Demographics on Children
 
Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 18
 
TOPICS COVERED: Of course, nearly every page of The Factbook somehow relates to children. But we've tried to isolate some facts relating to them, just to give you a sort of State of Children. To that end, we've written this memo, a brief demographic overview of children, globally, then we have information about more specific issues confronting our children in the Related Memos. Then, we've got information about their living arrangements – just who are kids these days living with? How many have married parents? How many are being raised by guardians? How many are living with children from other families? Then, we have some information on Parental Education and Employment, because that so directly effects not just a child's quality of life, but the way in which children are raised. (For much more information on that, however, check out our memos on Caregivers in the Workforce.). And finally, we have information on the thing that shapes all too many children's lives: living in poverty.
 
MEMOS ON RELATED INFORMATION: Adoption, Foster Care, Divorce (for information on the children effected by divorce), Stepfamilies (for more data relating to children in stepfamilies), Unmarried Partners (for information on children living in unmarried couple households), Modern Child Development, Children At Risk (for information relating to violence committed by and against children, child labor, child abuse, at risk behaviors, and child poverty), Child Care, Education (for information on children in schools), Caregivers in the Workforce (for more information on parental employment) and Single Parents (for information on children in single-parent families). Also, there's more information on the number of children in Family and Household Demographics and how children are raised in Family Roles and Responsibilities and Family Structures.
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 

PAGE INDEX:

 

CHILDREN – GLOBAL DEMOGRAPHICS

CHILDREN IN THE U.S.

CHILDREN, INTERNATIONALLY

PARENTAL EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT

 
 
 

CHILDREN – GLOBAL DEMOGRAPHICS

 
 
 
 
2.2 billion
Total number of children worldwide. 1.
 
 
90 percent
of the world’s children live in “less developed countries” (LDCs) in 2000. 2.
 
 
 
Three percent
of the world's children under 15 years old live in the U.S. – ranking the nation as having the fourth largest population of children in the world. 3.
 
 
 
Almost 60 percent
of the world’s children under age five live in 10 countries. Nine of the 10 are less developed countries – the U.S. is the lone exception on the list. 4.
 
 
 
One-third
of the world's children age five and under live in just two countries: India and China. 5.
 
 
 
About 60 percent
of the world's growth of in the number of children under the age of 15 during the 1990s came from just the following five countries: India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Ethopia, Congo (Kinshasa). 6.
 
 
 
The U.S. "has more than twice the total population of Nigeria but fewer children under the age of 5." 7.
 
 
 
 
Chart of Top 10 Countries By Under 5 8.

 
 
 
224 out of every 1,000
In 1950-1955, 224 out of every 1,000 of all children born worldwide died before their fifth birthday. 9.
 
 
 
86 out of every 1,000
In 2000-2005, 86 out of every 1,000 of all children born worldwide died before their fifth birthday. 10.
 
 
 
 
45 percent
of the 3.6 million people who worldwide killed in wars and conflict during the 1990s were children. 11.
 
 
 

CHILDREN – GLOBAL DEMOGRAPHICS
CHILDREN, INTERNATIONALLY
PARENTAL EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT

 
 
 

CHILDREN IN THE U.S.

 
 
 
90 percent
– 64.7 million – of children in the United States were sons or daughters of the householder in 2000. “The term ‘son or daughter of the householder,’ unless . . . includes all biological, step, and adopted children of the householder living in the same home, even if they were married or had children of their own." 12.
 
 
 
59.8 million
Number of U.S. children (83 percent) who were biological sons and daughters of the householder. 13.
 
 
 
52 percent
of U.S. children in 1998 by being raised by two parents in an uninterrupted marriage. 14.
 
 
 
9.9 million
Number of U.S school children (age five to 17 years old) – one out of every five children – who speak a language other than English when they're at home. For 7.0 million of them, the language they're speaking Spanish. 15.
 
 
 
Zero
Number of children currently living in a typical American household. – since 68 percent of U.S. households have no children in them. 16.
 
 
 
1.8
Average number of children an U.S. adult had the mid-1990s – down from 2.4 in 1972. 17.
 
 
 
39 percent
in the U.S. in 1996-1998, thought that 3 or more represented the ideal number of children for a family. 18.
 
 
 
56 percent
of those surveyed in the U.S. in 1972, thought that 3 or more represented the ideal number of children for a family. 19.
 
 
 
But just three to five percent
think a family with no children or an only child is ideal – and that's been consistent for the past 30 years. 20.
 
 
 
16 percent more likely
For every hour a child's parent works between six and nine p.m., the child is 16 percent more likely to score in the bottom quartile on math tests. 21.
 
 
 
52 percent
of U.S. children in 1998 by being raised by two parents in an uninterrupted marriage. That’s a decline of 21 percent points since 1972, when 73 percent of children were being reared by two married parents. 22.
 
 
 
1 million
Estimated number of children in the U.S. each year who are "exposed to and experience their parents' divorces each year. Further, an increasingly large number of children can expect to experience more than one divorce, as many parents will remarry and divorce again." 23.
 
 
 
30-40 percent
of stepchildren in the U.S. go endure a divorce of their custodial parent and their stepparent. 24.
 
 
 
Less than five percent
of U.S. children under age 18 in 1972 were living in a household with only one adult present. By the mid-1990s this had increased to 18-20 percent. 25.
 
 
 
32 percent
of U.S. households with children in 2003, down from 45 percent in 1970, and 35 percent in 1990. 26.
 
 
 
23 percent
of U.S. married couple households with children in 2003, down from 40 percent in 1970. 27.
 
 
 
90 percent
of children in the United States – 64.7 million – were sons or daughters of the householder in 2000. That includes all biological, step, and adopted children of the householder living in the same home, even if they were married or had children of their own. 28.
 
 
 
59.8 million
Number of U.S. children (83 percent) who were biological sons and daughters of the householder. 29.
 
 
 
3.3 million
Number of U.S. children who were stepchildren of the householder. 30.
 
 
 
7.6 million
Number of 2003 U.S. female-headed family households with no husband but with children present. That’s 7.2 percent of all households. That is compared to 6.0 million (6.6 percent) in 1990. There are, nationally, more than three times as many married-couple households with children than there are female family households. 31.
 
 
 
Out of the 50 U.S. states, each state had at least twice the number of married-couple households with children, than the female family households. Washington, DC, however, had more female family households (25,000) than married couple couple households with children (21,000). 32.
 
 
 
Nearly 25 percent
of all minor children in the U.S. live in a stepfamily. 33.
 
 
 
89 percent
of the 45.5 million U.S. households with children of any age contain biological children only. 34.
 
 
 
About three percent
of American households with children of any age contain stepchildren only, while four percent have both biological and stepchildren. 35.
 
 
 
More than twice as many
stepchildren (4.4 million) are in U.S. households than are adopted children (2.1 million). 36.
 
 
 
Two percent
of U.S. households with children of any age in 2002 contained only adopted children. 37.
 
 
 
Two percent
of U.S. households with children of any age in 2002 contained both adopted and biological children. 38.
 
 
 
0.1 percent
"of all households with children of the householder included biological children, adopted children, and stepchildren." 39.
 
 
 
5.6 million
Number of U.S. children – eight percent of all children – live with a grandparent. Of these, 3.7 million live in their grandparent’s home, while 1.8 million live in their parent’s home. 40.
 
 
 
17 percent
of U.S. children lived with a foreign-born householder in 2000. 41.
 
 
 
1.3 - 1.4 million
Estimated number of U.S. children who act as caregivers for someone who is seriously physically or mentally ill – most often a parent, a sibling or grandparent – in their households. They do everything from keep them company to shower, dress, feed them and pay the bills. For at least three-fourths of their caregiving activities, someone else helps them. Which is a probably a really good thing, since one-third of these children are eight to 11 years old, and 40 percent of them are 12 to 15 years old. 42.
 
 
 

CHILDREN – GLOBAL DEMOGRAPHICS
CHILDREN IN THE U.S.
PARENTAL EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT

 
 
 

CHILDREN, INTERNATIONALLY

 
 
 
Zero
Number of dependent children currently living in a typical U.K. household. – since 42 percent of British households have no children in them and another 14 percent have only non-dependent children in them. 43.
 
 
 
37 percent
of U.K married-couple families have only one child: they are more likely to have more than one child, while single-fathers and mothers are much more likely to be raising an only child. 44.
 
 
 
More than 50 percent
of Israeli children live in a household with one or more siblings. 45.
 
 
 
33 percent
of Israeli children live in a household with three or more siblings. 46.
 
 
 
14.4 percent
of Israeli children are only children. 47.
 
 
 
About 60 percent
of university freshmen in China in 1995 were only children. 48.
 
 
 
About 95 percent
of preschool-aged children urban China in 1995 were only children. 49.
 
 
 
29 percent
of Australian children do not live in the same family arrangement their entire childhood. Of these, about half live in two family arrangements, while the remaining live in three or more. 50.
 
 
 
More than double –
Australian children who live in single-parent, step or blended families have double the rate of depression, conduct disorder, or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder than do children in intact families. 51.
 
 
 
71 percent
of Australian children live in the same family arrangement their entire childhood. 52.
 
 
 
Seven out of ten
number of British children aged under ten to have their parents divorce. "The number of British children (aged 16 or under) whose parents divorced reached a peak of 176,000 in 1993, and since then numbers have fallen to 143,000 in 2000. But this still means that one in four children under five years of age." 53.
 
 
 
More than 80 percent
of Austrian 15-year olds lived with their married parents or step-parents in 1991. For the 19-year-olds, that figure was 70 percent. 54.
 
 
 
2.33
Average number of children in a family in Finland. 55.
 
 
 
1.35
Average number of children for a Japanese woman in 2000. 56.
 
 
 
Of children living with a foreign-born householder, 56 percent of them were Hispanic, while only nine percent of those with a native-born householder were Hispanic. 57.
 
 
 
60 percent
of all Australian families in 2003 were families with children. 58.
 
 
 
2.5 million
Number of Australian families with at least one child age 0-17 years in 2003. The majority, 1.8 million (71 percent), were intact couple families. 59.
 
 
 
22 percent
of all Australian families with children aged 0-17, the proportion that are one-parent families. 60.
 
 
 
1.1 million
Australian children under the age of 18 – 23 percent – had a biological parent who does not live with them. 76 percent of these children live in one parent families, 13 percent in step families and 9 percent in blended families. For 84 percent, it's the father who is the parent not living with the child. 61.
 
 
 
31 percent
of Australian grooms remarrying in 2002 already had children from a previous marriage. For brides, the proportion remarrying with children was similar at 33 percent. Twenty years ago the comparative proportions were lower, 17 percent each for both grooms and brides. 62.
 
 
 
22,500
Number of Australian grandparent families with children aged 0-17, around one percent (1 percent) of all families with children aged 0-17 years. 63.
 
 
 
71 percent
of the 31,100 Australian children living with their grandparents, the percent who are not living with their natural parents. 64.
 
 
70 percent
of children in Finland in 1999 live with married parents – a drop of 15 percent in 14 years. 65.
 
 
 
2.33
Average number of children living at home in a family in Finland. 66.
 
 
 

CHILDREN – GLOBAL DEMOGRAPHICS
CHILDREN IN THE U.S.
CHILDREN, INTERNATIONALLY

 
 
 

PARENTAL EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT

 
 
 
90 percent
of stepchildren in the U.S. live with a householder who is in the labor force. 67.
 
 
 
One out of every six
U.S. children lived with a householder who was not in the labor force in 2000. In California, New York, and Mississippi, that figure rose to 21 percent. In Washington, DC, it was 32 percent. 68.
 
 
 
Every second child
in Finland had two working parents in 1998. 69.
 
 
 
67 percent
of biological and stepchildren in the U.S. live in a home that is owned-occupied by the householder. 70.
 
 
 
30 percent
of U.S. children living in married-couple family groups, live with householders who have at least a bachelor’s degree. 71.
 
 
 
12 percent
of U.S. children who live with a single parent live with householders who have at least a bachelor’s degree. 72.
 
 
 
Nine percent
of U.S. children who don't live with either parent live with householders who have at least a bachelor’s degree. 73.
 
 
 
46 percent
of U.S. children living with a foreign-born householder who does not have a high school diploma (46 percent) – compared to 14 percent of children who living with a native householder without a diploma. 74.
 
____________________________________________________
 
1. ________, "Childhood Index," Press Kit for State of the World's Children, 2005, UNICEF. Accessed at http://www.unicef.org/sowc05/english/press_childhood_index.html on October 18, 2005.
2. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
3. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
4. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
5. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
6. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
7. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
8. Thomas M.McDevitt and Patricia M. Rowe, The United States in International Context: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-11. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. (2002), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-11.pdf
9. _________, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision, Highlights, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations (February 24, 2005), p. 13. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/WPP2004/2004Highlights_finalrevised.pdf
10. _________, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision, Highlights, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations (February 24, 2005), p. 13. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/WPP2004/2004Highlights_finalrevised.pdf
11. ________, "Key Facts on Conflict," Press Kit for State of the World's Children, 2005, UNICEF. Accessed at http://www.unicef.org/sowc05/english/press_facts2.html on September 18, 2005.
12. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
13. Note that the child may also be living with a step or adoptive parent in addition to the householder, but this data was not collected. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
14. Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf T
15. ________, "Facts for Features: Back to School," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 15, 2005) (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005225.html
16. Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
17. Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
18. Based on surveys. Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
19. Based on surveys. Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
20. Based on surveys. Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
21. According to a study. Sheila B. Kamerman, Michelle Neuman, Jane Waldfogel, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Social Policies, Family Types, and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries, OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers, No.6 (May 20, 2003), p. 27 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/26/46/2955844.pdf
22. Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
23. Maggie Martin, "Reinventing Adolescence: New Rules for the Changing Family," Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association (June 22, 2004)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:119114082
24. Anne C. Jones, "Reconstructing the Stepfamily: Old Myths, New Stories," Social Work. (April 1, 2003)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:100767739
25. Tom W. Smith, "The Emerging 21st Century American Family," National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (October 2001). A 1999 edition of the report is archived at: http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.pdf
26. Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
27. Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
28. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
29. Note that the child may also be living with a step or adoptive parent in addition to the householder, but this data was not collected. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
30. Note that the child may also be living with a stepparent in addition to the householder, but this data was not collected. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
31. Tavia Simmons and Grace O'Neill, Households and Families: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-8. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2001), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf
32. Tavia Simmons and Grace O'Neill, Households and Families: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-8. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2001), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf
33. Anne C. Jones, "Reconstructing the Stepfamily: Old Myths, New Stories," Social Work. (April 1, 2003). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?docid=1G1:100767739
34. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2003), p. 18. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
35. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2003), p. 18. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
36. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2003), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
37. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2003), p. 18. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
38. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2003), p. 18. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
39. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2003), pp. 18-19. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
40. As of 2003. 61 U.S. Census Dept Press Release on Children’s Living Arrangements, 6/12/2003. U.S. Census Dept Press Release Facts for Features, Grandparents Day, 7/29/2004
41. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
42. Gail Hunt, Carol Levine, and Linda Naiditch, Young Caregivers in the U.S.: Findings from a National Survey, National Alliance for Caregiving in collaboration with United Hospital Fund (September 2005), p. 1, 17, . Archived at: http://www.caregiving.org/data/youngcaregivers.pdf and http://www.uhfnyc.org/usr_doc/youngcaregivers.pdf
43. ________, "Focus on Families: Married Couple Families Still the Majority," National Statistics Online, National Statistics, United Kingdom (July 7, 2005). Accessed at: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=1161 on January 3, 2006.
44. ________, "Dependent Children: 1 in 4 in lone-parent families," National Statistics Online, National Statistics, United Kingdom (July 7, 2005). Accessed at: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=1163 on December 27, 2005.
45. Ruth Katz and Yoav Lavee, "Families in Israel," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 486-506 (2005), p. 490. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
46. Ruth Katz and Yoav Lavee, "Families in Israel," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 486-506 (2005), p. 490. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
47. Ruth Katz and Yoav Lavee, "Families in Israel," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 486-506 (2005), p. 490. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
48. Xuewen Sheng, "Chinese Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 99-128 (2005), pp. 104-105. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
49. Xuewen Sheng, "Chinese Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 99-128 (2005), p. 104. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
50. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 89. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
51. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 86. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
52. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 89. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
53. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
54. Helmuth Schattovits, The Situation of Families in Austria, 1994-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_austria_schattovits_en.pdf
55. As of 1998. Sirpa Taskinen, The Situation of Families in Finland in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 3. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_finland_taskinen_en.pdf
56. Junko Kuninobu, "Japan," International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, Second Ed. Ponzetti, James J. (ed.), Macmillian Reference USA, pp. 969-973 (2002), Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0028656725/qid=1123776640/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 or http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet?region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=M106&type=4&id=174024
57. As of 2000. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
58. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
59. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
60. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
61. As of 2003. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
62. ________, "3310.0 Marriages and Divorces, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (November 26, 2003). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/b06660592430724fca2568b5007b8619/893c1288678fd232ca2568a90013939c! OpenDocument on August 13, 2005.
63. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
64. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
65. Sirpa Taskinen, The Situation of Families in Finland in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 2. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_finland_taskinen_en.pdf
66. Sirpa Taskinen, The Situation of Families in Finland in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 3. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_finland_taskinen_en.pdf
67. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2003), p. 17. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
68. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
69. Sirpa Taskinen, The Situation of Families in Finland in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 1. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_finland_taskinen_en.pdf
70. Rose M. Kreider, Adopted Children and Stepchildren: 2000, Census Special Reports, CENSR-6RV. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (October 2003), p. 17. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-6.pdf
71. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
72. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
73. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
74. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 14-16. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf