Divorce
 
Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 16
 
TOPICS COVERED: Okay, what's not here is a page-long list of the rates of divorce around the world. Yes, we have those, and we're giving you a few of them. But the truth is that divorce rates are too easily quoted, too inaccurate, and – most importantly – too often misunderstood. (For a discussion on that, check out our Marriage/Divorce analysis page.)

What is much more interesting to us is the how, why and when divorces occur – and that is what this memo is about. In Longevity of Marriage . . . , we look at how duration of marriage effects the likelihood for divorce. In Factors for Divorcing, we list a few of the factors that increase the likelihood of divorce, as well as the reasons people have given for getting divorced. Then, finally, we've got divorce statistics for the U.S. and internationally. (And if you're still just desperate for more on divorce rates, the reports in the footnotes include them, as do tables mentioned in the Sources page).
 
MEMOS ON RELATED INFORMATION: Marriage / Divorce (analysis), Marriage Part Two (for information on marriage demographics), Domestic Violence, Family Dissolutions, Stepfamilies
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 

PAGE INDEX:

 

LONGEVITY OF MARRIAGE AND THE LIKELIHOOD OF DIVORCE
FACTORS FOR DIVORCING

DIVORCE (IN THE U.S.)

DIVORCE (INTERNATIONAL)

 
 
 

LONGEVITY OF MARRIAGE AND THE LIKELIHOOD OF DIVORCE

 
 
 
The common assumption is that longer life-spans will mean longer marriages. But, in western industrialized nations, that doesn't appear to be holding true. Instead, what is changing is the cause of the end of the marriage has changed from death to divorce. So the average length of the marriage is actually staying substantially the same. 1.
 
 
 
One-half –
a “reasonable” approximate estimate of the U.S. marriages that will end by divorce or separation before the couple's 20th wedding anniversaries. The remaining half of marriages will probably last another 40 to 50 years after that, only ending in one of the spouse's deaths. 2.
 
 
 
20 percent
The likelihood of a U.S. first marriage ending in separation or divorce is highest during the first five years of marriage – 20 percent. 3.
 
 
 
33 percent
The likelihood of a ten-year old U.S. first marriage ending in separation or divorce lowers to 33 percent. 4.
 
 
 
40th Wedding Anniversary –
Because of rising life expectancies – which balance out divorce rates – American marriages are more likely to reach a 40th wedding anniversary now than ever before in history. 5.
 
 
 
In the U.S., 91 percent of separated white women will divorce after three years of separation. By contrast, only 77 percent of Hispanic women and 67 percent of black women will file: instead, they remain separated without the divorce. 6.
 
 
 
20 percent
of all U.S. first marriages have disrupted after five years, either because of separation or divorce. After ten years, separation or divorce have disrupted one-third of all American first marriages. 7.
 
 
 
One-third
of U.S. women's first marriages have dissolved after 10 years, either because of separation or divorce. But the rates vary considerably by ethnic group. For white women, 32 percent of their marriages have ended. For black women, the rate is higher – 47 percent. For Asian women – it's considerably lower – 20 percent. 8.
 
 
 
54 percent
of U.S. divorced women remarry within five years. 75 percent of divorced women remarry within 10 years. 9.
 
 
 
15 percent
of remarriages in the U.S. end after three years. Almost a quarter end after five years. 10.
 
 
 
12 years
In Greece, among divorce couples in the late 1990s, the mean number of years how long the marriage lasted before the couple got the divorce. In 1980, the mean had been 15 years. 11.
 
 
 
About 55 percent
of divorces in 1948 were given to couples who had been married less than seven years. 12.
 
 
 
In 1950, sociologist Paul H. Jacobson wrote, "“In general, the divorce-frequency is highest in the early period of married life. In 1948, the rate was at a maximum of 26 per 1,000 couples in the third year of marriage (duration 2-3 years), dropped sharply through the 7th year, and thereafter declined less rapidly but almost steadily with each advance of matrimonial duration. But the 20th wedding anniversary, the the rate was down to 8 per 1,000. Even after the golden wedding anniversary, some marital ties were dissolved by divorce.” 13.
 
 
 

LONGEVITY OF MARRIAGE AND THE LIKELIHOOD OF DIVORCE
DIVORCE (IN THE U.S.)
DIVORCE (INTERNATIONAL)

 
 

FACTORS FOR DIVORCING

 
 
 
 
Not surprisingly, American marriages last longer if the women:
grew up in an intact two-parent family;
consider religion to play an important role in their lives;
have a high family income; and
live in a community with high median family income, low male unemployment, and low poverty. Those factors increase the duration of a cohabiting relationship as well. 14.
 

 
 
12 percentage points
The difference in percentage points that a U.S. white women's first marriage will likely dissolve if she did and did not grow up in a two-parent intact family. White women who were raised by a two-parent family have a 29-percent chance that their marriage will end after 10 years of marriage. But a white woman who was raised without an intact family has a 41-percent chance that her marriage will end in the same period. Similarly, for black women, having an intact family-background decreases the likelihood of a woman's divorce by 13 percentage points, and for Hispanic women, the intact family background decreases the likelihood of divorce by 17 percentage points. 15.
 
 
 
Kids do keep couples together –
Not that it's a reason to have kids, or stay married, but it turns out that couples with children are less likely to divorce than those without them. And for every child in a family, the likelihood that couple will divorce goes down. Which is particularly interesting because study after study show that happiness in a marriage decreases once children are born. 16.
 
 
 
More than two-fifths
of the U.S. couples who got divorces or annulments in 1948 had children – an average of 1.78 children per couple. 17.
 
 
 
In 1950, sociologist Jacobson wrote, “For couples without children, the divorce rate in 1948 was 15.3 per 1,000. Where one child was present, the estimate rate was 11.6 per 1,000. The figure thus continues to decrease, and in families with four or more children, it was 4.6. Altogether, the rate for couples with children was 8.8 per 1,000. In other words, the rate for ‘childless’ couples was almost double the rate for families with children. . . . ” 18.
 
 
 
In 1950, sociologist Jacobson wrote, “The divorce rate for parent-couples climbs to a maximum of 15 per 1,000 at duration 3-4 years, whereas the rate for couples without children reaches a peak of 44 per 1,000 one year later. the chances for divorce among the ‘childless’ couples fall off so much more rapidly after the peak . . . “ 19.
 
 
 
Because he’s a bloody pain in the arse, that’s why –
Of divorces filed in England and Wales in 2003, 69 percent of them were at the wife's behest. The most frequently cited fact for the basis of the divorce for women? Her husband's "unreasonable behavior." For those men filing for divorce, on the other hand, it was a two-year long separation that was the most frequent reason for their request for a divorce. 20.
 
 
 
Top reasons why American women said they'd gotten divorced –
communication problems (69.7 percent);
unhappiness (59.9 percent);
incompatible with spouse (56.4 percent);
emotional abuse (55.5 percent);
financial problems (32.9 percent);
sexual problems (32.1 percent);
spouse's alcohol abuse (30.0 percent);
spousal infidelity (25.2 percent); and
physical abuse (21.7 percent). 21.

 
 
Top reasons why American men said they'd gotten divorced –
communication problems (59.3 percent);
incompatible with spouse (44.7 percent);
unhappiness (46.9 percent);
emotional abuse (24.7 percent);
financial problems (28.7 percent); and
sexual problems (30.2 percent). 22.

 
 
Because more men cheat –
In a U.S. study, more than 25 percent of the women said that their husbands' unfaithfulness was a factor in their divorce. Less than half as many men (10.5 percent) said it was their wives' infidelity which was a cause of their divorce. In fact, more men said that their wives' in-laws were a reason for the divorce (11.6 percent) than said it was because their wives had had an affair. 23.
 
 
 
Apparently, those boots weren't made for walking, after all.
Women weren't walking out on men because of the Women's Movement. Actually, it was the other way around. In the divorce study – done at the height of the period (1980-1981) – only 3.0 percent of the women surveyed said that "Women's lib" was a reason they'd ended their marriage. But more than four times as many men – 14.5 percent – said that was one of the reasons they'd gotten divorced. 24.
 
 
 
14 times more likely –
Separated and divorced women are 14 times more likely than married women to report that they were victims of violence by their spouse or ex-spouse. 25.
 
 
 
22 percent of middle class divorces –
state that violence is the reason for the divorce. 26.
 
 
 
80 percent –
No, that's not a typo – studies have found that as much as 80 percent of wives suing for divorce cited that they had been physically abused by their husbands. 27.

 
 
As many as one in three –
British marriages ending in divorce involve domestic violence. 28.
 
 
 
75 percent
of women who suffer severe abuse in a marriage get divorced – more than three times the divorce rate for women who were not abused (15 percent), according to a Canadian study. 29.
 
 
 
50 percent
of divorced women are victims of abuse, according to the same Canadian study. 30.
 
 
 
In 1957, Science News Letter reported a UCLA study determined that there were eight basic factors in marital failure: “1. low self-opinion; 2. adolescence ‘hangover;’ 3. early conditioning against marriage; 4. cumulative ego strain; 5. homosexual tendency or male passivity; 6. sex dissatisfaction and projection; 7. revolt against feminity; and 8. flight into rejection.” 31.
 
 
 

LONGEVITY OF MARRIAGE AND THE LIKELIHOOD OF DIVORCE
FACTORS FOR DIVORCING
DIVORCE (INTERNATIONAL)

 
 

DIVORCE IN THE U.S.

 
 
19.8
U.S. Divorce rate in 1995. The divorce rate more than doubled from 9.2 divorces per year per 1,000 married women in 1960 to a divorce rate of 22.6 in 1980. 32.
 
 
 
4.0
U.S. Divorce rate (i.e. Rate of Divorces per 1,000 population) in 2001 based on 46 reporting States and D.C. 33.
 
 
 
34 percent
of ever-married U.S. adults have been divorced, doubling from 17 percent in 1972. 34.
 
 
 
In 1948, Newsweek reported, "Until the wartime flood of divorces over-whelmed it, Milwaukee, Wis., was the only major city in the United States whose divorce rate was declining. Last week, although the rest of the country had reason to wonder if family life in America was on its way into nostalgia to join the mustache cup and the old-fashioned sampler, Milwaukee's rate was again down." 35.
 
 
 
1974
The first year when more U.S. marriages ended in divorce, rather than in death. 36.
 
 
 
17 percent
of American adults have been married and divorced in 1972. That includes those who've not only married and divorced, but also those who have since remarried. 37.
 
 
 
34 percent
of American adults have been married and divorced, according to a 2002 estimate. That includes those who've not only married and divorced, but also those who have since remarried. 38.
 
 
 
It slowed, but not enough –
The rate of divorces slowed in the 1980s and 1990s – but it's still double what it was in 1960. 39.
 
 
 
Maybe we really can't commit –
Between 1970 and 2000, the proportion of American women who were divorced more than doubled. Bad enough. But the proportion of U.S. divorced men more than tripled in the same period of time. 40.
 
 
 
9.7 percent
of the American population 15 years and over were divorced in 2000 (21,560,308). That does not include those who have previously been divorced but were remarried – that's just those who were divorced at the time of the Census. Census didn't ask if those about remarriages. Of those divorced, 15 years and over 5.6 percent were female (12,305,294). 41.
 
 
 
Alimony is over-rated –
Spousal support awards are given in less than 15 percent of U.S. divorces. And it usually only lasts long enough until the spouse (usually woman) can obtain gainful employment or other support. This is notwithstanding the fact that lower employment / continuing familial responsibilities, etc., will permanently keep her income substantially lower than it was during the marriage – while her expenses, which she is now carrying alone, will be substantially higher. 42.
 
 
 
One million
Estimated number of children in the U.S. each year who go through their parents' divorce. And there are increasing number of children who are expected to go through more than one divorce during their childhood, as parents are increasingly remarrying ... and re-divorcing. 43.
 
 
 
Good News –
About 70 percent of divorced men and women will remarry. 44.
 
 
 
– Bad News
Remarriages are even more likely to end in divorce than first marriages are. 45.
 
 
 
19.8
out of every thousand American married women got divorced in 1995. The 1990s were a slowing of the divorce rate from the decade before: In 1980, it had reached 22.6 per 1,000 married women. But even the 1990s decrease is a dramatic rise from earlier years. In 1960, it was just 9.2 divorces per 1,000 married women. 46.
 
 
 
Eight percent
Pacific Islanders in the U.S. are divorced. 47.
 
 
 
4.2 percent
of Asians in the U.S. are divorced – seven percent of women and four percent of the men much lower than the national total of 9.7 percent. Just 2.4 percent of Asian Indians and 2.1 percent of Pakistanis in the U.S. are divorced. 48.
 
 
 
American Indians and Alaska Natives –
have the highest percentage divorced of any major ethnic or racial group in the U.S. – 11 percent for men and 14 percent for women. 49.
 
 
 
The chart on the left is from a Centers for Disease Control report, which measures the likelihood of a first marriage ending by separation or divorce for a marriage cohort (meaning the marriages within a given period of years, e.g. 1950 to 1954). 50.

 
 

LONGEVITY OF MARRIAGE AND THE LIKELIHOOD OF DIVORCE
FACTORS FOR DIVORCING
DIVORCE (IN THE U.S.)

 
 

DIVORCE (INTERNATIONAL)

 
 
 
 
2.0
E.U. Divorce rate (i.e. Rate of Divorces per 1,000 population) in 2001. 51.
 
 
 
15 percent
of Europeans married in 1960 are divorced. 52.
 
 
 
30 percent
of Europeans married in 1985 are divorced. 53.
 
 
 
Malta and the Philippines
are the only countries left in the world where divorce is still against the law.
 
 
 
Maria Victoria Torres
was the first person ever to file for divorce in Chile: she did so on November 18, 2004. 54.
 
 
 
Two-fifths
of Czech women who marry before age 20 get divorced, while only one-fifth of those who get married after the age of 30 get divorced. 55.
 
 
 
The child comes first –
In 1998, the Czech divorce law was rewritten, requiring that couples cannot obtain a divorce if it is not in the interests of the children. So they require a determination of the children's interests before the divorce proceedings begin. 56.
 
 
 
In 1949, Science News Letter reported, “England and Wales, which 35 years ago had a divorce rate only one-fiftieth of ours, now has a rate half as large as that of the U.S. In 1913, England and Wales had only 2.2 divorces for every 1,000 in the annual marriage record. ¶ At the outbreak of World War II, the ratio had increased 10 times or about 20 per 1,000. By 1946, the rate had climbed another four times to 81.0 and in 1947 divorces had climbed to 138.5 per 1,000 marriages. ¶ In Scotland, the ratio of divorces to marriages was nine times as high in 1946 as in 1910. In Canada, the rise was even sharper – from 7.2 per 1,000 in 1920 to 50.0 per 1,000 in 1948.” It was further reported that the French divorce rate in 1948 was 207.2 divorces per 1,000 average annual marriages, which was almost three times the rate in 1944, and more than double what it had been just the year before. 57.
 
 
 
1987
The year divorce became legal in Argentina. The result was not just a five-year boom in divorces, but also a growth in marriages. Experts believe that it wasn't that the new availability of divorce inspired cold-feet brides and grooms to finally set a date. Instead, it was because separated couples who had been living with a new partner now finally divorce their spouses and then marry those they were living with. 58.
 
 
 
In the European Union, the divorce rate rose from from 1.4 per 1000 inhabitants in 1980 to 1.9 in 2001. 59.
 
 
 
166,700
divorces in the U.K. in 2003. 60.
 
 
 
Doubled and Doubled Again
In the U.K., the number of divorces doubled between 1961 and 1969, and doubled again by 1972. British divorces continued to increase until 1993 – then they dropped by 12 percent in 1999 and another 5 percent in 2001. But the lower rates may not be because of lasting marriages – it may be because fewer people are getting married. 61.
 
 
 
Approximately 280,000
people in England and Wales went through a divorce in 2001. 62.
 
 
 
55,300
Number of divorces granted in Australia in 2001 – the highest number in the past 20 years. In 2002, 54,000 divorces were granted. That's a decrease of 2 percent (1,300 divorces) – and is the second highest amount in the last 20 years. 63.
 
 
 
32 percent
Probability of an Australian born in 2004 having his marriage end in divorce, if 1997-1999 rates of marriage, widowing, divorce, remarriage and mortality are applied. If 1990-1992 rates were applied, only (29 percent would divorce, while if 1985-1987 rates were used, 28 percent would divorce. 64.
 
 
 
Just over half
(51 percent) of Australian divorces in 2002 involved children under 18 years. That's a slight decrease from 53 percent from a decade earlier. At the same time, the actual number of children involved in divorce in 2002 (50,500) was down 5 percent compared with 2001 (53,400), but was an increase of 10 percent of the number effected in 1992 (45,800). 65.
 
 
 
153,5000
Number of children under 16 years in England and Wales who went through their parents' divorce in 2003. Of these, one of every five were under five years old. 66.
 
 
It's the women's fault?
In Arab culture, divorce is still thought of as negative – and usually, it's the women who are considered to be to blame for the divorce. 67.
 
 
 
"Unfortunate" –
In Kuwait, despite an increasing divorce rate, divorce still carries a stigma, and divorced women are considered unfortunate. 68.
 
 
 
6.9 percent
of divorced women In Kuwait in 2000. From 1965 to 1985, the percentage had held at 2.6 percent, but then almost tripled from 1985 to 2000. The rise in the rate is thought to be due to Western influences and women's increasing attainment of education. 69.
 
 
 
In Egypt,
a change in law which changed the requirements for a woman to file divorce resulted in a rapid increase in divorce. Of 5,000 cases filed in Egyptian courts from 2000 to 2003, most were divorce petitions. 70.
 
 
 
In Jordan,
a change in law which changed the requirements for a woman to file divorce resulted in a rapid increase in divorce – it rose 10 percent in two years (2000-2002). 71.
 
 
 
They'd rather have their freedom than money –
The change in Jordanian and Egyptian law that precipitated the increases in divorces was to grant women the right to El Khola. If women exercise this right, they must pay back their dowry and give up all the financial rights which they might have had under regular divorce law. 72.
 
 
 
“Ousting the wife”
The ancient Chinese expression for a husband's unilateral right to dissolve his marriage. There were seven reasons why a man could oust his wife – including lacking piety when she served his parents, childlessness, adultery, jealousy (over the husband's concubines or use of prostitutes), sickness, theft, and gossip. 73.
 
 
 
None –
Women of ancient China, on the other hand, had no right to end their marriages. 74.
 
 
 
It was up to the mother-in-law?
In the Chinese ancient Sui and Tang dynasties (581-960AD), if a couple decided they wanted to divorce, it was up to husband's parents if they did so. 75.
 
 
 
Still influential in Hong Kong:
Proverbs such as "a good horse would not bear two saddles, a good woman would not marry two men, and a loyal official would not serve two lords," and "a good horse will never turn around to feed on pastures behind, and a good woman will never marry again." 76.
 
 
 
“Vintage year divorce”
Japanese expression for divorces that occur after a couple has been married for decades. 77.
 
 
 
Less than 6 percent
of Japanese divorces in 1975 were by couples married over 20 years. 78.
 
 
 
17 percent
of Japanese divorces in the 1990s were by couples married over 20 years. 79.
 
 
 
289,838
Japanese couples divorced in 2002 – a record as of 2004. 80.
 
 
 
Ten years ago,
notwithstanding a fairly uncomplicated legal procedure, divorce in Japan was such a source of shame that it could end a man's career. 81.
 
 
 
Five years or less
The length of marriage comprising the biggest ratio of Japanese divorces, about 34 percent. These divorces were mostly between couples in their 20s and 30s. 82.
 
 
 
Honey, we have to talk –
Japanese women initiated divorces more than 2.5 times more than husbands did. 83.
 
 
 
93 percent
of Japanese divorced women surveyed had no regrets about their divorce. 84.
 
 
 
More divorced women –
At every age, there are more divorced women than divorced men in all East and Southeast Asian countries. 85.
 
 
 
Why there are less divorced men –
In East and Southeast Asia, divorced men appear to more likely to remarry soon after a divorce – or, in countries allowing polygamy, it could be that they may still be married to another wife. 86.
 
 
 
Why there are more divorced women –
it may be more difficult for a divorced woman in East and Southeast Asia to remarry for various reasons ranging from the practical ones – such as a role as custodian parent – to custom – the continuing negative view of divorced women. 87.
 
 
 
One out of ten
women in Kazakhstan in age 45-49 is divorced. Divorce is on the rise in Central Asian nations as well. 88.
 
 
 
Nonexistent –
Divorce in Nepal. 89.
 
 
 
Divorce isn't increasing in South Asia, as it is in Central Asia –
a chief reason being religion. In Central Asia, there are more Muslims, who see marriage as a contractual relationship between people. In South Asia, on the other hand, a higher Hindu population believes that marriage is a religious sacrament, and thus eternal. 90.
 
____________________________________________________
 
 
1. William M. Pinsof, "The Death of 'Til Death Us Do Part,': The Transformation of Pair-Bonding in the 20th Century," Family Process (June 22, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:90301620
2. William M. Pinsof, "The Death of 'Til Death Us Do Part,': The Transformation of Pair-Bonding in the 20th Century," Family Process (June 22, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:90301620
3. Sandra S. Smith, "NCHS Dataline," Public Health Reports (March 1, 2002)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:94042640
4. Sandra S. Smith, "NCHS Dataline," Public Health Reports (March 1, 2002)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:94042640
5. Stephanie Coontz, "The American Family and The Nostalgia Trap," Phi Delta Kappan (March 1, 1995). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:16765761
6. Sandra S.Smith, "NCHS Dataline," Public Health Reports (March 1, 2002)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:94042640
7. MD Bramlett and WD Mosher, Cohabitation, Marriage, Divorce, and Remarriage in the United States. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 23(22) (2002), p. 17. Archived at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_23/sr23_022.pdf
8. MD Bramlett and WD Mosher, Cohabitation, Marriage, Divorce, and Remarriage in the United States. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 23(22) (2002), p. 17. Archived at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_23/sr23_022.pdf
9. MD Bramlett and WD Mosher, Cohabitation, Marriage, Divorce, and Remarriage in the United States. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 23(22) (2002), p. 22. Archived at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_23/sr23_022.pdf
10. MD Bramlett and WD Mosher, Cohabitation, Marriage, Divorce, and Remarriage in the United States. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 23(22) (2002), p. 24. Archived at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_23/sr23_022.pdf
11. Christos Bagavos, The Situation of Families in Greece, 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_greece_bagavos.pdf
12. “Differentials in Divorce By Duration of Marriage and Size of Family” Amer. Sociological Review, p. 239 (Apr. 1950)
13. “Differentials in Divorce By Duration of Marriage and Size of Family” Amer. Sociological Review, p. 239 (Apr. 1950)
14. Sandra S. Smith, "NCHS Dataline," Public Health Reports (March 1, 2002)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:94042640
15. MD Bramlett and WD Mosher, Cohabitation, Marriage, Divorce, and Remarriage in the United States. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 23(22) (2002), p. 18. Archived at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_23/sr23_022.pdf
16. Kimberly A. Faust and Jerome N. McKibben, "Marital Dissolution: Divorce, Separation, Annulment and Widowhood," Handbook of Marriage and the Family, 2nd ed, Marvin Sussman, Suzanne K. Steinmetz, and Gary W. Peterson (eds.), Plenum Press, New York (1999), p. 483. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0306457547/qid=1123777024/sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
17. “Differentials in Divorce By Duration of Marriage and Size of Family” Amer. Sociological Review, p. 239 (Apr. 1950)
18. “Differentials in Divorce By Duration of Marriage and Size of Family” Amer. Sociological Review, p. 234-244 (Apr. 1950)
19. “Differentials in Divorce By Duration of Marriage and Size of Family” Amer. Sociological Review, p. 244 (Apr. 1950)
20. ________, "Society: Divorces," National Statistics Online, National Statistics, United Kingdom (August 31, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget_print.asp?ID=170 on August 26, 2005.
21. According to a 1985 study. Totals do not add up to 100 percent because respondents could select every reason that was applicable. Margaret Guminski Cleek and T. Allan Pearson, "Perceived Causes of Divorce: An Analysis of Interrelationships," Journal of Marriage and the Family (February 1985) p. 179, 181.
22. According to a 1985 study. Totals do not add up to 100 percent because respondents could select every reason that was applicable. Margaret Guminski Cleek and T. Allan Pearson, "Perceived Causes of Divorce: An Analysis of Interrelationships," Journal of Marriage and the Family (February 1985) p. 179, 181.
23. Margaret Guminski Cleek and T. Allan Pearson, "Perceived Causes of Divorce: An Analysis of Interrelationships," Journal of Marriage and the Family (February 1985) p. 179, 181.
24. Margaret Guminski Cleek and T. Allan Pearson, "Perceived Causes of Divorce: An Analysis of Interrelationships," Journal of Marriage and the Family (February 1985) p. 179, 181.
25. ________, Fact Sheet on Domestic Violence, American Bar Association Commission on Domestic Violence citing Bureau of Justice Statistics, Female Victims of Violent Crime, 1991. Accessed at http://www.abanet.org/domviol/stats.html on September 21, 2005.
26. ________, Eaton County Prosecuting Attorney Website on Domestic Violence http://www.eatoncounty.org/ECPA/domviol.htm citing EAP Digest Nov./Dec. 1991.
27. Rita Thaemert, "Till Violence Do Us Part," State Legislatures. National Conference of State Legislatures (March 1, 1993). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:13834300
28. _______, Northern Ireland Women’s Aid Federation Webpage citing Borkowski, M., Murch, M. and Walker, V. (1983), Marital Violence: the Community Response. Tavistock. Accessed at: http://www.niwaf.org/Domesticviolence/factsfigures.htm on August 15, 2005.
29. ________, National Organization for Women New York website citing Domestic Violence, Employment and Divorce by Audra J. Bowlus.   The University of Western Ontario, Department of Economics, London, Ontario N6A 5C2. Accessed at http://www.nownys.org/frstats.html#1 on August 15, 2005.
30. ________, National Organization for Women New York website citing Domestic Violence, Employment and Divorce by Audra J. Bowlus.   The University of Western Ontario, Department of Economics, London, Ontario N6A 5C2. Accessed at http://www.nownys.org/frstats.html#1 on August 15, 2005.
31. ________, “Find Eight Basic Causes of Marriage Failures,” Science News Letter, Aug. 17, 1957 (p. 105)
32. Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
33. ________, "Marriages Patched Up," Newsweek, Jan. 26, 1948 (p. 27)
34. William M. Pinsof, "The Death of 'Til Death Us Do Part,': The Transformation of Pair-Bonding in the 20th Century," Family Process (June 22, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:90301620
35. Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
36. ________, "Marriage and Divorce," National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Accessed at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/marriage.htm on 12/5/2005.
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45. Kimberly A. Faust and Jerome N. McKibben, "Marital Dissolution: Divorce, Separation, Annulment and Widowhood," Handbook of Marriage and the Family, 2nd ed, Marvin Sussman, Suzanne K. Steinmetz, and Gary W. Peterson (eds.), Plenum Press, New York (1999), p. 486. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0306457547/qid=1123777024/sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
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57. ________, “Divorce Rates Climbing,” Science News Letter, May 21, 1949 (p. 326)
58. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 7, note 4. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
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67. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 8 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
68. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
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71. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 8 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
72. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 8 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
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74. Cecilia L.W. Chan, "How the Socio-cultural Context Shapes Women's Divorce Experience in Hong Kong," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004)(citation omitted) . Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302752
75. Cecilia L.W. Chan, "How the Socio-cultural Context Shapes Women's Divorce Experience in Hong Kong," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004)(citation omitted) . Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302752
76. Cecilia L.W. Chan, "How the Socio-cultural Context Shapes Women's Divorce Experience in Hong Kong," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (January 1, 2004) . Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:113302752
77. Natalie Obiko Pearson, “More Japanese Untie the Knot,” Associated Press, CBSNews,com (January 19, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/01/19/world/main594084.shtml on August 15, 2005.
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79. Natalie Obiko Pearson, “More Japanese Untie the Knot,” Associated Press, CBSNews,com (January 19, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/01/19/world/main594084.shtml on August 15, 2005.
80. Natalie Obiko Pearson, “More Japanese Untie the Knot,” Associated Press, CBSNews,com (January 19, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/01/19/world/main594084.shtml on August 15, 2005.
81. Natalie Obiko Pearson, “More Japanese Untie the Knot,” Associated Press, CBSNews,com (January 19, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/01/19/world/main594084.shtml on August 15, 2005.
82. Natalie Obiko Pearson, “More Japanese Untie the Knot,” Associated Press, CBSNews,com (January 19, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/01/19/world/main594084.shtml on August 15, 2005.
83. Natalie Obiko Pearson, “More Japanese Untie the Knot,” Associated Press, CBSNews,com (January 19, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/01/19/world/main594084.shtml on August 15, 2005.
84. Natalie Obiko Pearson, “More Japanese Untie the Knot,” Associated Press, CBSNews,com (January 19, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/01/19/world/main594084.shtml on August 15, 2005.
85. Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
86. Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
87. Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
88. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 6. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
89. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 6. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
90. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 6. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf