Birth Rate / Fertility / Family Size
 
Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 18
 
TOPICS COVERED: When you're studying families, women's fertility is one of those topics that is sort of a constant drumbeat in the background. Sociologists around the world have fretted about this for decades; they want us to care. We read things like the fact that the current fertility rate in 15 European nations is so low, that the United Nations has decided it is "unprecedented in human history."* And while we were impressed by how as dramatic a statement that was, still, falling total fertility rates and replacement rates just seemed too abstract for us to get all that worked up about.
 
So while it was amusing to see the childless Ashley predictably blush when we'd talk about "those women" who hadn't a boatload of children by the time they were 35, other than that, both of us would just shrug as to the issue's real significance. Policymakers warn that if fertility rates continue to fall, we simply won't have enough people to do the work we need to have done. We need a national fertility rate of 2.1 just to keep the population at a constant level. It isn't just that Social Security could collapse with more retirees than workers paying into the system. That might happen too, but the experts are even more worried about the fact that they don't know who is going to be there to farm that land, work that shop, cut that red tape. Imagine a third of workforce simply gone in a few decades. That started making the issue more real for us.
 
But, ultimately, we realized that women like Ashley are the issue.
 
Because as a general rule, when women become literate and educational attainment rates rise, birth rates fall. That isn't just a vague policy statement that's hard to grasp. That's a real predicator of actual behavior – your wife's and your daughter's. The higher an education a woman has, the fewer the children the woman will have. That's because women getting an education will put off getting married and having children until she's finished with her education. Educated women learn about contraception and family planning, so they have less unwanted pregnancies. Even further still, education broadens their perspectives about what the world has to offer them besides being a wife and mother.** Which is why there are a number of cultures around the world consciously preventing their daughters from being educated. It isn't because they believe girls are incapable of learning. It's the reverse: they fear what the girls could accomplish if they were educated.
 
They're losing out. Not only are they missing the contributions those women could have made, actually, educated women also learn about how to better care for the children they already have. They spend more time, not less, with their kids. They stimulate and engage the children in ways that would never even occur to those without an education. So the good news is they're better moms. The bad news is, they might not ever be moms in the first place.
 
If the goal of educations and careers is to better provide for a family, it's pretty ironic if they are what ends up preventing you from having one. And when we had that realization is when we started worrying about birth rates. That seemed much much more important in the transformation of the family than headlines about teen pregnancy rates or unmarried mothers. So take a look at what's happening to fertility around the globe, then spend time reading about delaying marriage, education, and considering whether or not women are really becoming childless by choice. One more point to consider – the purpose, the very meaning of family has changed, and continues to evolve. I go into this a lot more in my "Halftime" chapter in Why Do We Love These People? and our memos on families as social institutions, but, basically, we used to have large families because kids were, well, to put it bluntly, productive units you needed to have on a farm, and they'd grow up to be people who felt obligated to take care of you when you were old. Now, as the very purpose for families is not to be an economic unit, but one of relationships, those smaller families will reinforce those new emotional ties. The few children we have, hopefully, we will treasure more.
 
 
MEMOS ON RELATED INFORMATION: Population, Demographics on Children, Mothers and Daughters, Fathers and Sons, Family Structures, Single Parents, Delaying Marriage, Single Parents (analysis), Unmarried Partners, Childless By Choice, Migration, Delaying Marriage
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 

PAGE INDEX:

 
 

THEORIES AND RESPONSES TO WHY WOMEN DELAY
HAVING CHILDREN AND HAVE FEWER OF THEM

FERTILITY RATE

FAMILY SIZE

BIRTHS TO UNMARRIED WOMEN

DELAYING HAVING CHILDREN

TEEN PREGNANCY

 
 

THEORIES AND RESPONSES TO WHY WOMEN DELAY
HAVING CHILDREN AND HAVE FEWER OF THEM

 
 
 
The fertility rates are at or under the replacement rate in every developed nation in the world, and fall as those in less-developed nations increase the literacy and educational attainment of their populations. 1.
 
 
 
However, education and literacy alone do not appear to be the sole determinant of fertility rates. For example, educational attainment has dramatically risen in some Arab and Asian nations, but the fertility rates of those nations have not changed as much as was expected. So there must be other cultural, social and economic factors may diminish or even outweigh the education factor. 2.
 
 
 
Similarly, the general theory is that a rise of women's educational attainment will delay the women's age at first childbirth. The women will put off starting a family because they are in school or in work, or perhaps it is just because the education included lessons about contraception. But literacy rates in Cuba are some of the highest in the world. And while Cuba's fertility rate is one of the lowest in the world, the increased literacy hasn't seemed to have any other effect. Conversely, the age at which women are having children is declining, when it would usually be expected to be rising. In a study of employed Cuban women, all of whom had easily available birth control and abortions, 50 percent of them had had a child before the age of 20. 3.
 
 
 
It must sound better in theory –
Actually, in many countries, women's actual fertility rate is consistently below their average desired number of children. Meaning women have less children than the number they consider to be ideal. And often, no matter what size of family the woman has, she always thinks that a larger number of children is actually the ideal. And that holds true the bigger the family she has. 4.
 
 
 
A moral duty –
There's a belief that Rwanda’s birth rate is on the increase because Rwandans believe it is their moral duty to replace the one million or so people who died during that country's genocide. 5.
 
 
 
"Very high"
The total fertility rate in Syria between 1960 and 1985, despite the fact that the illiteracy of its childbearing women had been reduced by more than 50 percent. 6.
 
 
 
Lebanon and Jordan, on the other hand –
In both Lebanon and Jordan, women's increasing educational attainment and literacy rates have seemed to have the effect of lowering fertility, and the "average number of births for a non-educated Jordanian mother is much higher than that of a mother who attended high school or received an education beyond high school." 7.
 
 
 
“Have three or more, if you can afford it” –

In 1970, Singapore had a fertility rate of 3.1. 8.
 
Then after two decades of a “stop at two” policy, and achieving a national fertility rate of just 1.62 – well beneath the replacement rate – Singapore announced in 1987 that families should have three or more children, if they could afford them, and then began to create family-growth policies such as tax incentives for additional children. Within three years, the fertility rate shot up by 15 percent. And the number of third births in 1990 was almost double the rate of them in 1986. 9.

 
 
India’s two-child norm
A change in laws encourages couples to have permanent sterilization – but it is now voluntary – after having a second child, and while giving states the right to impose disincentives for those who decide to have more than two children. Among the new penalties: prohibiting those with more than two children from serving in political office. Hundreds of officials are vulnerable for dismissal, and political foes are apparently using the law to settle old scores. 10.
 
 
 
32 percent
of women in India’s Uttar Pradesh who did not agree that an Indian family should have no more than two children. Those in lower castes believe a larger number of children is ideal, while those in higher castes think a smaller family was better. Muslims wanted more children than Hindus. Women who wanted larger families were: poorly educated, the non-literate, and lower-incomes. Women who were exposed to mass media preferred a small family than those who were not (79 percent vs. 62 percent). Those who had a child die preferred a larger family (74 percent vs. 59 percent). Reasons why the women said that they shouldn't follow the two-child norm? For over half, it was the high child mortality rate. Over a third said that they needed the children's support financially – both from the income from child labor and later, to support them in old age – and the belief that children are a gift from God. 11.
 
 
 
In the Depression Era U.S.,
the grim economic situation and non-existent job prospects forced married couples were to postpone having children. By 1933, experts began warning that the U.S. population could see a drastic decrease in the coming decades if the trend continued – and that the U.S. population would only reach 195 million at the most. 12.
 
 
 
Theory for why Bangladesh’s fertility rate is still high –
Because children are considered assets in the patriarchal society, and may be considered insurance that the parents will be taken care of (by their children) when they are old. 13.
 
 
 
They think the Pill is the answer to increasing births? Do they know what it's for?
Actually, yes. But it's true. In Japan, politicians who want more women to be on the pill won't be condemned for their lack of family values; instead, they may be lauded as being "pronatalist." Here's what happened. A government council that was addressing its plummeting fertility rates found that Japanese women didn't want to marry because most of the available forms of contraception were well, for men to use. And the women had decided that if they couldn't control their own fertility, they wouldn't marry. It's sounds more than a little circular in logic, but basically the idea is, if Japanese women are sure that they don't have to get pregnant during their marriages, then they'll get married . . . and then get pregnant. 14.
 
 
 
"Kinder statt Inder"
Roughly translated as, "Children, not Indians," "Kinder statt Inder" is the name of the contentious German campaign encouraging native Germany citizens have children to provide for its future work force, rather than relying on a supply of Indian immigrants. Germany is not alone in struggling with whether immigration will have to be the answer to its shrinking population. Conversely, experts warns that efforts like that are just examples of the political struggles that are yet to come in all of the more developed nations. Ironically, there would probably a similar controversy in the U.S., but the fact that its fertility rate is falling is masked by the influx of young immigrants who have larger families. And, therefore, the political issue in the U.S. that draws all of the attention is immigration – not the fact that these immigrants are propping up the native-born populations' decreasing birth rates. 15.
 
 

THEORIES AND RESPONSES TO WHY WOMEN DELAY
HAVING CHILDREN AND HAVE FEWER OF THEM
FAMILY SIZE
BIRTHS TO UNMARRIED WOMEN
DELAYING HAVING CHILDREN
TEEN PREGNANCY

 
 
 

FERTILITY RATE

 
 
In 49 developing countries around the world, the women of childbearing age today are having half as many children as their mothers had. In another 72 developing nations, their fertility rates have decreased by 20 percent in the past 30 years. 16.
 
 
 
 
2.1
The total fertility rate (“TFR”) needed for “replacement level,” meaning the number of births needed, per woman, to keep a population at a constant level. 17.
 
 
 
3.5
The U.S. TFR at the peak of the Baby Boom in the late 1950s. By the mid-1970s, the rate had fallen by half to about 1.8 births per woman. 18.
 
 
 
1.8
The U.S. TFR at the peak of the Baby Boom in the mid-1970s. 19.
 
 
 
2.0 to 2.1
The U.S. TFR in the 1990-2004, slightly below the replacement rate. 20.
 
 
 
2.08
The 2005 estimated total fertility rate for the U.S. 21.
 
 
 
6.5 per 1000
The 2005 U.S. infant mortality rate – 6.5 deaths at birth for every 1000 live births. 22.
 
 
 
The U.S. and New Zealand –
two of the few developed countries in the world to be at the fertility rate replacement level. And both of those are largely due to the presence of a particular ethnic group. In the U.S., it's the Hispanic population: Hispanic women had 20 percent of all births in 2002, and were the only segment of the population to exceed the replacement rate: non-Hispanic whites only had 60 percent of births, black women, 15 percent, and Asians and Pacific Islanders, just 5 percent. Similarly, in New Zealand, it's the Maori who are keeping the fertility rate above replacement level. 23.
 
 
 
4.1 million
total U.S. births in 2003. 24.
 
 
 
4.0 million
women in the U.S. give birth each year. 25.
 
 
 
Almost 15 percent
of the U.S. births in 2004 were to mothers who were not U.S. citizens. 26.
 
 
 
Not one
of the 42 countries of Europe has a fertility rates above replacement level of 2.1 children per woman. And 24 of the countries have fertility levels of 1.5 or even lower. 27.
 
 
 
"Too Low"
39 European governments' self-critical assessment by their own nations' fertility rates. 28.
 
 
 
In 24 European countries,

one generation will only be replaced by two-thirds as many people or less. 29.

and they have fertility levels of 1.5 or even lower. 30.

 
 
0.72
An estimate on the lowest the fertility rate can go. That’s an estimate that would mean 20-30 percent of women are permanently childless, and those who have children only have one child. 31.
 
 
 
0.77
Lowest fertility rate observed: Eastern Germany in 1994. Close behind, 0.80 for the Italian province of Ferrara. 32.
 
 
 
8.5
Highest fertility rate ever observed on a national level, reported by the U.N.: Rwanda in 1975–1980, with many other African countries having rates above 8.0 during this period. 33.
 
 
 
10.9 – children? For every woman?? That's not a family – that's a baseball team. With a bench.
The highest fertility rate ever observed: 10.9 children per woman for the Hutterite community, a religious sect in the U.S., during the period of 1921–1930. Canadians in the 18th century weren't far behind, with a rate of 10.8. 34.
 
 
 
Spain, Bulgaria, Latvia –
Countries with the lowest national fertility rate in the world in 2001 – 1.1. 35.
 
 
 
Somalia –
Country with the highest national TFR in the world in 2001 – 7.3. 36.
 
 
 
Below One –
The fertility rate in some Italian regions. 37.
 
 
 
In Portugal, fertility rates from 3.0 in 1970 to 1.6 in 1990, but it remained comparatively stable in the 1990s: 1.5 in 1993, 1.4 in 1996, 1.5 in 1999. 38.
 
 
 
In 2000, fewer children were born in Finland than in any other of the past 70 years. Although its fertility rate is relatively high compared to most other European countries, it is slowly declining – from 48.5 per 1,000 women to 47.3 in 1999. 39.
 
 
Around 1.4
Germany's fertility rate. 40.
 
 
 
1.75
Australia's total fertility rate in 2003, down from a rate of 3.5 in 1961, and 2.8 in 1967. 41.
 
 
 
Three
India’s total fertility rate. 42.
 
 
 
Over five
The Total Fertility Rate (total fertility rate) of Bhutan, Maldives and Pakistan, 1995-2000. 43.
 
 
 
Over 100 out of 1000
Number of infant deaths per live births (the infant mortality rate) in 1970-1975 in every South Asian Country but Sri Lanka. 44.
 
 
 
Sri Lanka
the only country in South Asia to have reached the replacement level fertility with a total fertility rate of 2.1. 45.
 
 
 
23
Infant mortality rate in Sri Lanka, 1995-2000 – the only South Asian nation to go down to the 2.1 replacement rate. 46.
 
 
 
6.75
Total fertility rate in Afghanistan. 47.
 
 
 
164
Infant mortality rate in Afghanistan. 48.
 
 
 
1.38
Japanese Fertility Rate (est.) in 2004. 49.
 
 
 
Six
Total fertility rate in Palestine in 1997, "which is quite high for a country with near zero illiteracy rate." 50.
 
 
 
4.2
Total fertility rate in Kuwait in 2000, a decline from 6.6 in 1980. 51.
 
 
 
1.5
Total fertility rate in Sweden in late 1990s-2000. 52.
 
 
 
1.89
Total fertility rate in Ireland at the turn of the Twenty-First Century. There has been, however a slight increase in births by childless women (and a decrease in additional births by women who already have children) in recent years. 53.
 
 

THEORIES AND RESPONSES TO WHY WOMEN DELAY
HAVING CHILDREN AND HAVE FEWER OF THEM
FERTILITY RATE
BIRTHS TO UNMARRIED WOMEN
DELAYING HAVING CHILDREN
TEEN PREGNANCY

 
 
 

FAMILY SIZE AND CHILDLESSNESS

 
 
15 percent
of couples in fourteenth century England were childless. For those upper-class women who had children, the average number of live births they had was five – over a course of 12 years. 54.
 
 
 
One out of five
In 1939, Science News Letter reported studies had concluded that U.S. “Childless marriages have increased to one out of every five marriages.” 55.

 
 
In the U.S., it is as common now for a woman to have no child or one child, as it was to have four or five children 30 years ago.

20.1 percent
of U.S. women ages 40 to 44 in 1976 who had five or more children ever born, while another 15.8 percent had four children ever born. 56.
 
17.9 percent
of U.S. women ages 40 to 44 in 2002 had never had a child. Another 17.4 percent had had one child. 57.

 
 
10 percent – down from 36 percent
10 percent of U.S. families with children have four or more children – down from 36 percent of families with children in 1976. 58.
 
 
 
52 percent
of U.S. families with children have just one or two children in 2002 – an increase from 31 percent in 1976. 59.
 
 
 
44 percent
of all U.S. women of childbearing age –15 to 44 years old – are childless. Of these childless women, 71 percent are in the workforce. 60.
 
 
 
20 - 28 percent
The estimated percent of Australian women now in their early thirties who will be permanently childless. 61.
 
 
 
Almost One-Third
of women and men born after 1960 in Western Germany are expected to be permanently childless. 62.
 
 
 
A second wife
In Kenya and Afghanistan, wives' infertility is often resolved by the husbands' marrying a second wife. 63.
 
 
 

THEORIES AND RESPONSES TO WHY WOMEN DELAY
HAVING CHILDREN AND HAVE FEWER OF THEM
FERTILITY RATE
FAMILY SIZE
DELAYING HAVING CHILDREN
TEEN PREGNANCY

 
 

BIRTHS TO UNMARRIED WOMEN

 
 
 
In the middle of the eighteenth century, over 40 percent of American women were pregnant at the time of their wedding. 64.
 
 
 
But "unmarried" doesn't mean they were single –

 
 
Almost half
of U.S. out-of-wedlock births were to cohabiting mothers, according to results by the Fragile Families and Child Well-being survey. 65.
 
 
 
238,000
U.S. women who unmarried and gave birth in 2003-2004 were living with someone when surveyed. 66.
 
 
 
Almost 60 percent
of British women who gave birth while unmarried were living with partners. And one out of every four was married within eight years – usually to the child's father. 67.
 
 
 
12 percent
of babies born in Australia in 2001 were born to single mothers. 68.
 
 
18 percent
of all babies born in Australia in 2001 were by an unmarried mother who was living with the father at the time of the birth. So less than half of the babies by unmarried mothers were actually born by single mothers. 69.
 
 
 
Two percent
of babies born in Australia in 1970 were born to unmarried, cohabiting parents. 70.
 
 
 
18 percent
of babies born in Australia in 2001 were born to unmarried, cohabiting parents. 71.
 
 
 
 
Nine out of Ten
children were born to married parents in 1980s Czechoslovakia. 72.
 
 
But, for first children,
half of those Czech babies were born in the 1980s, were born less than eight months after the wedding. 73.



 
 
1.2 million
unmarried women in the U.S. gave birth in the 12-month period preceding the 2004 census, representing 32 percent of all births during this period. That's slightly below 2002 – with 1.3 million births outside of marriage. 74.
 
 
 
The percentage of births to Cuban single mothers skyrocketed from 39 percent to 61 percent in a span of 15 years, from 1973 to 1989. 75.
 
 
 
52 percent
The higher the education, the less likely a woman is to have birth outside marriage – but that is less true that it was just two years ago. Of U.S. births to unmarried women in 2004, 52 percent of births to women who did not have a high school education were to women who were also unmarried, while just nine percent of births to those with a college or post-graduate degree were also unmarried. 76.
 
 
 
12 percent
of U.S. 2002 births to women 30-to-44 years old were births to unmarried women. 77.
 
 
 
1.5 million
of U.S. births in 2004 were to unmarried women in the U.S., a record high. That is 35.7 percent of all U.S. births that year, compared to 34.6 percent in 2003 and 33 percent in 2002. 78.
 
 
 
50 percent
of the U.S. unmarried women who gave birth in 2004 lived under the poverty level, compared to just 23 percent of all mothers and 12 percent of married mothers. 79.
 
 
 
46 percent
of births to U.S. Hispanic women in 2004 were out of wedlock, up from 36 percent in 2002, while 24.5 percent of births to non-Hispanic White women were out of wedlock. 80.
 
 
 
69.2 percent
of births to Black women in the U.S. 2004 were out of wedlock, up from 65 percent in 2002. 81.
 
 
 
72 percent
of Cuban new single mothers in 1989 were under the age of 25. 82.
 
 
 
58 percent
of young women in Sweden were cohabiting at the birth of their first child. 83.
 
 
 
One-fourth
of unmarried mothers giving birth in the Czech Republic were divorced women. 84.
 
 
 
25 percent
of Czech births in 2002 were to unmarried mothers, a five-fold increase since 1975. The number of pregnant brides has dropped by a fifth in the past decade, but that isn't because of a drop in unmarried pregnancies, but because societal pressure has lessened; being unmarried with children is more acceptable now. 85.
 
 
 
11 percent
of Czech births in 2002 were to unmarried mothers who had university degrees, while 70 percent of unmarried mothers had just an elementary education. 86.
 
 
 

THEORIES AND RESPONSES TO WHY WOMEN DELAY
HAVING CHILDREN AND HAVE FEWER OF THEM
FERTILITY RATE
FAMILY SIZE
BIRTHS TO UNMARRIED WOMEN
TEEN PREGNANCY

 
 

DELAYING HAVING CHILDREN

 
 
 
 
27.6 years old
average age of Australian women having their first child. Almost 25 percent of women there are 35 or older when they have their first child. 87.
 
 
 
Women, aged 30-34
For fourth consecutive years, from 2000 to 2004, the Australian women's age group with the highest fertility were those women aged 30-34 years – with a rate of 113 babies per 1,000 women. 88.
 
 
 
22 years old
the average age at first birth for U.S. blacks and Hispanics. 89.
 
 
 
26 years old
the average age at first birth for U.S. non-Hispanic white women. 90.
 
 
 
23 years old
the average age at first birth for women living in Mississippi. 91.
 
 
 
Almost 28 years old
the average age at first birth for women living in Massachusetts. 92.
 
 
 
28 years old
the median age at first birth for women in Sweden. 93.
 
 
 
25 to 29 years old –
the current age for a woman's first birth in Western Europe, but most couples have their last child before 35 years of age." 94.
 
 
 
By before 35 years old –
Despite the late start, most Western European couples have their last child before 35 years of age. 95.
 
 
 
Sri Lanka –
The country in South and Central Asia with the currently highest median age for mothers at first birth – 26.3 years. 96.
 
 
 
 

THEORIES AND RESPONSES TO WHY WOMEN DELAY
HAVING CHILDREN AND HAVE FEWER OF THEM
FERTILITY RATE
FAMILY SIZE
BIRTHS TO UNMARRIED WOMEN
DELAYING HAVING CHILDREN

 
 

TEEN PREGNANCY

 
 
 
16.9 years, to 18.4 years
Of all Bangaldeshi women now 45-49 years old, the median age at first birth was 16.9 years old. For women in Bangaldesh now 20 to 24, their median age was slightly older – 18.4 years hold. 97.
 
 
 
1957
The year the teenage birth rate peaked in the U.S. – 96.3 out of every 1000 births were by teen mothers. And that has not been equaled since. 98.
 
 
 



1986
The year the teenage birth rate was the lowest ever in the U.S. – 50.2 out of every 1000 births were by teen mothers. 99.

From 1986 to 1992, teenage birth rates rose substantially (although still never approaching the record rate of the 1950s). 100.

After 1992, the teen birth rates began to fall once more. 101.

 
 
From 1990 to 2000,
the U.S. pregnancy rate for 15 to 17 year old females decreased 33 percent, from 80.3 per 1,000 females to 53.5, a record low. During that time, their birth rate declined 42 percent, from its peak at 38.6 in 1991 to 22.4 in 2003. The induced abortion rate peaked in 1983 at 30.7 and decreased by more than half to 14.5 by 2000. 102.
 
 
 
41.2 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19
the teen birth rate for the U.S. in 2004, a record low for the nation. 103.
 
 
 
The U.S. induced-abortion rate peaked in 1983 at 30.7, but then decreased by more than half to 14.5 by 2000. 104.
 
 
 
89 percent
of U.S. births to teenagers in 2002 were out of wedlock. 105.
 
 
 
38 percent
Cuban single women giving birth in 1989 were under the age of 20. 106.
 
 
 
Two-thirds
According to a 1996 California Department of Health and Human Services study, "two-thirds of the state's teenage mothers were victims of child abuse. What's more, nearly a quarter said they had been raped. Among those victims, the average age of the first attack was 12, and it was committed by an assailant – sometimes a friend or family member – who was 22." 107.
 
 
____________________________________________________
 
 
* _________, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision, Highlights, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations (February 24, 2005), p. vii. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/WPP2004/2004Highlights_finalrevised.pdf
** None of this is new, by the way. In 1910, just a fraction of U.S. women with college degrees ever got married and had children, while, for those without degrees, both were nearly universal. See Claudia Goldin, "The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family," The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 596, No. 1, pp. 20-35 (November 2004). Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4D578A32F89DF9F38829
1. See, for example, Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf and Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of Low Fertility and Ageing Prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p. 63. Archived at: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf and Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 28 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
2. See analysis in Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf and
3. Anne R. Roschelle, Maura I. Toro-Morn, Elisa Facio, "Families in Cuba: From Colonialism to Revolution," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 414-439 (2005), pp. 425-426. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
4. See, for example, Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
5. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
6. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
7. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
8. _______, Wall Chart, "World Fertility Patterns – 2004," Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York, New York (2004). Available at: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/Fertilitypatterns_chart/WallChart_Fert2004_web.pdf
9. Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of Low Fertility and Ageing Prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p. 63. Archived at: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
10. ________, "Enforcing vs. Promoting the Two-Child Norm in India," Reproductive Health Matters (May 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:118687842
11. According to a survey of 10,000 women. ________, "Enforcing vs. Promoting the Two-Child Norm in India," Reproductive Health Matters (May 1, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:118687842
12. Andrew J. Cherlin, Marriage, Divorce, Remarriage, Revised and Enlarged Ed., Harvard University Press, USA (1992), p. 31. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/067455082X/ref=sib_rdr_dp/104-0887680-4192712?%5Fencoding=UTF8&no=283155&me=ATVPDKIKX0DER&st=books
13. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 27. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
14. Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 28 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
15. See, for example, Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf and Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 5. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf and Walter Bien, The Situation of Families in Germany, 2000-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_germany_bien_en.pdf Spain is another European nation already struggling with this issue. Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf
16. _________, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision, Highlights, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations (February 24, 2005), p. 6. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/WPP2004/2004Highlights_finalrevised.pdf
17. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf; Jane Lawler Dye, Fertility of American Women: June 2004, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-555. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (December 2005) p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p20-555.pdf
18. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf; Jane Lawler Dye, Fertility of American Women: June 2004, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-555. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (December 2005) p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p20-555.pdf
19. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf; Jane Lawler Dye, Fertility of American Women: June 2004, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-555. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (December 2005) p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p20-555.pdf
20. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf; Jane Lawler Dye, Fertility of American Women: June 2004, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-555. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (December 2005) p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p20-555.pdf
21. ________, United States, The CIA World Factbook (2005). Online edition at: http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/us.html
22. ________, United States, The CIA World Factbook (2005). Online edition at: http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/us.html
23. Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), pp. 7-8. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf and ________, "Percentage of Childless Women 40 to 44 Years Old Increases Since 1976, Census Bureau Reports," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 23, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/fertility/001491.html on August 15, 2005. See also Gordon A. Carmichael, "Taking Stock at the Millennium: Family Formation in Australia," Journal of Population Research (September 1, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:105657377 and "Table 1. Total births and percentage of births with selected demographic characteristics, by race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, final 2003 and preliminary 2004," Brady E. Hamilton, Stephanie J. Ventura, Joyce A. Martin, and Paul D. Sutton, Preliminary Births for 2004, Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. Report accessed at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/prelim_births/prelim_births04.htm#Figure%201 and Tables at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/prelimbirth04_tables.pdf on November 1, 2005.
24. J.A. Martin, et al. Births: Final data for 2003. National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 54 No 2. National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD (2005). Archived at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr54/nvsr54_02.pdf
25. ________, "Facts for Features: Mother's Day 2005: May 8," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (May 2, 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/004109.html
26. Tallese Johnson and Jane Dye, Indicators of Marriage and Fertility in the United States from the American Community Survey: 2000 to 2003, U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division,Fertility & Family Statistics Branch, (Created: August 10, 2005 Last Revised: October 13, 2005). Abstract, Slides 36, 38. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/fertility/mar-fert-slides.html
27. Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of Low Fertility and Ageing Prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p. 49. Archived at: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
28. Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), pp. 4-5. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
29. Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of Low Fertility and Ageing Prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p. 49. Archived at: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
30. Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of Low Fertility and Ageing Prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p. 49. Archived at: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
31. Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of Low Fertility and Ageing Prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p.64. Archived at: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
32 Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of Low Fertility and Ageing Prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p. 64. Archived at: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
33. Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of Low Fertility and Ageing Prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p. 64. Archived at: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
34. Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of Low Fertility and Ageing Prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p. 64. Archived at: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
35. Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of Low Fertility and Ageing Prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p. 64. Archived at: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf
36. Table 5, Demographic Indicators, ________, "State of the World's Children 2003, Statistical Tables," UNICEF. Archived at: http://www.unicef.org/sowc03/tables/index.html
37. Wolfgang Lutz, “Determinants of Low Fertility and Ageing Prospects for Europe,” Family Issues between Gender and Generations, Seminar Report Equality between Women and Men European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Unit E/1, European Observatory on Family Matters at the Austrian Institute for Family Studies, (May 2000), p. 64. Archived at: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/eu_report_en.pdf Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 3. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
38. Karin Wall, The Situation of Families in Portugal in the Late 1990s, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_portugal_wall_en.pdf
39. Sirpa Taskinen, The Situation of Families in Finland in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_finland_taskinen_en.pdf
40. Walter Bien, The Situation of Families in Germany, 2000-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_germany_bien_en.pdf
41. ________, "3301.0 Births, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (November 25, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/ff9e15176d6887d8ca2568a9001393b2!OpenDocument on August 13, 2005 and Gordon A. Carmichael, "Taking Stock at the Millennium: Family Formation in Australia," Journal of Population Research (September 1, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:105657377
42. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 1. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
43. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 1. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
44. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 3. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
45. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 1. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
46. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 3. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
47. 2005 est. ________, Afghanistan, The CIA World Factbook (2005). Online edition at: http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/af.html See also Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 3. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
48. 2005 est. ________, Afghanistan, The CIA World Factbook (2005). Online edition at: http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/af.html See also Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 3. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
49. ________, Japan, The CIA World Factbook (2004). Online edition at: http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/print/ja.html
50. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
51. Nasra M. Shah, "Women's Socioeconomic Characteristics and Marital Patterns in a Rapidly Developing Muslim Society, Kuwait," Journal of Comparative Family Studies (March 22, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:115499525
52. Eva Bernhardt, The Situation of Families in Sweden in the 1990s, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_sweden_bernhardt_en.pdf
53. Gabriel Kiely, The Situation of Families in Ireland, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_ireland_kiely_en.pdf
54. A.R. Colón with P.A. Colón, A History of Children: A Socio-cultural Survey Across Millennia, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT (2001), p. 226. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0313315744/qid=1123775672/sr=8-2/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i2_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
55. ________, “More Childless Marriages; Fewer Large Families,” Science News Letter, p. 30 (January 14, 1939).
56. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
57. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
58. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
59. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
60. As of 2002. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
61. Gordon A. Carmichael, "Taking Stock at the Millennium: Family Formation in Australia," Journal of Population Research (September 1, 2002). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:105657377
62. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
63. Edward K. Mburugu and Bert N. Adams, "Families in Kenya," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 3-24 (2005), p. 18. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 and Nancy Hatch Dupree and Thomas E. Gouttierre, "The Society and Its Environment," Chapter 2, "Family" section, Afghanistan, Library of Congress Country Study (1997). Available in on-line edition at: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/aftoc.html
64. ________, "Family Structures," Encyclopedia of American Social History. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, Reproduced in the History Resource Center, Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. Archived at: http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC Document No. BT2313027032 (1993).
65. Patrick Heuveline and Jeffrey M. Timberlake, "The Role of Cohabitation in Family Formation: The United States in Comparative Perspective," Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 66, pp. 1214-1230 (December 2004), p. 1215 (citation omitted).
66. Note that the difference between the CPR and Fragile Family Survey may be due to several factors, including: the Fragile Family Survey was conducted at the time of the child's birth, while the CPS is within a 12-month period. Also, Census believes that cohabitation is traditionally under-reported, because of social/household issues. See Jane Lawler Dye, Fertility of American Women: June 2004, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-555. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (December 2005). pp. 5-7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p20-555.pdf
67. ________, "Dependent Children: 1 in 4 in lone-parent families," National Statistics Online, National Statistics, United Kingdom (July 7, 2005). Accessed at: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=1163 on December 27, 2005 and Judith A. Seltzer, "Cohabitation in the United States and Britain: Demography, kinship, and the Future," Journal of Marriage and Family, Volume 66, No. 4 pp. 921-928 (November 2004), p. 924 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com.ezproxy.sfpl.org/direct.asp?ArticleID=4A0387BF0447AD54BB0D
68. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 70 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
69. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 70 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
70. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 72 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
71. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 72 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
72. Ivo Mozny and Tomas Katrnak, "The Czech Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 235-261 (2005), p. 239. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
73. Ivo Mozny and Tomas Katrnak, "The Czech Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 235-261 (2005), pp. 239-240. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
74. Jane Lawler Dye, Fertility of American Women: June 2004, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-555. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (December 2005) p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p20-555.pdf and Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
75. Anne R. Roschelle, Maura I. Toro-Morn, Elisa Facio, "Families in Cuba: From Colonialism to Revolution," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 414-439 (2005), pp. 425-426. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
76. Interestingly, note however, that slightly more college-educated women were having unmarried births in 2004 than were in 2002, while more of those with less education having children were married in 2004. Compare Jane Lawler Dye, Fertility of American Women: June 2004, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-555. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (December 2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p20-555.pdf to Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), pp. 5-6. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
77. ________, "Percentage of Childless Women 40 to 44 Years Old Increases Since 1976, Census Bureau Reports," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 23, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/fertility/001491.html on August 15, 2005 and Brady E. Hamilton, Stephanie J. Ventura, Joyce A. Martin, and Paul D. Sutton, Preliminary Births for 2004, Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/prelim_births/prelim_births04.htm#Figure%201 on November 1, 2005.
78. ________, "Percentage of Childless Women 40 to 44 Years Old Increases Since 1976, Census Bureau Reports," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 23, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/fertility/001491.html on August 15, 2005.
79. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf and "Table 1. Total births and percentage of births with selected demographic characteristics, by race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, final 2003 and preliminary 2004," Brady E. Hamilton, Stephanie J. Ventura, Joyce A. Martin, and Paul D. Sutton, Preliminary Births for 2004, Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. Report accessed at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/prelim_births/prelim_births04.htm#Figure%201 and Tables at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/prelimbirth04_tables.pdf on November 1, 2005.
80. Tallese Johnson and Jane Dye, Indicators of Marriage and Fertility in the United States from the American Community Survey: 2000 to 2003, U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division,Fertility & Family Statistics Branch, (Created: August 10, 2005 Last Revised: October 13, 2005). Abstract, Slides 36, 38. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/fertility/mar-fert-slides.html
81. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf and "Table 1. Total births and percentage of births with selected demographic characteristics, by race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, final 2003 and preliminary 2004," Brady E. Hamilton, Stephanie J. Ventura, Joyce A. Martin, and Paul D. Sutton, Preliminary Births for 2004, Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. Report accessed at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/prelim_births/prelim_births04.htm#Figure%201 and Tables at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/prelimbirth04_tables.pdf on November 1, 2005.
82. Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 6. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf and "Table 1. Total births and percentage of births with selected demographic characteristics, by race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, final 2003 and preliminary 2004," Brady E. Hamilton, Stephanie J. Ventura, Joyce A. Martin, and Paul D. Sutton, Preliminary Births for 2004, Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. Report accessed at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/prelim_births/prelim_births04.htm#Figure%201 and Tables at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/prelimbirth04_tables.pdf on November 1, 2005.
83. Anne R. Roschelle, Maura I. Toro-Morn, Elisa Facio, "Families in Cuba: From Colonialism to Revolution," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 414-439 (2005), pp. 425-426. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
84. According to a survey. Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar. Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 9. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf
85. Ivo Mozny and Tomas Katrnak, "The Czech Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 235-261 (2005), p. 243. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
86. Ivo Mozny and Tomas Katrnak, "The Czech Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 235-261 (2005), pp. 240, 242. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
87. Ivo Mozny and Tomas Katrnak, "The Czech Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 235-261 (2005), p. 243. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
88. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 73. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
89. ________, "3301.0 Births, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (November 25, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ on August 13, 2005.
90. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
91. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
92. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
93. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
94. Eva Bernhardt, The Situation of Families in Sweden in the 1990s, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_sweden_bernhardt_en.pdf
95. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
96. Robert Cliquet, "Major Trends Affecting Families In the New Millennium – Western Europe and North America," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtcliquet.pdf
97. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 3. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
98. As of 2003. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 3. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
99. Stephanie J. Ventura, T. J. Mathews, and Sally C. Curtin, "Declines in Teenage Birth Rates, 1991–97: National and State Patterns," National Vital Statistics Reports Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (1998), p. 2. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr47/nvs47_12.pdf and Stephanie Coontz, "The American Family and The Nostalgia Trap," Phi Delta Kappan (March 1, 1995). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:16765761
100. Stephanie J. Ventura, T. J. Mathews, and Sally C. Curtin, "Declines in Teenage Birth Rates, 1991–97: National and State Patterns," National Vital Statistics Reports Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (1998), p. 2. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr47/nvs47_12.pdf
101. Stephanie J. Ventura, T. J. Mathews, and Sally C. Curtin, "Declines in Teenage Birth Rates, 1991–97: National and State Patterns," National Vital Statistics Reports Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (1998), p. 2. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr47/nvs47_12.pdf and _______, "QuickStats: Pregnancy, Birth, and Abortion Rates* for Teenagers Aged 15--17 Years --- United States, 1976--2003." MMWR Weekly, 54(04);100 (February 4, 2005). http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5404a6.htm
102. _______, "QuickStats: Pregnancy, Birth, and Abortion Rates* for Teenagers Aged 15--17 Years --- United States, 1976--2003." MMWR Weekly, 54(04);100 (February 4, 2005). http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5404a6.htm
103. Brady E. Hamilton, Stephanie J. Ventura, Joyce A. Martin, and Paul D. Sutton, Preliminary Births for 2004, Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/prelim_births/prelim_births04.htm#Figure%201 on November 1, 2005.
104. _______, "QuickStats: Pregnancy, Birth, and Abortion Rates* for Teenagers Aged 15--17 Years --- United States, 1976--2003." MMWR Weekly, 54(04);100 (February 4, 2005). http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5404a6.htm
105. ________, "Percentage of Childless Women 40 to 44 Years Old Increases Since 1976, Census Bureau Reports," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 23, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/fertility/001491.html on August 15, 2005.
106. Anne R. Roschelle, Maura I. Toro-Morn, Elisa Facio, "Families in Cuba: From Colonialism to Revolution," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 414-439 (2005), pp. 425-426. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
107. Dave Lesher, "State Faces Tough Battle Against Teen Pregnancy," Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles, CA, p. A-1 (January 30, 1996). See also Mike Males, "School-age pregnancy: why hasn't prevention worked?" Journal of School Health; 12/1/1993 citing Boyer D, Fine D. Sexual abuse as a factor in adolescent pregnancy and child maltreatment. Fam Plann Perspect. 1992;24(4): 4-11,19. http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:14983077 regarding a study of 500 teenage mothers, two-thirds had histories of sexual and physical abuse, primarily by adult men averaging age 27.