Delaying Marriage
 
Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 18
 
TOPICS COVERED: In the U.S., we hear how everyone is getting married later and later. Usually, this is seen as a crisis - as if the social fabric will come apart without a steady pace of marriage. As one author wrote in "Break-up of the Family": “Late marriages [are] one of the most potent causes of the break-up of the family, for now women are no longer caught and rushed young; they are no longer burdened matrons at thirty. . . Now men prefer women of twenty-seven or twenty-eight, forsake the bachfisch for her mother, because the mother has personality, experience, can stimulate, amuse, and accompany. Only the older and more formed woman is no longer willing to enter the family as a jail; she will enter it only as a hotel.”* But that article was written over 90 years ago – in 1916!

Those who've read Why Do I Love These People already know the statistical truth: we might delay marriage, but we're still ultimately getting hitched. (Over 90 percent of people will marry at some point in their lives).

So is the delay of marriage a bad thing, or a good thing? It helps to know that it's not a new thing, and it's not merely an American phenomenon. Not even close. It's true all over the world. And when you put it in that context, it might have less to do with "expecting too much in marriage" and more to do with job availability and the increasing value on getting a complete education. The average age of marriage has always fluctuated in response to whatever is going on in society (including wars). Consider also that getting married young increases the chance of getting divorced (statistically). Fifty years ago, the United States went through a boom in young marriages, followed by a boom in babies, followed by . . . a boom in divorces. Coincidence?
 
MEMOS ON RELATED INFORMATION: Marriage Part One (for societal and historical perceptions of marriage and non-marriage), Marriage Part Two (for demographic information, including probability of marrying), Unmarried Partners (including information on probability of unmarried couples transitioning into marriage), What Makes You a Grown-up? (for how marriage relates to the process of becoming an adult), Moving Back Home, Birth Rate / Fertility / Family Size
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 

PAGE INDEX:

 

TIMING OF MARRIAGE – NORTH AMERICA

TIMING OF MARRIAGE – EUROPE

TIMING OF MARRIAGE – ASIA

TIMING OF MARRIAGE – ARABIA / AFRICA

 
 
 
 

TIMING OF MARRIAGE – NORTH AMERICA

 
 
 
27.1
The 2003 median age for a U.S. male’s first marriage. 1.
 
 
 
25.3
The 2003 median age for a U.S. female’s first marriage. 2.
 
 
 
The Northeast
Men and women who live in the Northeast marry significantly later than those in the rest of the United States. 3.
 
 
 
The Northeast
Men and women who live in the Northeast marry significantly later than those in the rest of the United States. 4.
 
 
 
U.S. Census analysis has shown that the states with higher percentages of unmarried couples also usually have higher ages at first marriage. But is it that they are living together, because they aren't getting married, or are they not getting married because they're living together? 5.
 
 
 
Washington, DC
The District of Columbia's age at first marriage is the highest in the U.S.: 30.1 for men and 29.9 for women. D.C. also has the nation's highest percentage of its population with a Bachelor's Degree or higher – 47.5 percent. And it has one of the higher percentage of unmarried couple households. 6.
 
 
 
 



In our chart at the right, the y-axis represents the U.S. median age at first marriage, the x-axis being the years 1890 (on the far left) to 2003 (to the right).



In 1890, the median age for a woman's first marriage was just 22.0 for women and 26.1 for men.



For almost a century, marriage ages were lower than they were in 1890.


It wasn't until 1979 that women were consistently getting married at an age higher than that of 1890 levels.

And it wasn't until 1989 that the men were getting married at the same age as those who got married in 1890. 7.

 
 
“Millions of men and women had been forced to postpone marrying during the hard times of the 1930s and the austerity and separation brought about by the war. It was not surprising, then, that they married in record numbers in the late 1940s and . . . the birth rate soon rose dramatically. What was surprising was that years after this pent-up demand for marriage and children should have been satisfied, the birth and marriage rates remained high.” 8.
 
 
 
According to an 1948 article in Science News-Letter, Met Life Insurance Company had predicted that there would not be much of a war boom in marriages during the Korean War, because there simply were "not very many spinsters and bachelors left in the country." More than 2/3 of the population age 15 and over was already married. "The number of married people in the United States, estimated at almost 75 million, is now at an all time high." 9.
 
 
 
Also in 1948, an essayist wrote in Parents' Magazine: “Not only do more of our young people marry– they marry much earlier than anywhere else in the western world. Half of our men are married before they are 24 years old, and half of our women before they are 22. Over three-fourths of our men and women are married by the time they are 30 years old. By way of contrast, in Ireland only one-third of the 30-year-old men and just over half of the women of that age are married.” 10.
 
 
 
1956
The year U.S. women were getting married the youngest, from 1890 to 2003. In 1956, the median age for a woman's first marriage was just 20.1 years old – almost two years younger than the women's median age of marriage in 1890. 11.
 
 
 
1956 - 1959
The years U.S. men were getting married the youngest, from 1890 to 2003. From 1955 to 1959, the age hovered between 22.5 and 22.6 – about 3.5 years younger than the men in 1890. 12.
 
 
 
Almost half
According to 1956 Census estimates, of the women in the U.S. who would get married at some point in their lives, almost half of them would have been married before they were 20. 13.
 
 
 
And it was actually the 1960s when couples got married at the youngest –
On average, couples in the U.S. got married earlier in 1960 than they did in 1950. 14.
 
 
 
In 1961, Science News Letter reported, “Brides and Bridegrooms in the United States are younger and closer in age at first marriage than those in any other urban-industrialized country in the world. . . . Men are now marrying about three years earlier and women two years earlier than at the turn of this century. The 1890 census showed that half the bridegrooms were under 26 and half the brides were under 22. The U.S. has one of the highest marriage rates among Western industrial nations . . . .” 15.
 
 
 
“It is the fathers of the baby boomers, the men born between the early 1920s and World War II, whose behavior is problematic. To say that in the 1970s and 1980s men were ‘postponing’ marriage is justifiable only if the unusual decade of the 1950s is chosen as the frame of reference.” – sociologist Andrew Cherlin. 16.
 
 
 
"Ring by spring or your money back" –
“. . . getting married within weeks of graduation was a symbol of success for many college-educated women in the 1950s and early 1960s. . . in a generation in which half of all women married before age 21.” 17.
 
 
 
More than 30 percent
of American women graduating from 1900-1919 who were unmarried by 50, a rate four times that for women who had not attended college. Men had about the same marriage rate, whether or not they had attended college. 18.
 
 
 
More than 30 percent
of American women graduating college from 1900-1919 were unmarried by 50, a rate four times that for women who had not attended college. Men had about the same marriage rate, whether or not they had attended college. 19.
 
 
 
15-20 percent
of American women graduating from college in 1920-1945 were unmarried by 50. 20.
 
 
 
Eight percent
of American women graduating from college in 1946-1965 were unmarried by 50. 21.
 
 
 
12 percent
of American women graduating from college in 1966-1979 were unmarried by 50. 22.
 
 
 
 
 
36 percent
of U.S. women in 1970, ages 20 to 24 who had not married. 12 percent of women 25 to 29 had not married. 23.
 
 
 
69 percent
of U.S. women ages 20-24 in 2000 who had not married. 38 percent of women 25-29 still had not married. 24.
 
 
 
22 percent
of U.S. women 30 to 34 were never married in 2000. That is also about triple the percent of never-married women in that age group in 1970. 25.
 
 
 
“Since World War II, then, a historical difference between blacks and whites in marriage timing has been turned on its head: blacks used to marry earlier than whites, but now they marry later.” 26.
 
 
 
“In the nineteenth century. . . and throughout the first half of the twentieth century, blacks tended to marry at a younger age than did whites. Between 1940 and 1950, however, the average age at which whites married began to decrease, and by mid-century there was little difference between the two groups.” Then, the percentage of single white women kept falling, since they kept getting married earlier and earlier. But for nonwhites, the percentage of nonwhite women who were single began to rise, and has continued to rise ever since. 27.
 
 
 
23
according to a study, the median age for men in Mexico who migrate to the U.S., which is a year earlier than the median age for non-migrating men. 75 percent of migrating men are married by 27, which is almost two years earlier than non-migrating men. And only five percent of migrating men don’t marry, compared to 11 percent of non-migrating men. 28.
 
 
 
24
the median age at marriage for men in Mexico, which "has remained virtually unchanged . . . since the early 1940s. The stability in marriage reflects both the central economic role the family plays in providing individuals with a network of support and exchange in a context of heightened economic insecurity and the prevalent societal ideology that portrays marriage as an important social objective." 29.
 
 
 
In Mexico, early marriage can threaten completion of job training or experimentation, and educational attainment – the primary mechanism for upward mobility. 30.
 
 
 
 
In Mexico, women’s employment doesn't delay marriage; instead, their income allows men to get married earlier, because they don't have to earn as much before getting married. 31.
 
 
 
“Ahora sí te puedes casar.”
(trans: Now, you can get married.) Expression/cliché in some Mexican and El Salvadorian communities (abroad and in the U.S.), said to girls – beginning around age 13 – and single women, used when she successfully completes a domestic task such as cooking dinner. Depending on the family and the the target of the expression, it can be meant as a compliment or joke. In the U.S., the more Americanized the family, the less likely they are to be familiar with the expression. 32.
 
 
 
 

TIMING OF MARRIAGE – NORTH AMERICA
TIMING OF MARRIAGE – ASIA
TIMING OF MARRIAGE – ARABIA / AFRICA

 
 
 

TIMING OF MARRIAGE – EUROPE

 
 
 
 
28 years
The average age at first marriage for women under the age of 50 in Western Europe in 2000. 33.
 
 
 
27-28 years for men, 25-26 years for women
The average age at first marriage in Western Europe in the 17th Century. 34.
 
 
 
25-27 years old
The average for marriage in the Netherlands in the 1500s-1600s. 35.
 
 
 
22-23 years old
The mean age at first marriage in Central and Eastern Europe in the 1980s. 36.
 
 
 
About 24 years old
The mean age at first marriage in Central and Eastern Europe in 2000. 37.
 
 
 
Moldova and Azerbaijan –
The only two countries of Central and Eastern Europe where the the mean age at first marriage decreased from 1990 to 2000. 38.
 
 
 
Everywhere else –
In all but Moldova and Azerbaijan, the mean age at first marriage in Central and Eastern Europe increased from 1990 to 2000. The age went up as much as three years in a number of these countries. 39.
 
 
 
In North America and in Western Europe, "First marriage continued to be postponed and so did age at first birth. More young people left the parental home to live some time on their own before cohabiting or marrying. This resulted in an increasing number of single person households of young adults." 40.
 
 
 
"In Spain, for example, the substantial increase since 1977 in the age at which children leave their parental households has been strictly paralleled by the increase in the age at marriage, with both indicators situated today at extremely high levels. In the United States, England, Denmark, and the Netherlands, on the contrary, leaving home long before marriage has tended to be normative behavior." 41.
 
 
 
casada casa quiere
(trans: "the bride (or groom) demands a home."): "In societies of Mediterranean Europe, . . . marriage does not even enter the picture unless it is accompanied by the corresponding emancipation from the parental home and the formation of a new household. This entire process is aptly crystallized in the traditional Spanish aphorism casada casa quiere - "the bride (or groom) demands a home." . . . . In fact, an excellent indicator of the labor market and unquestionably the best one for the rate of family formation in southern Europe would be the incidence of first marriages among young adults. 42.
 
 
 
Too early to tell –
In post-Communist society, Czech men and women have been marrying much later than during the Communist era. In 1990, almost 30 percent of brides there were under the age of 20. Now less than six percent are that young. So the marriage rates have been falling. But it's too early to tell if these young people are waiting for marriage, or won't get married at all. 43.
 
 
 
 

TIMING OF MARRIAGE – NORTH AMERICA
TIMING OF MARRIAGE – EUROPE
TIMING OF MARRIAGE – ARABIA / AFRICA

 
 
 

TIMING OF MARRIAGE – ASIA / PACIFIC RIM

 
 
 
In Asia, it doesn't appear to be that people are choosing to remain permanently single. Instead, they are just delaying marriage. Men are typically perceived as being the breadwinners in the families, and they appear to be responding to this pressure by securing their financial situation – by finishing their educations, completing job training, finding secure jobs – before getting married. And all that is keeping them busy until their mid-thirties. Women, on the other hand, are traditionally thought of, first and foremost, as being responsible for the home and children. And they seem to be holding off marriage because they want a period where they can enjoy employment – before fulfilling the personal and social – but more constrained – goal of marriage. But by 30 and later, the majority of men and women are married. 44.
 
 
 
9.9 percent
of Japanese men aged 30 to 34 were unmarried in 1960. 45.
 
 
 
42.9 percent
of Japanese men aged 30 to 34 were unmarried in 2000. 46.
 
 
 
18.57 –
of average age of a first marriage for a Chinese woman in 1949. 47.
 
 
 
24.02 years –
average age of a first marriage for a Chinese woman in 1996. 48.
 
 
 
27
Mean age of at marriage for a Japanese woman at the end of the 20th Century. 49.
 
 
 
30
Mean age of at marriage for a Japanese man at the end of the 20th Century. 50.
 
 
 
18.5 years old
the mean age at first marriage for women in Sri Lanka in 1901. 51.
 
 
 
24.4 years old
the mean age at first marriage for women in Sri Lanka in 1981. 52.
 
 
 
0.8 percent
of Taiwanese women in their 30s who had never married in 1905. 53.
 
 
 
11.6 percent
of Taiwanese women in their 30s who had never married in 2000. 54.
 
 
 
0.5 percent
of women aged 30 to 34 in South Korea were not married in 1960. 55.
 
 
 
10.7 percent
of women aged 30 to 34 in South Korea were not married in 2000. That's a more than a twenty-fold increase in just 30 years. 56.
 
 
4.6 percent
of women aged 20 to 44 in South Korea were not married in 1970. 57.
 
 
 
18.5 percent
of women aged 20 to 44 in South Korea were not married in 1970. 58.
 
 
 
21.0 years
The median age for a woman's first marriage in Australia, in 1974. 59.
 
 
 
26.0 years
The median age for a woman's first marriage in Australia, in 1998. 60.
 
 
 
23.5 years
The median age for a man's first marriage in Australia, in 1974. 61.
 
 
 
28.0 years
The median age for a woman's first marriage in Australia, in 1998. 62.
 
 
 
In East and Southeast Asia, the mean age at first marriage increases with economic development, even if different tests are used (i.e. use of electric power, GDP per capita). 63.
 
 
 
 

TIMING OF MARRIAGE – NORTH AMERICA
TIMING OF MARRIAGE – EUROPE
TIMING OF MARRIAGE – ASIA

 
 
 

TIMING OF MARRIAGE – ARABIC NATIONS / AFRICA

 
 
 
 
"A new phenomenon of remaining unmarried is appearing in Gulf societies; however remaining single is not restricted to females, it involves males as well. The decision to remain single is not because women can’t find husbands or men can’t afford to marry. It reflects a desire to delay the “marriage project” by males or females until they realize their personal aspirations, such as obtaining the highest levels of education or mastering a certain profession or occupation. Some people may even be too busy with other activities that result in delaying marriage. Gulf societies are suffering from a “spinsterhood crisis”, especially among well-educated middle class people, and among those who occupy highranking jobs. Such persons, especially females, are often very busy in realizing their aspirations that they delay marriage." 64.
 
 
 
Many men in Lesotho are marrying late, waiting until they are at least 30 years old, because they can't afford the bride wealth when they are younger. 65.
 
 
 
Six years later
In urban Nigeria, average age at marriage for women with advanced education is six years higher than that for women without any education (23.8 and 17.4, respectively). 66.
 
 
 
95-100 percent
of men and women in North Africa / Arab societies who are 45 years old and older have been married. 67.
 
 
 
25 years old
The average singulate mean age at marriage for women in Jordan, Bahrain and Tunisia. 68.
 
 
 
17 years old
The average age at marriage for a woman in Saudi Arabia. 69.
 
 
 
20.1 years old
The average age at marriage for a woman in Kuwait. 70.
 
 
 
Five percent
of women in Kuwait were still single by the age of 29 in 1965. 71.
 
 
 
23 percent
of women in Kuwait were still single by the age of 29 in 2000. 72.
 
 
 
_____________________________________________________________________________
* Walter Lionel George, “The Break-up of the Family,” Harper’s Monthly Magazine, pp. 249-59 (July 1916), p. 256.
1. ________, Table MS-2, "Estimated Median Age at First Marriage, by Sex: 1890 to Present," U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (Internet release: September 15, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/hh-fam/tabMS-2.pdf
2. ________, Table MS-2, "Estimated Median Age at First Marriage, by Sex: 1890 to Present," U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (Internet release: September 15, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/hh-fam/tabMS-2.pdf
3. ______, "New Analysis Offers First-Ever State-by-State Look at Links Between Marriage, Fertility and Other Socioeconomic Characteristics," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington DC (October 13, 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/american_community_survey_acs/005807.html
4. ______, "New Analysis Offers First-Ever State-by-State Look at Links Between Marriage, Fertility and Other Socioeconomic Characteristics," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington DC (October 13, 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/american_community_survey_acs/005807.html
5. ______, "New Analysis Offers First-Ever State-by-State Look at Links Between Marriage, Fertility and Other Socioeconomic Characteristics," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington DC (October 13, 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/american_community_survey_acs/005807.html
6. Tallese Johnson and Jane Dye, Tables from Indicators of Marriage and Fertility in the United States from the American Community Survey: 2000 to 2003, Population Bureau, Division U.S. Census Bureau, citing American Community Survey 2002-2003, Census Supplementary Survey 2000-2001 (May 2005) Archived at: http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/fertility/mar-fert-slides.html
7. Source of data: ________, Table MS-2, "Estimated Median Age at First Marriage, by Sex: 1890 to Present," U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (Internet release: September 15, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/hh-fam/tabMS-2.pdf See also Rose M. Kreider, Marital Status: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR-30. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 10 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/c2kbr-30.pdf and Paul C. Glick, "The Life Cycle of the Family," Marriage and Family Living, National Council on Family Relations, Vol. 17., No. 1, pp. 3-9 (February 1955), p. 4. Archived at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0885-7059%28195502%2917%3A1%3c3%3atlcotp%3e2.0.co%3b2-q
8. Andrew J. Cherlin, Marriage, Divorce, Remarriage, Revised and Enlarged Ed., Harvard University Press, USA (1992), p. 34. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/067455082X/ref=sib_rdr_dp/104-0887680-4192712?%5Fencoding=UTF8&no=283155&me=ATVPDKIKX0DER&st=books
9. TK Science News-Letter, p. 121 (Aug. 19, 1950)
10. Louis I. Dublin, “Look at the Bright Side of Marriage: Some Facts and Figures Concerning American Family Life,” Parents' Magazine, Vol. 23, pp. 11, 68-70 (December 1948), p. 22.
11. ________, Table MS-2, "Estimated Median Age at First Marriage, by Sex: 1890 to Present," U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (Internet release: September 15, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/hh-fam/tabMS-2.pdf See also Rose M. Kreider, Marital Status: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR-30. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 10 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/c2kbr-30.pdf
12. ________, Table MS-2, "Estimated Median Age at First Marriage, by Sex: 1890 to Present," U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (Internet release: September 15, 2004). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/hh-fam/tabMS-2.pdf
13. Andrew J. Cherlin, Marriage, Divorce, Remarriage, Revised and Enlarged Ed., Harvard University Press, USA (1992), p. 34. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/067455082X/ref=sib_rdr_dp/104-0887680-4192712?%5Fencoding=UTF8&no=283155&me=ATVPDKIKX0DER&st=books
14. Rose M. Kreider, Marital Status: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR-30. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 10 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/c2kbr-30.pdf
15. ________, "Earlier U.S. Marriages," Science News-Letter, p. 383 (June 17, 1961).
16. Andrew J. Cherlin, Marriage, Divorce, Remarriage, Revised and Enlarged Ed., Harvard University Press, USA (1992), p. 10. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/067455082X/ref=sib_rdr_dp/104-0887680-4192712?%5Fencoding=UTF8&no=283155&me=ATVPDKIKX0DER&st=books
17. Andrew J. Cherlin, Marriage, Divorce, Remarriage, Revised and Enlarged Ed., Harvard University Press, USA (1992), p. 8. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/067455082X/ref=sib_rdr_dp/104-0887680-4192712?%5Fencoding=UTF8&no=283155&me=ATVPDKIKX0DER&st=books
18. Claudia Goldin, The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family, Mommies and Daddies on the Fast Track: Success of Parents in Demanding Professions, Special Issue of The Annals of the Amer. Acad. of Political and Social Science (Vol. 596) p. 23 (November 2004).
19. Claudia Goldin, "The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family," The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 596, No. 1, pp. 20-35 (November 2004), p. 23. Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4D578A32F89DF9F38829
20. Claudia Goldin, "The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family," The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 596, No. 1, pp. 20-35 (November 2004), p. 23. Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4D578A32F89DF9F38829
21. Claudia Goldin, "The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family," The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 596, No. 1, pp. 20-35 (November 2004), p. 23. Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4D578A32F89DF9F38829
22. Claudia Goldin, "The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family," The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 596, No. 1, pp. 20-35 (November 2004), p. 23. Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4D578A32F89DF9F38829
23. Reneé Spraggins, We the People: Women and Men in the United States, Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-20. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-20.pdf
24. Reneé Spraggins, We the People: Women and Men in the United States, Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-20. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-20.pdf
25. Reneé Spraggins, We the People: Women and Men in the United States, Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-20. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-20.pdf
26. Andrew J. Cherlin, Marriage, Divorce, Remarriage, Revised and Enlarged Ed., Harvard University Press, USA (1992), p. 94. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/067455082X/ref=sib_rdr_dp/104-0887680-4192712?%5Fencoding=UTF8&no=283155&me=ATVPDKIKX0DER&st=books
27. Andrew J. Cherlin, Marriage, Divorce, Remarriage, Revised and Enlarged Ed., Harvard University Press, USA (1992), p. 95 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/067455082X/ref=sib_rdr_dp/104-0887680-4192712?%5Fencoding=UTF8&no=283155&me=ATVPDKIKX0DER&st=books
28. Emilio A. Parrado, "International Migration and Men's Marriage in Western Mexico," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 35, 1, p. 51 (Winter 2004), p. 63. Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:113302753
29. Emilio A. Parrado, "International Migration and Men's Marriage in Western Mexico," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 35, 1, p. 51 (Winter 2004), p. 67. Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:113302753
30. Emilio A. Parrado, "International Migration and Men's Marriage in Western Mexico," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 35, 1, p. 51 (Winter 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:113302753
31. Emilio A. Parrado, "International Migration and Men's Marriage in Western Mexico," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 35, 1, p. 51 (Winter 2004), p. 62 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:113302753
32. Ashley Merryman, Personal interviews for Why Do I Love These People? (2005).
33. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
34. ________, "Family Structures," Encyclopedia of American Social History. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, Reproduced in the History Resource Center, Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. Archived at: http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC Document No. BT2313027032 (1993).
35. Els Kloek, Chap. 3, “Early Modern Childhood in the Dutch Context,” Beyond the Century of the Child: Cultural History and Developmental Psychology (ed. Williem Koops and Michael Zuckerman) Univ. of Penn. Press. (p. 52)(2003)(citation omitted)
36. Dimiter Philipov, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central and Eastern Europe," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtphilipov.pdf
37. Dimiter Philipov, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central and Eastern Europe," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtphilipov.pdf
38. Dimiter Philipov, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central and Eastern Europe," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtphilipov.pdf
39. Dimiter Philipov, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Central and Eastern Europe," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 3-4. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtphilipov.pdf
40. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
41. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
42. David Sven Reher, "Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts," Population and Development Review (June 1, 1998)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:21059915
43. Ivo Mozny and Tomas Katrnak, "The Czech Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 235-261 (2005), p. 239. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
44. Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
45. Gavin W. Jones, Table No. 4, "The 'Flight From Marriage' in South-East and East Asia," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 1 p. 92, et seq. (Winter 2005), p. 103.
46. Gavin W. Jones, Table No. 4, "The 'Flight From Marriage' in South-East and East Asia," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 1 p. 92, et seq. (Winter 2005), p. 103.
47. Xuewen Sheng, "Chinese Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 99-128 (2005), p. 103. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
48. Xuewen Sheng, "Chinese Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 99-128 (2005), p. 103. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
49. Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf (Compare to TK Intern’l Encyc. of Marriage and Family, p. 969, which reports the first age of marriage is 27, but of all marriages is 28.2 (includes second marriages))
50. Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf (Compare to TK Intern’l Encyc. of Marriage and Family, p. 969, which reports the first age of marriage is 27, but of all marriages is 28.2 (includes second marriages))
51. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004)(citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
52. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004)(citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
53. Yu-Hua Chen and Chin-Chin Yi, "Taiwan's Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 177-198 (2005), p. 179. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
54. Yu-Hua Chen and Chin-Chin Yi, "Taiwan's Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 177-198 (2005), p. 179. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
55. Gavin W. Jones, "The 'Flight From Marriage' in South-East and East Asia," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 1 p. 92, et seq. (Winter 2005), pp. 94-95.
56. Gavin W. Jones, "The 'Flight From Marriage' in South-East and East Asia," Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 1 p. 92, et seq. (Winter 2005), pp. 94-95.
57. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 2. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
58. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 2. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
59. Gordon A. Carmichael, "Taking Stock at the Millennium: Family Formation in Australia," Journal of Population Research (September 1, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:105657377
60. Gordon A. Carmichael, "Taking Stock at the Millennium: Family Formation in Australia," Journal of Population Research (September 1, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:105657377
61. Gordon A. Carmichael, "Taking Stock at the Millennium: Family Formation in Australia," Journal of Population Research (September 1, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:105657377
62. Gordon A. Carmichael, "Taking Stock at the Millennium: Family Formation in Australia," Journal of Population Research (September 1, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:105657377
63. Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), pp. 3-5. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
64. Yahya El-Haddad, "Major Trends Affecting Families in the Gulf Countries," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (200_), p. 7 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtelhaddad.pdf
65. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 12-13 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
66. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004)(citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
67. Nazek Nosseir, "Family in the New Millennium: Major Trends Affecting Families in North Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtnosseir.pdf
68. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
69. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
70. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
71. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
72. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525