Why Do I Love These People? Appendix With Annotations
 
While not a complete list, below is citation information for the particular material used in the Why Do I Love These People? Appendix.
 
Whenever possible, we've provided links to the source material; however, please note that all of the links will take you out of The Factbook site. And while we've done our best to provide current links, those external sites may remove or change their material. Some links will forward you to a source website: still others will direct you straight to a PDF- or other document- download.
 
Also, while we've provided access to freely distributed materials, we have also included links to material within fee-based and subscription databases including: Highbeam (www.highbeam.com); Proquest (http://www.proquest.com/proquest/); and the EBSCO Electronic Journals Service (http://www.ebsco.com/home/). For published books in print, we've included links to Amazon (http://www.amazon.com).
 
 
 
In the United States, 62% of households have no children under the age of 18 in them. Thus, the “typical” American household has zero children. Not 1.8 children, and not 2.4 children. Zero.

Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October, 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
 
For a discussion of household and family size, see our page on Households.

 
 
In Arab societies, more than 95 percent of people who are 45 years or older have been married. Sounds like a different world, right? Not as different as you might think. In the U.S., of those who are 65 and older, the percent who have been married? 95 percent.

In Arab societies, more than 95 percent of people who are 45 years or older have been married.

Nazek Nosseir, "Family in the New Millennium: Major Trends Affecting Families in North Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtnosseir.pdf
 
In the U.S., of those who are 65 and older, the percent who have been married? 95 percent.

See, for example:

Kreider, Rose M., Marital Status: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR-30. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003), p. 3, et seq. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/c2kbr-30.pdf (PDF file)
 
Kreider, Rose M., Number, Timing, and Duration of Marriages and Divorces: 1996, Current Population Reports, P70-97. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p70-80.pdf
 
Kreider, Rose M. Number, Timing, and Duration of Marriages and Divorces: 2001, Current Population Reports, P70-97, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-97.pdf
 
For information on the number of those who get married and other related information, check out The Factbook section on Marital Status.

 
 
Today, one third of all babies born in the United States are born to unmarried mothers. However, they’re not necessarily doing it alone. 40 percent of unmarried mothers live with the father of their children. A considerable number of these cohabiting couples eventually marry.

Today, one third of all babies born in the United States are born to unmarried mothers.

Barbara Downs, Fertility of American Women: June 2002, U.S. Census Department Current Population Reports, P20-548. US Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2003). p. 4, et seq. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf
 
 
40 percent of unmarried mothers live with the father of their children.

_______, "Unmarried, With Children," Newsweek. With Julie Scelfo, Karen Springen, Ana Figueroa, Martha Brant and Sally Abrahms (5/28/2001). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:74933792
 
A considerable number of these cohabiting couples eventually marry.

See, for example:

MD Bramlett and WD Mosher, Cohabitation, Marriage, Divorce, and Remarriage in the United States, National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 23(22) (2002) p. 12. Archived at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_23/sr23_022.pdf
 
Rose M. Kreider, Number, Timing, and Duration of Marriages and Divorces: 1996, Current Population Reports, P70-97. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002)), pp. 15-17. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p70-80.pdf
 
Rose M. Kreider, Number, Timing, and Duration of Marriages and Divorces: 2001, Current Population Reports, P70-97, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-97.pdf
 
For more information relating to mothers' birth rates by marital status, age, and other related information, go to our page on Fertility.

 
 
In the middle of the eighteenth century, over 40 percent of American women were pregnant at the time of their wedding.

________, "Family Structures," Encyclopedia of American Social History. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, Reproduced in the History Resource Center, Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. Archived at: http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC Document No. BT2313027032 (1993).
 

 
 
Between 1960 and 1990, the European labor force grew by 30 million people.

Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001)(quoting a statement made by Eva Bernhard), p. 20. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf

25 million of those were women.

Christos Bagavos and Claude Martin, Low Fertility, Families, and Public Policies, Synthesis Report of Annual Seminar, Austrian Institute for Family Studies, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001)(quoting a statement made by Eva Bernhard), p. 20. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/sevilla_2000_english_en.pdf

 
 
In the U.S., if your daughter has been living with some guy for three years – and this is the first guy she’s lived with – the chance they’ll finally marry is 58 percent.

MD Bramlett and WD Mosher, Cohabitation, Marriage, Divorce, and Remarriage in the United States, National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 23(22) (2002) p. 12. Archived at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_23/sr23_022.pdf
 
See also:

Rose M. Kreider, Number, Timing, and Duration of Marriages and Divorces: 1996, Current Population Reports, P70-97. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002)), pp. 15-17. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p70-80.pdf
 
Rose M. Kreider, Number, Timing, and Duration of Marriages and Divorces: 2001, Current Population Reports, P70-97, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-97.pdf
 
For additional information relating to unmarried partners who are living together, go to our page on Cohabitation. You might also be interested in our review of Marital Status demographics and facts relating to Delay of Marriage.

 
 
In Seoul, South Korea, in 1960 less than 2% of Korean women had not married by the age of 34. Today, it’s 18%. And their parents are freaked! Yet most do seem to marry in the next ten years – less than 3% haven’t married by age 50.

Gavin W. Jones, "The 'Flight From Marriage' in South-East and East Asia," Journal of Comparative Family Studies; Winter 2005; 36, 1 p. 92, 98 et seq.
 
For additional information, see our page on facts relating to Delay of Marriage.

 
 
A Dutch couple will, on average, experience a one-quarter to one-third drop in their purchasing power when they raise children, compared to what they had before having children.

Hans-Joachim Schulze and Peter Cuyvers, General Monitoring Report, 2004, The Situation of Families in The Netherlands in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2004). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_netherlands_schulze_cuyvers.pdf
 
For additional information relating to the role families and their economic status, go to our section on Economic Issues.

 
 
People used to abandon their children when they couldn’t care for them. It’s remarkable how common this was. In 1835 France, 121,000 infants were abandoned – in that year alone.

A.R. Colón with P.A. Colón, A History of Children: A Socio-cultural Survey Across Millennia, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT (2001) p. 384. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0313315744/qid=1123775672/sr=8-2/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i2_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
 
For additional information relating to the historical treatment of children, see our section on Children in Historical Context /Settings.

 
 
Of the women who graduated from American colleges during 1900 to 1919, more than 50 percent would not have children by age 40.

Claudia Goldin, "The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family," The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 596, No. 1, pp. 20-35, (11/2004). Archived at: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4D578A32F89DF9F38829
 
 
For additional information, see our pages on Marital Status, Education, and Delay of Marriage.

 
 
Number of adoptions in the U.K. in 2003: 5,354.

 
________, "Society: Adoptions," National Statistics Online, National Statistics, United Kingdom . Accessed at: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=592 on 8/19/2005.
 

Number of adoptions in the U.K. in 1974: 22,502.

________, "Society: Adoptions," National Statistics Online, National Statistics, United Kingdom . Accessed at: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=592 on 8/19/2005.
 
For a further discussion about adoption rates, see our page on Adoptions.

 
 
Average number of children for a Japanese woman in 2000: 1.35 children.

Junko Kuninobu, "Japan," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Ponzetti, James J. (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA (2002), Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
 
For information about the number of children women have – both in the United States and other nations such as Japan see our page on Fertility.

 
 
Percent of Japanese children of preschool age who are in private or government preschools: over 90 percent.

Ronald E. Dolan and Robert L. Worden (eds.). Library of Congress Country Study: Japan (1994) Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress under the Country Studies/Area Handbook Program sponsored by the Department of the Army. Online edition at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/jptoc.html
 
Information regarding care for young children is available at our Child Care page. If you're more interested in children's schooling, you might try our Education page.

 
 
In Roman times, a Roman could sell his wife and kids (up to 3 times); he could use as labor, beat and even kill his children without impugnity. The wife was not a legal guardian and could not object to the sale or transfer of his children, even when he died.

A.R. Colón with P.A. Colón, A History of Children: A Socio-cultural Survey Across Millennia, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT (2001) p. 91, et seq. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0313315744/qid=1123775672/sr=8-2/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i2_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
 
For additional information relating to the historical treatment of children, see our section on Children in Historical Context /Settings

 
 
The U.S. is one of the few countries without a period of history dominated by arranged marriage.

See, for example:

Karen Lystra, Searching the Heart Women, Men and Romantic Love in 19th Century America, Oxford Univ. Press (1989) Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0195074769/qid=1123777285/sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
 
Nancy F. Cott, Public Vows: A History of Marriage and the Nation, Harvard Univ. Press, USA (2002). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0674008758/qid=1123827518/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/002-0116027-5404024?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
 
_______, "Arranged Marriages and the Place They Have in Today's Culture," NPR Talk of the Nation trans. (7/20/1999). Archived at: http://www.newsbank.com

 
 
The notion that one should marry for love (rather than property, or for family) is a fairly recent idea, historically. This “new romanticism” became the ideal for the first time in England in the late 1700s. It spread to Europe and became popular in the U.S. in the early 1800s. By the 1830s, the American middle class began marrying for love.

See, for example:

Karen Lystra, Searching the Heart Women, Men and Romantic Love in 19th Century America, Oxford Univ. Press (1989) Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0195074769/qid=1123777285/sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books
 
Nancy F. Cott, Public Vows: A History of Marriage and the Nation, Harvard Univ. Press, USA (2002). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0674008758/qid=1123827518/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/002-0116027-5404024?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
 
Laura Kipurs, "Against Love; A Treatise on the Tyranny of Two," New York Times, New York, N.Y., (10/14/2001), p. SM98. Archived at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=366824232&sid=6&Fmt=2&clientId=63432&RQT=309&VName=HNP ;