Education
 
Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 11
 
TOPICS COVERED: Although teaching children doesn't just go on in an classroom, and it doesn't just require math and language textbooks. But, around the globe, providing children with a formal education is becoming an increasingly fundamental part of raising a family. And the age children entering formal programs keeps getting younger, and the ages they stay in school keeps getting older. Just how much education is required to be an adult? Is it mere literacy or a college degree? That doesn't seem to be worked out yet. It varies between cultures, and it keeps changing as those cultures keep changing. And in the meantime, rising educational levels are having some intended, and unintended, consequences. Of course, the biggest unintended consequence of educating women are that they delay getting married and have less children, but since we go into that in our Birth Rate / Fertility / Family Size and Delaying Marriage memos, here are some of the other effects of education that you may or may not have thought about yet.
 
MEMOS ON RELATED INFORMATION: Child Care (if your interest is in care for younger children), Modern Child Development (for information on child-rearing outside of academics, children's time use and activities, etc.), What Makes You a Grown-up? (for information on education's role in achieving adulthood), Delaying Marriage (for more on the interaction between education and marriage timing).
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 

PAGE INDEX:

 

EDUCATION IN THE U.S.

EDUCATION INTERNATIONALLY

INTENDED AND UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES OF EDUCATION

 
 
 
 

EDUCATION IN THE U.S.

 
 
74.9 million
Students in the U.S., from nursery school to college. That amounts to more than one-fourth of the U.S. population age three and older. 1.
 
 
 
3.1 million
The estimated number of high school diplomas that will be given out in the U.S. in 2005. 2.
 
 
 
Between 3 and 4 percent
of high school students dropped out of school during the 10th to 12th grades from 2001-2003. 3.
 
 
 
46 percent
U.S. high school graduates aged 18 to 24 are in college. 4.
 
 
 
56 percent
– a clear majority – of those U.S college students are women. 5.
 
 
 
2.7 million
The estimated number of college degrees that will be awarded in the U.S. in 2005. 6.
 
 
 
12.1 million
The number of students in U.S. colleges and universities in 1980. 7.
 
 
 
16.7 million
The estimated number of students in U.S. colleges and universities in 2005. 8.
 
 
 
In 1920, only 16 percent of children graduated high school. 9.


 
In 1948, two-thirds
of American parents were under 30 years old, and had no education beyond grade school. Mothers had a slightly higher educational attainment – but both the mothers and the fathers had little more than an eighth grade education. 10.
 
 
 
Today, 84 percent of children graduate high school. 11.
 
 
 




At the right is a U.S. Census chart showing the dramatic increase in the number of men and women enrolled in college from 1955 to 2003.

For college students under 25 years old, it's been an almost five-fold increase – from just under 2 million to over 10 million.

Census doesn't have data for older students prior to 1973, but the growth just since then has been a tripling of their enrollment. 12.

 
 
 
 
How far does the apple far from the tree?
 

78 percent
of U.S. students who began post-secondary education from 1992 to 2002 had at least one parent who had gone to college. 13.
 
 
 
22 percent
of U.S. students who began post-secondary education from 1992 to 2002 were the first in their families to go to college. Almost one-half of these students left school without graduating. 14.
 
 
 
68 percent
Of U.S. students who began post-secondary education from 1992 to 2002 and had at least one parent with a Bachelor's degree at a minimum, 68 percent completed their degrees: just 20 percent left school without the degree. 15.
 
 
 
59 percent
of U.S. medical students have at least one parent with a graduate or professional degree of his or her own. 16.
 
 
 
43 percent
of U.S. law students have at least one parent with a graduate or professional degree of his or her own. 17.

 
 
 
12 percent
of U.S. elementary and high school students are enrolled in private institutions. 18.
 
 
 
21 percent
of U.S. elementary and high school students in 1970 were members of a racial or ethnic minority other than non-Hispanic white. 19.
 
 
 
40 percent
of U.S. elementary and high school students in 2005 are members of a racial or ethnic minority other than non-Hispanic white. 20.
 
 
 
22 percent
of U.S. elementary and high school students have at least one parent who was not born in the U.S. Of these, six percent of the students themselves were born elsewhere. 21.
 
 
 
60 percent
of U.S college students have jobs while they are in school. 22.
 
 
 
68 percent
of U.S college students are non-Hispanic whites. 23.
 
 
 
13 percent
of U.S college students are black. 24.
 
 
 
Seven percent
of U.S college students are Asian. 25.
 
 
 
10 percent
of U.S college students are Hispanic. 26.
 
 
 
14 percent
of the U.S. Black population, 25 and older had a bachelor’s degree or more education, compared with 24 percent of the total U.S. population. For Black women, the rate is 15 percent, two-thirds of that for all U.S. women. The percent of college educated black men is half that of the rate for all U.S. men – 13 percent compared to 26 percent. 27.
 
 
 
28 percent
of the U.S. Black population, 25 and older has an associate degree, or some college education, slightly over the national rate (27 percent). percent of the total U.S. population. 28.
 
 
 
44.1 percent
of Asians in the U.S. have a Bachelor’s degree or higher– almost twice the U.S. national rate of 24.4 percent. And Asian Indians in the U.S. have a rate nearly three times the national average: 63.9 percent have graduated from college. 29.
 
 
 
37 percent
of U.S college students are 25 years old or older. That's been a fairly consistent percentage since the late 1980s. 30.
 
 
 
Doubled –
the percentage of Americans aged 20, 25, and 30 enrolled in school from 1960 to 2000. 31.
 
 
 
Less than seven dollars a year –
The amount of money spent on educating their children in 1948, by an average U.S. family with an income of under $2,000. 32.
 
 
 
$1,386
Annual tuition at a public, four-year college in 1985. Private four-year institutions cost $6,843 that year. 33.
 
 
 
$5,135
Annual tuition at a public, four-year college in 2003. Private four-year institutions cost $22,686 that year. 34.
 
 
 
About 500,000 of over 8 million
Number of U.S. children enrolled in U.S. nursery schools in 1964, compared to the number of children aged 3-4 years old. 35.
 
 
 
About 5 million of 8 million
Number of U.S. children enrolled in U.S. nursery schools in 2005, compared to the number of children aged 3-4 years old. 36.
 
 
 
34 percent
of U.S. children of mothers who aren't high school graduates were in nursery schools in 2005. 37.
 
 
 
64 percent
of U.S. children who have college-educated mothers were in nursery schools in 2005. 38.
 
 
 
48 percent
of U.S. children with stay-at-home moms were in went to nursery schools in 2005 – which isn't much lower than the percent for working moms (53 percent). 39.
 
 
 
In the U.S. "In 2000, 70 percent of men aged 30 had left home, were financially independent, and had completed their schooling, just 12 points lower than was true of 30-year-old men in 1960. Nearly 75 percent of 30-year-old women in 2000 met this standard, compared to nearly 85 percent of women in 1960." 40.
 
 
 
To the right is a U.S. Census chart that dramatically illustrates the differences of educational attainment between the American generations. 41.

 
 
In Wisconsin v. Yoder, the United States Supreme Court decided that children have a right to get an education -- but the state’s societal interest in that individual child is not outweighed by the family’s wishes. That is, an Amish family can stop their child from going to school because of their religion – even though the state believes that children benefit from from education, and thus requires more schooling. 42.
 
 
 

EDUCATION IN THE U.S.
INTENDED AND UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES OF EDUCATION

 
 
 

EDUCATION INTERNATIONALLY

 
 
 
Over 120 million
Number of children worldwide who are shut out of primary schools, the majority being girls. 43.
 
 
 
84 percent –
In 1975, over 80 percent of South Korean elderly had never received a formal education. 44.
 
 
 
54 percent –
By 1995, just 20 years later, the percentage of South Korean elderly who had never received a formal education had fallen to 54 percent. 45.
 
 
 
In Spain, the labor participation "activity rates of married women aged 25–49 did indeed increase from 42 percent in 1991 to 57 percent in 2000. However, the difference in relation to unmarried women remains very important because it is higher than in most other EU countries. Unmarried women show a high participation rate (over 80 percent in 2000 in the 25– 49 age group), one quite close to men of the same age and marital status. Men and women are increasingly showing equal rates of school attendance and entrance into the labour market, although many hidden inequalities still remain (the choice of the type of education, type of employment and level of earnings still show gender discrimination in Spain as in other more socially advanced countries)." 46.
 
 
 
In Greece, "As far as generational relations are concerned, an education gap between children and parents has become apparent over time, as a result of the increase in the children’s education level. In the late 1990s, the level of educational attainment among the population between 25 and 29 years for the uppersecondary and tertiary education was respectively 3 and 2.5 times higher than that of the population between 55 and 59. The corresponding EU average for those years was only 1.5 and 1.6)." 47.
 
 
 
" . . . education still has a great value for the family in all Arab countries. Many poor families do their best to send their children to school even if it means giving up other basic needs." 48.
 
 
 

EDUCATION IN THE U.S.
EDUCATION INTERNATIONALLY

 
 
 

INTENDED AND UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES OF EDUCATION


 
Think the generation gap is hard? The real problem may be an "education gap" –
 

Higher educational attainment "may break down traditional values and norms, including family values, which entails a specific obligation for the children to support and care for their elderly parents." Experts aren’t sure why, but it could be for two reasons:

"1. increased schooling results in children spending less time receiving care and guidance from their parents, and hence the feeling of debt towards the parents is reduced
 
2. because of the content in formal schooling which in some developing countries is heavily westernized and the system tends to inculcate western values of individualism and self realization." 49.
 
 
In Greece, "As far as generational relations are concerned, an education gap between children and parents has become apparent over time, as a result of the increase in the children’s education level. In the late 1990s, the level of educational attainment among the population between 25 and 29 years for the uppersecondary and tertiary education was respectively 3 and 2.5 times higher than that of the population between 55 and 59. The corresponding EU average for those years was only 1.5 and 1.6)." 50.
 
 
 
In the Gulf Countries, "In addition, basic public education offered to males and females is usually accepted in Gulf societies. It constitutes a new and powerful source of socialization that competes strongly with traditional family roles or functions in this regard. The effects of the school and of its requirements are extremely important. The influence of peers, especially during puberty and adolescence, is most serious." 51.
 
 
 
In 1950, sociologist Hollingshead determined that an education gap between parents and children was one of the major problems confronting lower-middle-class U.S. families. He wrote: “Parents generally have high educational aspirations for their children, but income limitations often compel them to compromise with less education than they desire, an possibly different kind from what they would choose. Parents acutely see the need for a good formal education, and they make heavy sacrifices to give their children the educational training that will enable them to take over positions held by persons in the upper-middle class. By stressing education for the child, parents many times unwittingly create conflicts for themselves and their children, because the educational goals they set for the child train him in values that lead him away from this family. This process, while it does not have a direct bearing on the stability of the nuclear family, acts as a divisive factor that splits parents and children apart, as well as brothers and sisters who have received different amounts of education and follow different job channels.” 52.

 
 
$18,734
Average annual earnings for U.S. workers aged 18 and over, who do not have a high school diploma. 53.
 
 
 
$27,915
Average annual earnings for U.S. workers aged 18 and over, who have a high school diploma, but no further education. 54.
 
 
 
$51,206
Average annual earnings for U.S. workers aged 18 and over, who have a bachelor's degree. 55.
 
 
 
$74,602
Average annual earnings for U.S. workers aged 18 and over, who have an advanced degree (e.g., a masters or doctorate). 56.
 
 
 
Just to stay in the Middle Class –
it is "almost imperative" that Americans remain in school until at least their early 20s, if they want to enter or remain in the middle class, economically. 57.
 
 
 
During the nineteenth century, the amount of American women forgoing marriage increased, and was particularly large among those women who were college educated. Instead of getting married, the women sometimes lived in a partnership called "Boston marriage." 58.
 
 
 
So they won't forget their families
One researcher in Kenya determined that the mothers there didn't want to educate their girl children, because they thought that education would lead the girls to move on and forget their families – which is acceptable (and what's happening) for urban Kenyan boys. 59.
 
 
 
Marrying down –
An urban Kenyan man often prefers a wife from a rural area who is less educated than he is, so it can be difficult for educated, urban women to find spouses. Educated women are usually younger than their rural counterparts, more independent, or are in school, so they opt to stay single longer. All of which also works against them in finding a mate of comparable education and social status. So they often end up marrying men who are considerably older than they are, or become a second or third wife. 60.
 
 
 
Yeah, there are fish in the sea, but you might not want them –
A study in Australia found that there's an "increasing mismatch of available men and women." While women are becoming more educated and better employed, men are having a harder time as breadwinners. So they're less appealing to the women looking for mates. And men don't usually want women who are more educated or make more than they do anyway. 61.
 
 
 
Meeting the one –
In Kuwait, "Education at the University level is, however, non-segregated, thus providing the possibility for young men and women to become romantically involved, and perhaps get married, following their families' approval. Proceeding with marriage without familial approval is considered socially deviant behavior, and may carry certain sanctions consisting primarily of parental admonishment and temporary (or sometimes permanent) severing of relationships." 62.
 
 
 
Less kids
In 1948, Newsweek reported the American parents with the least education had the biggest families – those who had just five years of schooling had 2.5 children for parents, while college-educated parents had just 1.8 children. 63.
 
 
 
Less wives
Education seems to be a chief factor against polygamy. 16 percent of currently married women in Kenya are in polygynous marriages, a decrease of 30 percent from 30 years earlier. There have been other dramatic decreases in the number of polygamous marriages in Arab cultures that have had rising educational attainment. 64.
 
 
 
 
________________________________________________
 

1. _______, "School Enrollment Surpasses 1970 Baby-Boom Crest, Census Bureau Reports," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (June 1, 2005).
2. ________, "Facts for Features: Back to School," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 15, 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005225.html
3. Hyon B. Shin, School Enrollment—Social and Economic Characteristics of Students: October 2003, Current Population Reports, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (May 2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p20-554.pdf
4. _______, "School Enrollment Surpasses 1970 Baby-Boom Crest, Census Bureau Reports," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (June 1, 2005).
5. As of 2003. Hyon B. Shin, School Enrollment—Social and Economic Characteristics of Students: October 2003, Current Population Reports, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (May 2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p20-554.pdf
6. ________, "Facts for Features: Back to School," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 15, 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005225.html
7. ________, "Facts for Features: Back to School," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 15, 2005)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005225.html
8. ________, "Facts for Features: Back to School," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 15, 2005)(citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005225.html and Hyon B. Shin, School Enrollment—Social and Economic Characteristics of Students: October 2003, Current Population Reports, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (May 2005), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p20-554.pdf
9. ________, "Table 8. Percent of persons age 25 and over and 25 to 29, by years of school completed, race/ethnicity, and sex: Selected years, 1910 to 2002" Digest of Education Statistics, 2003, National Center for Education Statistics, Wash. DC. (2003) citing U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population, 1960, Volume 1, part 1; Current Population Reports, Series P-20 and previously unpublished tabulations; and 1960 Census Monograph, "Education of the American Population," by John K. Folger and Charles B. Nam. http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d03/tables/dt008.asp
10. ________, "Family and the Schools," Newsweek, Vol. 31, p. 92 (May 17, 1948).
11. ________, "Table 8. Percent of persons age 25 and over and 25 to 29, by years of school completed, race/ethnicity, and sex: Selected years, 1910 to 2002" Digest of Education Statistics, 2003, National Center for Education Statistics, Wash. DC. (2003) citing U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population, 1960, Volume 1, part 1; Current Population Reports, Series P-20 and previously unpublished tabulations; and 1960 Census Monograph, "Education of the American Population," by John K. Folger and Charles B. Nam. http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d03/tables/dt008.asp
12. Hyon B. Shin, School Enrollment—Social and Economic Characteristics of Students: October 2003, Current Population Reports, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (May 2005), p. 11. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p20-554.pdf
13. Xianglei Chen, First-Generation Students in Postsecondary Education, A Look at Their College Transcripts, Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Report, NCES 2005–171, U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (July 2005) p. 5. Archived at: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005171.pdf
14. Xianglei Chen, First-Generation Students in Postsecondary Education, A Look at Their College Transcripts, Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Report, NCES 2005–171, U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (July 2005) p. 1, 5. Archived at: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005171.pdf
15. Xianglei Chen, First-Generation Students in Postsecondary Education, A Look at Their College Transcripts, Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Report, NCES 2005–171, U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (July 2005) p. 1, 5. Archived at: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005171.pdf
16. As of 1999-2000. _______, "Percentage distribution of graduate and first-professional students according to parents’ highest education level, by selected enrollment and institution characteristics: 1999–2000," U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1999–2000 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:2000). Archived at: http://nces.ed.gov/das/library/tables_listings/show_nedrc.asp?rt=p&tableID=238&popup=true
17. As of 1999-2000. _______, "Percentage distribution of graduate and first-professional students according to parents’ highest education level, by selected enrollment and institution characteristics: 1999–2000," U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1999–2000 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:2000). Archived at: http://nces.ed.gov/das/library/tables_listings/show_nedrc.asp?rt=p&tableID=238&popup=true
18. Based on 2005 projections. ________, "Facts for Features: Back to School," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 15, 2005) (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005225.html
19. ________, "Facts for Features: Back to School," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 15, 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005225.html
20. ________, "Facts for Features: Back to School," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 15, 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005225.html
21. ________, "Facts for Features: Back to School," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 15, 2005). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005225.html
22. As of 2003. Hyon B. Shin, School Enrollment—Social and Economic Characteristics of Students: October 2003, Current Population Reports, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (May 2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p20-554.pdf
23. As of 2003. Hyon B. Shin, School Enrollment—Social and Economic Characteristics of Students: October 2003, Current Population Reports, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (May 2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p20-554.pdf
24. As of 2003. Hyon B. Shin, School Enrollment—Social and Economic Characteristics of Students: October 2003, Current Population Reports, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (May 2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p20-554.pdf
25. As of 2003. Hyon B. Shin, School Enrollment—Social and Economic Characteristics of Students: October 2003, Current Population Reports, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (May 2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p20-554.pdf
26. As of 2003. Hyon B. Shin, School Enrollment—Social and Economic Characteristics of Students: October 2003, Current Population Reports, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (May 2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p20-554.pdf
27. As of 2000. Jesse D. McKinnon and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Blacks in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-25. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-25.pdf
28. As of 2000. Jesse D. McKinnon and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Blacks in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-25. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-25.pdf
29. Terrance J. Reeves and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Asians in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-17. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-17.pdf
30. Hyon B. Shin, School Enrollment—Social and Economic Characteristics of Students: October 2003, Current Population Reports, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (May 2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p20-554.pdf
31. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., Sheela Kennedy, Vonnie C. Mcloyd, Rubén G. Rumbaut and Richard A. Settersten, Jr., "Growing Up is Harder to Do," Contexts, Amer. Sociological Assoc., Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 33-41 (Summer 2004), p. 39.
32. ________, "Family and the Schools," Newsweek, Vol. 31, p. 92 (May 17, 1948).
33. ________, "Institutions of Higher Education – Charges: 1985 to 2003," Table by U.S. Census Bureau, citing U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual, U.S. Census Bureau,Washington DC (Undated). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/educ_table276.pdf
34. ________, "Institutions of Higher Education – Charges: 1985 to 2003," Table by U.S. Census Bureau, citing U.S. National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, annual, U.S. Census Bureau,Washington DC (Undated). Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/educ_table276.pdf
35. Hyon B. Shin, School Enrollment—Social and Economic Characteristics of Students: October 2003, Current Population Reports, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (May 2005), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p20-554.pdf
36. Hyon B. Shin, School Enrollment—Social and Economic Characteristics of Students: October 2003, Current Population Reports, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (May 2005), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p20-554.pdf
37. Hyon B. Shin, School Enrollment—Social and Economic Characteristics of Students: October 2003, Current Population Reports, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (May 2005), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p20-554.pdf
38. Hyon B. Shin, School Enrollment—Social and Economic Characteristics of Students: October 2003, Current Population Reports, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (May 2005), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p20-554.pdf
39. Hyon B. Shin, School Enrollment—Social and Economic Characteristics of Students: October 2003, Current Population Reports, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (May 2005), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p20-554.pdf
40. Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr., Sheela Kennedy, Vonnie C. Mcloyd, Rubén G. Rumbaut and Richard A. Settersten, Jr., "Growing Up is Harder to Do," Contexts, Amer. Sociological Assoc., Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 33-41 (Summer 2004), p. 38.
41. Yvonne J. Gist and Lisa I. Hetzel, We the People: Aging in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports CENSR-19. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p.7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-19.pdf
42. ________, Wisconsin v. Yoder, 406 U.S. 205 (1972). Archived at: http://laws.findlaw.com/us/321/158.html
43. ________, "Key Facts on Poverty," Press Kit for State of the World's Children, 2005, UNICEF. Accessed at http://www.unicef.org/sowc05/english/press_facts.html on September 18, 2005.
44. Kwang-Kyu Lee, "South Korean Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 167-176 (2005), p. 174. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
45. Kwang-Kyu Lee, "South Korean Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 167-176 (2005), p. 174. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
46. Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón, The Situation of Families in Spain in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 3. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_spain_cordon_en.pdf
47. Christos Bagavos, The Situation of Families in Greece, 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 3 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_greece_bagavos.pdf
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49. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), pp. 18-19. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
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