), pp. 10-11. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
10. Gabriel Kiely, The Situation of Families in Ireland, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), pp. 3-4 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_ireland_kiely_en.pdf
11. Christos Bagavos, The Situation of Families in Greece, 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 4 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_greece_bagavos.pdf
12. ________, "Key Facts on Conflict," Press Kit for State of the World's Children, 2005, UNICEF. Accessed at http://www.unicef.org/sowc05/english/press_facts2.html on September 18, 2005.
13. Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 32 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
14. Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 52. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
15. Gabriel Kiely, The Situation of Families in Ireland, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), pp. 3-4 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_ireland_kiely_en.pdf
16. ________, "Facts for Features: National Adoption Month," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 20, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/002683.html on August 15, 2005.
17. ________, "Facts for Features: National Adoption Month," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 20, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/002683.html on August 15, 2005.
18. ________, "Facts for Features: National Adoption Month," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (September 20, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/002683.html on August 15, 2005.
19. Jeffrey S. Passel, Randy Capps, and Michael Fix, Undocumented Immgrants: Facts and Figures, Urban Institute Immigration Studies Program, Urban Institute, Washington DC (January 12, 2004), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/1000587_undoc_immigrants_facts.pdf
20. Dimiter Philipov, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central and Eastern Europe," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 14 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtphilipov.pdf
21. According to a 1999 study. Dimiter Philipov, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central and Eastern Europe," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 13 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtphilipov.pdf
22. Nazek Nosseir, "Family in the New Millennium: Major Trends Affecting Families in North Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtnosseir.pdf
23. Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 51. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
24. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p.10. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
25. Kwang-Kyu Lee, "South Korean Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 167-176 (2005), p. 169. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
26. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
27. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 9. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
28. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 9. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
29. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 4. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
30. _________, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision, Highlights, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations (February 24, 2005), p. xi. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/WPP2004/2004Highlights_finalrevised.pdf
31. Compare Luke J. Larsen, Foreign Born Population in the United States: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-551. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 1 Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-551.pdf, Marc J. Perry and Jason P. Schachter, Migration of Natives and the Foreign Born, Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-11.pdf and A. Dianne Schmidley and Campbell Gibson, Profile of the Foreign-Born Population in the United States: 1997, U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, Series P23-195, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1999) pp. 8-9. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/99pubs/p23-195.pdf
32. Luke J. Larsen, Foreign Born Population in the United States: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-551. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 1-2 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-551.pdf
33. Marc J. Perry and Jason P. Schachter, Migration of Natives and the Foreign Born, Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), pp. 2-4. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-11.pdf and Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), pp. 6-7. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
34. ________, The State of the Nation’s Housing, 2004, Report by the Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University (2004), p. 11. Accessed at: http://www.jchs.harvard.edu/publications/markets/son2004.pdf on August 15, 2005.
35. Marc J. Perry and Jason P. Schachter, Migration of Natives and the Foreign Born, Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-11.pdf
36. As of 2000. Marc J. Perry and Jason P. Schachter, Migration of Natives and the Foreign Born, Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-11.pdf
37. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
38. Jeffrey S. Passel, Randy Capps, and Michael Fix, Undocumented Immgrants: Facts and Figures, Urban Institute Immigration Studies Program, Urban Institute, Washington DC (January 12, 2004), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/1000587_undoc_immigrants_facts.pdf
39. Randolph Capps and Michael E. Fix, Undocumented Immigrants: Myths and Reality, Urban Institute, Washington, DC (November 1, 2005). Archived at: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=900898
40. Jeffrey S. Passel, Randy Capps, and Michael Fix, Undocumented Immgrants: Facts and Figures, Urban Institute Immigration Studies Program, Urban Institute, Washington DC (January 12, 2004), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/1000587_undoc_immigrants_facts.pdf
41. Marc J. Perry and Jason P. Schachter, Migration of Natives and the Foreign Born, Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-11.pdf
42. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
43. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
44. Terrance J. Reeves and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Asians in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-17. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-17.pdf
45. Terrance J. Reeves and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Asians in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-17. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-17.pdf
46. Terrance J. Reeves and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Asians in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-17. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-17.pdf
47. Philip M. Harris and Nicholas A. Jones, "We the People: Pacific Islanders in the United States," Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-26. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov./prod/2005pubs/censr-26.pdf
48. Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 50. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
49. Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 56. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
50. Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 56. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
51. Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 50. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
52. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), pp. 6-7. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
53. Dimiter Philipov, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central and Eastern Europe," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 13. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtphilipov.pdf
54. Gabriel Kiely, The Situation of Families in Ireland, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_ireland_kiely_en.pdf and personal observations from Ashley Merryman.
55. Christos Bagavos, "Families in Greece: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 9. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Greece.pdf See also Christos Bagavos, The Situation of Families in Greece, 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), pp. 3-4. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_greece_bagavos.pdf
56. Christos Bagavos, "Families in Greece: Policies, Challenges and Opportunities," General Monitoring Report, 2004, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004), p. 9. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_04_Greece.pdf See also Christos Bagavos, The Situation of Families in Greece, 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), pp. 3-4. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_greece_bagavos.pdf
57. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 19. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
58. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), pp. 8-9. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
59. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 8. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
60. As of 2001. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 67. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
61. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9 (Arabic language citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
62. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
63. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
64. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 5. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
65. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9 (Arabic language citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
66. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
67. Walter Bien, The Situation of Families in Germany, 2000-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_germany_bien_en.pdf
68. Cecilia L.W. Chan, "How the Socio-cultural Context Shapes Women's Divorce Experience in Hong Kong," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302752
69. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 9. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
70. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 19 (emphasis added). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
71. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 19 (emphasis added). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
72. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, Chapter Eight, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 225. Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
73. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, Chapter Eight, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 225. Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
74. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 14 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
75. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) pp. 18-19. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
76. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 4. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
77. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 10 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
78. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 7 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf See also Dimiter Philipov, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central and Eastern Europe," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 12 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtphilipov.pdf
79. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 19. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
80. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 7 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
81. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 6. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
82. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 7 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
83. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 6. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
84. Dimiter Philipov, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central and Eastern Europe," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtphilipov.pdf
85. Cecilia L.W. Chan, "How the Socio-cultural Context Shapes Women's Divorce Experience in Hong Kong," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302752 and Yu-Hua Chen and Chin-Chin Yi, "Taiwan's Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 177-198 (2005), p. 193. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
86. Dimiter Philipov, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central and Eastern Europe," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtphilipov.pdf
87. See Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 25. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
88. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
89. James N. Gregory, "Southernizing the American Working Class: Post-War Episodes of Regional and Class Tranformation," Labor History (May 1998). Available at: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0348/is_n2_v39/ai_20951172
90. New York Public Library and Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, "The Great Migration," "The Diaspora," The New York Public Library African American Desk Reference, . New York, New York, J. Wiley & Sons (1999) p. 101. Available at: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0471239240/104-4683855-3160754?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance and Carlo Rotello, "Migration, Industrialization, and the City," African Americans in the Modern Era, The African American Years: Chronologies of American History and Experience, Gabriel Burns Stepto, ed. Scribner, New York, New York (2003), p. 316. Available at: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0684312573/104-4683855-3160754?v=glance&n=283155&s=books&v=glance and Robert L. Boyd, "Demographic Change and Entrepreneurial Occupation: African Americans in Northern Cities, The American Journal of Economics and Sociology (April 1996). Available at: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0254/is_n2_v55/ai_18262049
91. New York Public Library and Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, "The Great Migration," "The Diaspora," The New York Public Library African American Desk Reference, . New York, New York, J. Wiley & Sons (1999) p. 101. Available at: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0471239240/104-4683855-3160754?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance and Carlo Rotello, "Migration, Industrialization, and the City," African Americans in the Modern Era, The African American Years: Chronologies of American History and Experience, Gabriel Burns Stepto, ed. Scribner, New York, New York (2003), p. 316. Available at: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0684312573/104-4683855-3160754?v=glance&n=283155&s=books&v=glance and Robert L. Boyd, "Demographic Change and Entrepreneurial Occupation: African Americans in Northern Cities, The American Journal of Economics and Sociology (April 1996). Available at: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0254/is_n2_v55/ai_18262049
92. _______. "Migration," The African-American Mosaic: A Library of Congress Resource Guide for the Study of Black History & Culture, Debra Newman Ham, ed. Library of Congress Exhibition (July 2005). Accessed at: http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afam008.html on October 11, 2005, and New York Public Library and Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, "The Great Migration," "The Diaspora," The New York Public Library African American Desk Reference, . New York, New York, J. Wiley & Sons (1999) p. 101. Available at: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0471239240/104-4683855-3160754?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
93. New York Public Library and Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, "The Great Migration," "The Diaspora," The New York Public Library African American Desk Reference, . New York, New York, J. Wiley & Sons (1999) p. 101. Available at: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0471239240/104-4683855-3160754?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
94. New York Public Library and Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, "The Great Migration," "The Diaspora," The New York Public Library African American Desk Reference, . New York, New York, J. Wiley & Sons (1999) p. 101. Available at: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0471239240/104-4683855-3160754?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846&s=books&v=glance
95. Anne Meis Knupfer, Toward A Tenderer Humanity and Nobler Womanhood: African American Women's Women's Clubs in Turn-of-the-Century Chicago, New York University Press, New York, New York (1996).
96. Michael Flug, "Introduction," Chicago Renaissance: 1932-1950, A Flowering of Afro-American Culture, Chicago Public Library Digital Collections (April 2000). Accessed at: http://www.chipublib.org/digital/chiren/introduction.html on October 11, 2005. Anne Meis Knupfer, Toward A Tenderer Humanity and Nobler Womanhood: African American Women's Women's Clubs in Turn-of-the-Century Chicago, New York University Press, New York, New York (1996), p. 40.
97. Carlo Rotello, "Migration, Industrialization, and the City," African Americans in the Modern Era, The African American Years: Chronologies of American History and Experience, Gabriel Burns Stepto, ed. Scribner, New York, New York (2003), p. 316. Available at: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0684312573/104-4683855-3160754?v=glance&n=283155&s=books&v=glance
98. Anne Meis Knupfer, Toward A Tenderer Humanity and Nobler Womanhood: African American Women's Women's Clubs in Turn-of-the-Century Chicago, New York University Press, New York, New York (1996), p. 30, 40.
99. Michael Flug, "Introduction," Chicago Renaissance: 1932-1950, A Flowering of Afro-American Culture, Chicago Public Library Digital Collections (April 2000). Accessed at: http://www.chipublib.org/digital/chiren/introduction.html on October 11, 2005.
100. John Lowney, "'A Material Collapse that is Construction,' History and Counter-Memory in Gwendolyn Brooks's In the Mecca," Melus (Fall 1998) note 3 (citation omitted). Available at: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2278/is_3_23/ai_54925291
101. John Lowney, "'A Material Collapse that is Construction,' History and Counter-Memory in Gwendolyn Brooks's In the Mecca," Melus (Fall 1998) note 3 (citation omitted). Available at: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2278/is_3_23/ai_54925291
102. John J. Grabowski, "Immigration and Migration," Encyclopedia of Cleveland History, John J. Grabowski and David D. Tassel, eds, Case Western University. Accessed at: http://ech.cwru.edu/ech-cgi/article.pl?id=IAM on October 11, 2005.
103. John J. Grabowski, "Immigration and Migration," Encyclopedia of Cleveland History, John J. Grabowski and David D. Tassel, eds, Case Western University. Accessed at: http://ech.cwru.edu/ech-cgi/article.pl?id=IAM on October 11, 2005.
104. John J. Grabowski, "Immigration and Migration," Encyclopedia of Cleveland History, John J. Grabowski and David D. Tassel, eds, Case Western University. Accessed at: http://ech.cwru.edu/ech-cgi/article.pl?id=IAM on October 11, 2005.
105. Emilio A. Parrado, "International Migration and Men's Marriage in Western Mexico," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 35, 1, p. 51 (Winter 2004), p. 51. Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:113302753
106. Emilio A. Parrado, "International Migration and Men's Marriage in Western Mexico," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 35, 1, p. 51 (Winter 2004), p. 51. Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:113302753
107. Roberto R. Ramirez, , We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 1, 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
108. Godfrey St. Bernard, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central America and the Caribbean," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 23, 2003), p. 13. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbernard.pdf and Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbtables.pdf
109. Emilio A. Parrado, "International Migration and Men's Marriage in Western Mexico," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 35, 1, p. 51 (Winter 2004), p. 51. Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:113302753
110. Emilio A. Parrado, "International Migration and Men's Marriage in Western Mexico," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 35, 1, p. 51 (Winter 2004), p. 51. Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:113302753
111. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
112. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
113. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
114. Amount in U.S. Dollars. Godfrey St. Bernard, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central America and the Caribbean," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 23, 2003), p. 13. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbernard.pdf and Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbtables.pdf
115. According to a study. Emilio A. Parrado, "International Migration and Men's Marriage in Western Mexico," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 35, 1, p. 51 (Winter 2004), p. 64. Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:113302753
116. Amount in U.S. Dollars, according to a study. Emilio A. Parrado, "International Migration and Men's Marriage in Western Mexico," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 35, 1, p. 51 (Winter 2004), p. 64. Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:113302753
117. Emilio A. Parrado, "International Migration and Men's Marriage in Western Mexico," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 35, 1, p. 51 (Winter 2004), p. 51. Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:113302753
118. Amount in U.S. Dollars, according to a study. Emilio A. Parrado, "International Migration and Men's Marriage in Western Mexico," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 35, 1, p. 51 (Winter 2004), p. 64. Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:113302753
119. Emilio A. Parrado, "International Migration and Men's Marriage in Western Mexico," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 35, 1, p. 51 (Winter 2004), p. 65. Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:113302753
120. Emilio A. Parrado, "International Migration and Men's Marriage in Western Mexico," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 35, 1, p. 51 (Winter 2004), p. 52. Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:113302753
121. Emilio A. Parrado, "International Migration and Men's Marriage in Western Mexico," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 35, 1, p. 51 (Winter 2004), pp. 66-67. Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:113302753
122. Emilio A. Parrado, "International Migration and Men's Marriage in Western Mexico," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 35, 1, p. 51 (Winter 2004), p. 63. Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:113302753
123. Emilio A. Parrado, "International Migration and Men's Marriage in Western Mexico," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 35, 1, p. 51 (Winter 2004), p. 63. Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:113302753
124. Jeffrey S. Passel, Randy Capps, and Michael Fix, Undocumented Immgrants: Facts and Figures, Urban Institute Immigration Studies Program, Urban Institute, Washington DC (January 12, 2004). Archived at: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/1000587_undoc_immigrants_facts.pdf
125. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 11. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
126. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9 (Arabic language citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf See also Nazek Nosseir, "Family in the New Millennium: Major Trends Affecting Families in North Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtnosseir.pdf
127. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 13. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
128. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 12 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
129. Cecilia L.W. Chan, "How the Socio-cultural Context Shapes Women's Divorce Experience in Hong Kong," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302752; Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 12-13. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf and Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), pp. 10, 25. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
130. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), pp. 9-10. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
131. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 12-13. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
132. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), pp. 10, 25. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
133. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), pp. 9-10, 25. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
134. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 12-13 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
135. Nazek Nosseir, "Family in the New Millennium: Major Trends Affecting Families in North Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtnosseir.pdf
136. Nazek Nosseir, "Family in the New Millennium: Major Trends Affecting Families in North Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 14-15 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtnosseir.pdf
137. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), pp. 10-11. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
138. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), pp. 10-11. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf and Nazek Nosseir, "Family in the New Millennium: Major Trends Affecting Families in North Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtnosseir.pdf and Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 22 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
139. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 17 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 50. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
140. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 17 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 50. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
141. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 17 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 50. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
142. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 22 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
143. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 17 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 50. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
144. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 21 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf and Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 24 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
145. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 20. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
146. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 23 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
147. Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 52. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
148. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 21 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf See also Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 24 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
149. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 24 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
150. Luke J. Larsen, Foreign Born Population in the United States: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-551. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 4 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-551.pdf
151. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 17. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf and Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 50. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
152. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 27 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
153. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 28. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
154. See Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 19 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf; Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf; relating to language acquisition of emigrants in the U.S. and their educational attainment, see Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf and A. Dianne Schmidley and Campbell Gibson, Profile of the Foreign-Born Population in the United States: 1997, U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, Series P23-195, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1999). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/99pubs/p23-195.pdf and personal observations of Ashley Merryman.
155. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 14-16. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
156. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 14-16. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
157. See Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 50. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf and Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 20. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
158. Johannes Pflegerl, "Family and Migration. Research Developments in Europe: A General Overview," Working Paper (February 1, 2002), p. 27 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/wp21_migration.pdf
159. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 8 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
160. As of 2002. Luke J. Larsen, Foreign Born Population in the United States: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-551. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-551.pdf
161. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 14-16. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
162. According to a study. There is actually little official study of this issue.Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 8 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
163. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) pp. 17-18. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
164. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 12 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
165. Amount in U.S. Dollars, according to a study. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 18 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
166. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) pp. 17-18 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
167. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) pp. 17-18. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
168. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
169. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9 (Arabic language citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
170. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9 (Arabic language citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
171. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9 (Arabic language citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
172. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9 (Arabic language citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
173. Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 55. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
174. Johannes Pflegerl, Synthesis, Immigration and Family Annual Seminar 2002, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on the Social Situation, Demography and Family Helsinki, Finland, p. 50 et seq. (2002), p. 51. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/helsinki_synthesis02_en_de.pdf
175. Luke J. Larsen, Foreign Born Population in the United States: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-551. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 4 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-551.pdf