Children At Risk
 
Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 18
 
PLEASE NOTE: This is information about children. This material is not for children. This page is strictly for mature adults. Children under the age of 15 should not be reading this. That's not a dare, Kids. It isn't that it's just gross (which it is). But some of the information in here is really, really upsetting. We were upset. We had nightmares. Trust us. Other pages are fine, but for this, ask a grown-up to read this and talk to you about it instead.
 
 
TOPICS COVERED: Not that it's ever been easy to hear about children in pain, but ever since I've become a father, hearing about children in danger, or suffering has become almost unbearable. Because I think about my own kids. I can't help but thinking about what I'd do if I were confronted with those circumstances. Every time I hear on the news about a child that's been kidnapped, my heart stops.

And, of course, it should. But what I hadn't realized is that the "every time" I've heard about it, is almost every time that it's happened.

But there are so many children who in danger we never hear about. So here's some information that will might give you a different perspective on what dangers are regularly facing our children.
 
 
MEMOS ON RELATED INFORMATION: Demographics on Children, Children in Ancient History, Children in Modern European and American History, Single Parents, Poverty (for general family poverty demographics), Domestic Violence (for additional information about family violence)
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 

PAGE INDEX:

 

AT RISK BEHAVIORS AND CRIMES OF CHILDREN

VIOLENCE COMMITTED AGAINST CHILDREN

CHILD LABOR

CHILD POVERTY

 
 

AT RISK BEHAVIORS AND CRIMES OF CHILDREN

 
 
 
8.4 percent
of U.S. eighth graders surveyed reported using illegal drugs within 30 days of the survey. 1.
 
 
 
25.7 percent
of U.S. white twelfth graders surveyed reported using illegal drugs within 30 days of a survey on drug use. 2.
 
 
 
16.8 percent
of U.S. black twelfth graders surveyed reported using illegal drugs within 30 days of a survey on drug use. 3.
 
 
 
A 48 percent drop –
in U.S. juvenile violent crime in the last 10 years (from 1994 to 2003). 2003 had the lowest number of juvenile arrests for violent crime since 1987. 4.
 
 
 
2.2 million
Estimated number of arrests of U.S. juveniles – those under the age of 18 – in 2003. 2003 is the ninth consecutive year that number has decreased, from a high in 1994. 5.
 
 
 
15 percent
of those arrested in the U.S. for violent crimes in 2003 were juveniles. That's a 32 percent drop since 1994. 6.
 
 
 
Completely disproportionate –
 
the rate of crimes committed by Black juveniles was four times that of white juveniles. 7.
 
and the rate of Black juveniles in every single category of the juvenile system – from the number of arrests to the number of those placed into custody to the number sent to adult criminal court. And that disproportionally isn't explained by the Black juveniles' higher rate of crimes, because the disproportionally of the rate of Black juveniles in the system was higher than that of the crimes committed. 8.

45 percent
of the U.S.'s 2003 juvenile arrests for violent crimes were arrests of Black juveniles – but Blacks only make up 16 percent of the juvenile population. Whites, on the other hand, are 78 percent of the juvenile population, but only 53 percent of juvenile violent crime arrests. In that study, Hispanics were included in the white population. 9.
 
 
26 percent
of juvenile arrests for drug use were arrests of Black juveniles – ten percent higher than the percent of Black juveniles in the population. 10.
 
 
In 2000, for every 100,000 U.S. juveniles, 1,004 juvenile Blacks were in custody. That's more than twice as high as the rate for Hispanics (416) and almost five-times the number for non-Hispanic whites (212). 11.
 
 
In 1998-1999, Black juveniles made up 16 percent of the juvenile population – but they were 39 percent of the juvenile population in custody. 12.

 
 
And here's the real kicker –
 
in every single category of the juvenile system – the overrepresentation of Black youths in the system has gone down. It was even worse in the past. 13.

In 2003, Black juvenile were arrested for violent crimes at a rate four times that of whites. But in 1980, the disparity was even worse: for every one white juvenile arrested for violent crimes, 6.3 Black juveniles had been arrested. 14.
 
 
In 1990-1991, Black juveniles made up 15 percent of the juvenile population – but they were 46 percent of the juvenile population in custody. That's seven percent higher than it was in 1999. 15.

 
 
In Illinois, there were 2,457 drug arrests of juveniles for every 100,000 juveniles. 16.
 
 
 
In Maryland, there were 1,235 drug arrests of juveniles for every 100,000 juveniles. 17.
 
 
 
In California, there were 523 drug arrests of juveniles for every 100,000 juveniles. 18.
 
 
 
In New York, there were 569 drug arrests of juveniles for every 100,000 juveniles. 19.
 
 
 
In West Virginia, there were 157 drug arrests of juveniles for every 100,000 juveniles. 20.
 
 
 
A 19 percent increase
in the arrests of juveniles for drug-related charges, from 1994 to 2003. But the increase as dramatically higher for females – their arrests went up 56 percent, while males' arrests increased by 13 percent. 21.
 
 
 
51 percent
of those arrested in the U.S. for arson in 2003 were juveniles. 22.
 
 
 
39 percent
of those arrested in the U.S. for vandalism in 2003 were juveniles. 23.
 
 
 
16 percent
of those in the U.S. arrested for forcible rape in 2003 were juveniles. 24.
 
 
 
Nine percent
of those in the U.S. arrested for murder in 2003 were juveniles. 25.
 
 
 
1,130
U.S. juveniles were arrested for murder and non-negligent manslaughter in 2003, 68 percent lower than the number in 1994. 26.
 
 
 
 

AT RISK BEHAVIORS AND CRIMES OF CHILDREN
CHILD LABOR
CHILD POVERTY

 
 
 

VIOLENCE COMMITTED AGAINST CHILDREN

 
 
 
No Constitutional duty to protect a child –
While there are various state requirements for reporting suspected incidents of child abuse and neglect, under the U.S. Constitution, the state does not have to duty a child to protect a child from an abusive family once they've been notified of that abuse. In DeShaney v. Winnebago County Dept. of Social Services, social workers knew for two years that a child was being beaten, but they failed to remove him from the home. Then, when the child was four years old, his father bashed the child’s head in enough to send the little boy into a coma; he had such severe brain damage that he had to be institutionalized – probably for life. The Supreme Court held that, although it was tragic, the government has no affirmative duty to provide government aid to its citizens, and, therefore, isn’t liable for injuries when it did not provide them. Neither of the key facts – that the child could not have done anything on his own to leave the family and that the state knew what was happening – did changed the analysis. 27.
 
 
 
More than 2 million violent crimes
are committed against children in the U.S. each year. 28.
 
 
 
23 percent
of children under age 13 were 23 percent of murder victims killed by a family member, while they were just over three percent of nonfamily murder victims. 29.
 
 
 
Seven Years Old
The average age among sons or daughters killed by a parent in the U.S. Four out of five children killed by a parent were under age 13. Among incidents of parents killing their children, 19 percent of them involved one parent killing multiple victims. 30.
 
 
 
1,550 out of 16,500
Out of the 16,500 U.S. reported murders in 2003, 1,550 of the victims were juveniles. 31.
 
 
 
Hands or feet –
are the apparent weapon of choice for child murder. Hands or feet were the only weapon used in the 51 percent of the murders of U.S. children under the age of five, making physical assault the most common method of child murder. For the total population, the most common lethal weapon was the handgun. 32.
 
 
 
More than 100,000 incidents
of sexual assaults and sexual abuse are committed against children in the U.S. each year. 33.
 
 
 
More than half
of U.S. women who had reported in a survey that they had been raped at some point in their lives, said that the first rape occurred before they were 17 years old. 22 percent were under 12; 32 percent were between 12 and 17 years old. 34.
 
 
 
52 percent
of U.S. women in a survey who reported that they had been been physically assaulted as a child. 35.
 
 
 
Two-thirds
of teenage pregnant mothers in a 1996 California study were the victims of child abuse. One-fourth reported that they had been raped. Among the victims, the first attack usually happened when the child was 12. The attacker, sometimes a friend or family member, was 22 years old. 36.
 
 
 
"A legitimate means to solve conflicts" and a "highly valued" way to socialize children
Violence. As perceived in South American nations, according to a United Nations report. 37.
 
 
 
"Very widespread"
– the prevalence of child beating and child abuse in South America, according to a United Nations report. 38.
 
 
 
More than half
of Chinese parents surveyed responded that they are likely to beat their children for failing an examination or for not working hard enough at school. 39.
 
 
 
68 percent
of Chinese parents surveyed responded that use force to make their children obey them. 40.
 
 
 
44 percent
of substantiated child abuse cases in Australia occur in single-parent homes – a disproportionate rate, since just 18 percent of children live in single-parent families. 41.
 
 
 
56,900
U.S. children were permanently abandoned in 1993. 42.
 
 
 
1,682,900 children in the U.S.
ran away or were thrown out of the house in 1999. Of these, 68 percent where between 15 and 17 years old. 43.
 
 
 
No evidence to support it –
despite the ever-increasing media attention on missing children, there is no evidence to support that the incidence of missing children rose in the U.S. from 1988 to 1999. 44.
 
 
 
99.8 percent
of missing children (1,312,800) in the U.S. in 1999 were returned home alive or located. 0.2 percent or 2,500 had not returned home or been located, and the vast majority of these were juvenile runaways from institutions. 45.
 
 
 
374,700
Number of U.S. children were missing for benign reasons in 1999. Of these, 315,300 were home within six hours. 46.
 
 
 
204,500
Number of times U.S. children were involuntarily missing, because they were lost, injured or stranded in 1999. Of these, 175,400 were home within six hours. 47.
 
 
 
The police were called in
for just one-third of the instances when U.S. children were missing because they were lost, injured or stranded in 1999. 48.
 
 
 
From less than one hour, to six hours –
85 percent of the time, when U.S. children are missing because of benign reasons – a miscommunication, a child forgets to call, a babysitter takes a child to the wrong place – the children are back with their caregivers within one to six hours. 49.
 
 
 
From less than one hour, to six hours –
85 percent of the time when U.S. children are missing because they are lost, injured or stranded – the children are back with their caregivers within one to six hours – exactly the same as those who were missing for benign reasons. 50.
 
 
 
Within 24 hours
96 percent of the time when U.S. children are missing for benign reasons, the children are back with their caregivers within 24 hours. 51.
 
 
 
Within 24 hours
93 percent of the time when U.S. children are missing because they are lost or injured or stranded, the children are back with their caregivers within 24 hours. 52.
 
 
 
21 percent of time
that U.S. children who are involuntarily missing, it's because they've been injured. 53.
 
 
 
48 percent of the time,
U.S. missing children are missing because they ran away, or were thrown out of the house. 54.
 
 
 
28 percent of time, U.S. missing children are missing for benign reasons –
are missing because the child skipped school, visited a friend's house without permission, stayed out past curfew without calling. And they were returned home unharmed. 55.
 
 
 
Nine percent of all U.S. missing children are missing because they were abducted by a family member –
That's an estimated 117,200 who were abducted by a parent or other family member. 56.
 
 
 
Three percent of all U.S. missing children are missing because they were abducted by someone other than a family member –
That's an estimated 33,000 who were abducted by someone other family member.
53 percent of the time, the child knew the person.
But that amount does not include just the classic kidnapping you hear about on the news. That includes any child who was kept for over an hour or more by an adult who threatened to injure them. Tragically, it includes, for instance, strangers catching a child on his way home from school, forcing him to have sex. But that number also includes:
A babysitter who won't let the children go home until she's paid.
A 17-year-old ex-boyfriend who forces his 15-year-old girlfriend to ride around in his car or have sex with him.
A child taken on a joyride by a bus driver. 57.
 
 
 
Just 0.47 out of every 1,000 –
33,000 out of 70,172,100 U.S. children are abducted by a nonfamily member. The number is so small, that it's considered difficult to calculate an exact amount. 58.
 
 
 
115 children in the U.S.
were taken in a classic stranger kidnapping in 1999. 59.
 
 
 
46
of the children in the U.S. in 1999 taken in a stereotypical kidnapping were killed. Another five were not found by at least 2002. 60.
 
 
 
98 percent of children
taken in nonfamily abduction return home uninjured. 61.
 
 
 
1.3 million U.S. children
were missing in 1999. Estimated number, including both reported and nonreported incidents. 62.
 
 
 
 

AT RISK BEHAVIORS AND CRIMES OF CHILDREN
VIOLENCE COMMITTED AGAINST CHILDREN
CHILD POVERTY

 
 
 

CHILD LABOR

 
 
 
About 2 million
Estimated number of working children in Egypt. 63.
 
 
 
"Child prostitution and sicarios (children who are informal “soldiers” of drug rings or of paramilitary forces in Colombia and among the drug-rings of Brazil, for instance) are perhaps the most horrifying scenes of life in several South American cities." 64.
 
 
 
180 million
children worldwide "work in the worst forms of child labour," according to UNICEF. 65.
 
 
 
200,000
Number of children enslaved in Central and West Africa each year, according to a UNICEF. 66.
 
 
 
One-fifth
In 1900, nearly a fifth of all children in the U.S., aged 10-to-16-year-old, were working. That had been a larger percentage than had been found in any previous census year. 67.
 
 
 
"In its various phases child labor had existed in America from earliest times, but it did not become a serious menace until the later decades of the nineteenth century when increasing numbers of children were caught in the toils of the spreading factory system. By 1900 the number under sixteen engaged in gainful occupations was at least 1.7 million, and some students of the child-labor problem placed the figure even higher. The majority (60 percent) were agricultural workers who labored under conditions that might not be deleterious, but the reports that came in of the twelve-hour day in the berry fields of New Jersey, of the congestion, overwork, and immortality among the young workers in the vegetable gardens of Delaware and Maryland, the beet-sugar fields of Michigan, Nebraska, and Colorado, and the tobacco fields and stripping farms of Connecticut, Kentucky, Virginia and Pennsylvania were anything by encouraging." 68.
 
 
 
"The worst conditions, however, prevailed in manufacturing in which about 16 percent of the child workers were engaged. The picture of chil-dren kept awake during the long night in a Southern mill by having cold water dashed on their faces, of little girls in canning factories "snipping" sixteen or more hours a day or capping forty cans a minute in an effort to keep pace with a never exhausted machine, of little ten-year-old breaker boys crouched for ten hours a day over a dusty coal chute to pick sharp slate out of the fast-moving coal, of boys imported from orphan asylums and reformatories to wreck their bodies in the slavery of a glass factory, or of a four-year-old baby toiling until midnight over artificial flowers in a New York tenement. . . ." 69.
 
 
 
Less than one-twentieth
By 1930, less than one-twentieth of the 10-to-16-year-old children in the U.S. were working. But that may have had more to do with the joblessness of the Depression, than a new conviction against child labor. 70.
 
 
 
 
 

AT RISK BEHAVIORS AND CRIMES OF CHILDREN
VIOLENCE COMMITTED AGAINST CHILDREN
CHILD LABOR

 
 
 

CHILD POVERTY

 
 
Over 1 billion
children – out of the 2.2 billion total – are in poverty around the world. 71.
 
 
 
One in six
children worldwide who are severely hungry. 72.
 
 
 
One in seven
children worldwide has no access to health care whatsoever. 73.
 
 
 
One in three
children worldwide has no toilet or sanitation facilities at home. 74.
 
 
 
Twice as likely
Compared to their urban peers, children in rural areas are twice as likely to not to have goods and services, and three times as likely not to attend school. 75.
 
 
 
Over 640 million
children worldwide live in dwellings with mud floors or in extreme overcrowding. 76.
 
 
 
Over 300 million
children do not have a TV, radio, telephone or newspaper. 77.
 
 
 
More than twice as likely to die before age five –
the poorest children in developing countries, compared to the richest children in the same nations. 78.
 
 
 
29.0 million
The average number of U.S. children in need fed each month through the national school lunch program. 79.
 
 
 
30 percent
the childhood poverty rate in the U.S. in the 1950s. 80.
 
 
 
17.8 percent
of U.S. children – 13.0 million – under 18 years old live in poverty. 4.7 million of the children are under the age of six. The poverty rate for children is higher than that of adults – including senior citizens. 81.
 
 
 
Higher –
The poverty rate for U.S. children is higher than that of adults – including senior citizens. 82.
 
 
 
35.2 percent
of those in poverty in the U.S. are children – despite the fact that they are just 25.2 percent of the total population. 83.
 
 
 
19.9 percent
The 2003-2004 poverty rate for related U.S. children under six living in families – 4.7 million.and the number in poverty for related children under 6 living in families were 19.9 percent and 4.7 million, both unchanged from 2003. Of related children under 6 living in families with female householders with no husband present, 52.6 percent were in poverty, about five times the rate of their counterparts in married couple families (10.1 percent). 84.
 
 
 
Five times as likely
U.S. children living in mother-only family groups are almost five times more likely to be in poverty as children who live in married-couple family groups (39 percent and 8 percent, respectively). 85.
 
 
 
23 percent
of U.S. children who live with a foreign-born householder are in poverty – compared to 15 percent of those living with a native-born householder. 86.
 
 
More than one-third
of U.S. children aged 16 and 17 who are enrolled in school are also in the labor force. 87.
 
 
 
Seven percent
of U.S. children live in households which receive some type of state or local assistance. 88.
 
 
One-third
of all British children are growing up in households that have less than half the national mean income; some claim the U.K. has the third worst rate of child poverty of the industrialized world. 89.
 
 
 
One in six
children in Ireland in 1997 were living in severe poverty – making the Irish rate of child poverty one of the highest in Europe. 90.
 
 
 
31.5 percent
of Italian children in poverty in 1993, a seven percent increase from 1980 and 1993 (from 24.5 percent to 31.5 percent). 91.
 
 
 
15,000-30,000
Estimated number of children living on the streets of Colombia. 92.
 
 
 
India and Senegal have similar levels of per-capita income – but Indian children are more at risk of malnutrition while Senegalese children are more at risk of going without school. 93.
 
 
 
Four to eight –
Average number of children in a poor Sri Lankan family – compared to just one or two for an affluent family there. 94.
 
 
200,000
Estimated number of children living on the streets of Brazil. 95.
 
 
 
 
Over half
of the families in Finland living below the poverty line in the late 1990s were families with children. 96.
 
 
 
___________________________________________________
 
1. ______, "Table BEH3, Illicit drug use: Percentage of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students who have used illicit drugs in the previous 30 days by grade, gender, race, and Hispanic origin, selected years 1980–2004," America's Children: Key Indicators of Well-Being, 2005 Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics (2005), Appendix A, p. 148. Available at: http://childstats.gov/americaschildren/index.asp
2. ______, "Table BEH3, Illicit drug use: Percentage of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students who have used illicit drugs in the previous 30 days by grade, gender, race, and Hispanic origin, selected years 1980–2004," America's Children: Key Indicators of Well-Being, 2005 Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics (2005), Appendix A, p. 148. Available at: http://childstats.gov/americaschildren/index.asp
3. ______, "Table BEH3, Illicit drug use: Percentage of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students who have used illicit drugs in the previous 30 days by grade, gender, race, and Hispanic origin, selected years 1980–2004," America's Children: Key Indicators of Well-Being, 2005 Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics (2005), Appendix A, p. 148. Available at: http://childstats.gov/americaschildren/index.asp
4. Howard Snyder, Juvenile Arrests 2003, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (August 2005), pp. 1, 4. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/209735.pdf
5. Howard Snyder, Juvenile Arrests 2003, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (August 2005), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/209735.pdf
6. Howard Snyder, Juvenile Arrests 2003, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (August 2005), p. 4 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/209735.pdf
7. For the years 1980 to 1998. Melissa Sickmund, Juveniles in Corrections, Juvenile Offenders and Victims, Report Series, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (June 2004), p. 13. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/202885.pdf
8. For the years 1980 to 1998. Melissa Sickmund, Juveniles in Corrections, Juvenile Offenders and Victims, Report Series, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (June 2004), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/202885.pdf
9. Howard Snyder, Juvenile Arrests 2003, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (August 2005), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/209735.pdf
10. Howard Snyder, Juvenile Arrests 2003, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (August 2005), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/209735.pdf
11. Melissa Sickmund, Juveniles in Corrections, Juvenile Offenders and Victims, Report Series, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (June 2004), p. 11. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/202885.pdf
12. Melissa Sickmund, Juveniles in Corrections, Juvenile Offenders and Victims, Report Series, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (June 2004), p. 11. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/202885.pdf
13. Melissa Sickmund, Juveniles in Corrections, Juvenile Offenders and Victims, Report Series, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (June 2004), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/202885.pdf For example:
14. Howard Snyder, Juvenile Arrests 2003, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (August 2005), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/209735.pdf
15. Melissa Sickmund, Juveniles in Corrections, Juvenile Offenders and Victims, Report Series, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (June 2004), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/202885.pdf
16. Howard Snyder, Juvenile Arrests 2003, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (August 2005), p. 11 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/209735.pdf
17. Howard Snyder, Juvenile Arrests 2003, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (August 2005), p. 11 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/209735.pdf
18. Howard Snyder, Juvenile Arrests 2003, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (August 2005), p. 11 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/209735.pdf
19. Howard Snyder, Juvenile Arrests 2003, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (August 2005), p. 11 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/209735.pdf
20. Howard Snyder, Juvenile Arrests 2003, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (August 2005), p. 11 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/209735.pdf
21. Howard Snyder, Juvenile Arrests 2003, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (August 2005), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/209735.pdf
22. Howard Snyder, Juvenile Arrests 2003, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (August 2005), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/209735.pdf
23. Howard Snyder, Juvenile Arrests 2003, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (August 2005), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/209735.pdf
24. Howard Snyder, Juvenile Arrests 2003, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (August 2005), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/209735.pdf
25. Howard Snyder, Juvenile Arrests 2003, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (August 2005), p. 4 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/209735.pdf
26. Howard Snyder, Juvenile Arrests 2003, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (August 2005), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/209735.pdf
27. _________, DeShaney v. Winnebago County Dept. of Social Services, 489 U.S. 189 (1989). Archived at: http://laws.findlaw.com/us/489/189.html
28. David Finkelhor, Heather Hammer, and Andrea J. Sedlak, Nonfamily Abducted Children: National Estimates and Characteristics, National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children, Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (October 2002), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/196467.pdf
29. Matthew R. Durose, Caroline Wolf Harlow, Patrick A. Langan, Mark Motivans, Ramona R. Rantala, and Erica L. Smith, Family Violence Statistics, NCJ 207846 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics (6/2005), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/fvs.pdf
30. The average age among sons or daughters killed by a parent in the U.S. Four out of five children killed by a parent were under age 13. Among incidents of parents killing their children, 19 percent of them involved one parent killing multiple victims. Matthew R. Durose, Caroline Wolf Harlow, Patrick A. Langan, Mark Motivans, Ramona R. Rantala, and Erica L. Smith, Family Violence Statistics, NCJ 207846 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics (6/2005), p. 1. Archived at: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/fvs.pdf
31. Howard Snyder, Juvenile Arrests 2003, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (August 2005), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/209735.pdf
32. As of 2003. Howard Snyder, Juvenile Arrests 2003, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC (August 2005), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/209735.pdf
33. David Finkelhor, Heather Hammer, and Andrea J. Sedlak, Nonfamily Abducted Children: National Estimates and Characteristics, National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children, Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (October 2002), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/196467.pdf
34. This uses a definition of rape that includes forced vaginal, oral, or anal intercourse. Garrine P. Laney, Violence Against Women Act: History and Federal Funding, CRS Report for Congress, Report No. RL30871, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Washington, DC (3/18/2005), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.opencrs.com/rpts/RL30871_20050318.pdf
35. Garrine P. Laney, Violence Against Women Act: History and Federal Funding, CRS Report for Congress, Report No. RL30871, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Washington, DC (3/18/2005), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.opencrs.com/rpts/RL30871_20050318.pdf
36. Dave Lesher, "State Faces Tough Battle Against Teen Pregnancy," Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles, CA, p. A-1 (1/30/1996). See also Mike Males,, "School-age Pregnancy: Why Hasn't Prevention Worked?" Journal of School Health, citing Boyer D, Fine D. "Sexual abuse as a factor in adolescent pregnancy and child maltreatment," Fam Plann Perspect. 1992;24(4): 4-11,19 (12/1/1993). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:14983077
37. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 14 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
38. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 15. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
39. Xuewen Sheng, "Chinese Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 99-128 (2005), p. 106, 109-110. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
40. Xuewen Sheng, "Chinese Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 99-128 (2005), p. 110. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
41. David De Vaus, "Australian Families," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 67-98 (2005), p. 87. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
42. Last year for available data. Heather Hammer, David Finkelhor, and Andrea J. Sedlak, Runaway/Thrownaway Children: National Estimates and Characteristics, National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (October 2002), p. 5 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/196469.pdf
43. Heather Hammer, David Finkelhor, and Andrea J. Sedlak, Runaway/Thrownaway Children: National Estimates and Characteristics, National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (October 2002), pp. 5-6. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/196469.pdf and Andrea J. Sedlak, David Finkelhor, Heather Hammer and Dana J. Schultz, "National Estimates of Children Missing: An Overview" National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (October 2002), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/nismart/01/index.html
44. Andrea J. Sedlak, David Finkelhor, and Heather Hammer, National Estimates of Children Missing Involuntarily or for Benign Reasons, National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (July 2005), pp. 5-7. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/ojjdp/206180.pdf
45. An estimated amount. Andrea J. Sedlak, David Finkelhor, and Heather Hammer, National Estimates of Children Missing Involuntarily or for Benign Reasons, National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (July 2005), pp. 5-7. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/ojjdp/206180.pdf
46. An estimated amount. Andrea J. Sedlak, David Finkelhor, and Heather Hammer, National Estimates of Children Missing Involuntarily or for Benign Reasons, National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (July 2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/ojjdp/206180.pdf
47. Based on 1999 data. Andrea J. Sedlak, David Finkelhor, and Heather Hammer, "Table 3: Characteristics of Missing Involuntary, Lost, or Injured and Missing Benign Explanation Episodes in the United States, 1999," National Estimates of Children Missing Involuntarily or for Benign Reasons, National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (July 2005), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/ojjdp/206180.pdf
48. Based on 1999 data. Andrea J. Sedlak, David Finkelhor, and Heather Hammer, "Table 3: Characteristics of Missing Involuntary, Lost, or Injured and Missing Benign Explanation Episodes in the United States, 1999," National Estimates of Children Missing Involuntarily or for Benign Reasons, National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (July 2005), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/ojjdp/206180.pdf
49. Based on 1999 data. Andrea J. Sedlak, David Finkelhor, and Heather Hammer, "Table 3: Characteristics of Missing Involuntary, Lost, or Injured and Missing Benign Explanation Episodes in the United States, 1999," National Estimates of Children Missing Involuntarily or for Benign Reasons, National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (July 2005), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/ojjdp/206180.pdf
50. Based on 1999 data. Andrea J. Sedlak, David Finkelhor, and Heather Hammer, "Table 3: Characteristics of Missing Involuntary, Lost, or Injured and Missing Benign Explanation Episodes in the United States, 1999," National Estimates of Children Missing Involuntarily or for Benign Reasons, National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (July 2005), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/ojjdp/206180.pdf
51. Andrea J. Sedlak, David Finkelhor, and Heather Hammer, "Table 3: Characteristics of Missing Involuntary, Lost, or Injured and Missing Benign Explanation Episodes in the United States, 1999," National Estimates of Children Missing Involuntarily or for Benign Reasons, National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (July 2005), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/ojjdp/206180.pdf
52. Based on 1999 amounts. Andrea J. Sedlak, David Finkelhor, Heather Hammer and Dana J. Schultz, "National Estimates of Children Missing: An Overview" National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (October 2002), p. 6. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/nismart/01/index.html
53. Based on 1999 amounts. Andrea J. Sedlak, David Finkelhor, Heather Hammer and Dana J. Schultz, "National Estimates of Children Missing: An Overview" National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (October 2002), p. 6. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/nismart/01/index.html See also Andrea J. Sedlak, David Finkelhor, and Heather Hammer, "Table 3: Characteristics of Missing Involuntary, Lost, or Injured and Missing Benign Explanation Episodes in the United States, 1999," National Estimates of Children Missing Involuntarily or for Benign Reasons, National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (July 2005), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/ojjdp/206180.pdf and
54. Based on 1999 amounts. Andrea J. Sedlak, David Finkelhor, Heather Hammer and Dana J. Schultz, "National Estimates of Children Missing: An Overview" National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (October 2002), p. 6. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/nismart/01/index.html
55. Based on 1999 amounts. Andrea J. Sedlak, David Finkelhor, Heather Hammer and Dana J. Schultz, "National Estimates of Children Missing: An Overview" National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (October 2002), pp. 4, 6. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/nismart/01/index.html and David Finkelhor, Heather Hammer, and Andrea J. Sedlak, Nonfamily Abducted Children: National Estimates and Characteristics, National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children, Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (October 2002), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/196467.pdf
56. Based on 1999 amounts. Andrea J. Sedlak, David Finkelhor, Heather Hammer and Dana J. Schultz, "National Estimates of Children Missing: An Overview" National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (October 2002), p. 6. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/nismart/01/index.html
57. Andrea J. Sedlak, David Finkelhor, Heather Hammer and Dana J. Schultz, "National Estimates of Children Missing: An Overview" National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (October 2002), pp. 4, 6. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/nismart/01/index.html See also David Finkelhor, Heather Hammer, and Andrea J. Sedlak, Nonfamily Abducted Children: National Estimates and Characteristics, National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children, Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (October 2002). Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/196467.pdf
58. Andrea J. Sedlak, David Finkelhor, Heather Hammer and Dana J. Schultz, "National Estimates of Children Missing: An Overview" National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (October 2002), pp. 4, 6. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/nismart/01/index.html See also David Finkelhor, Heather Hammer, and Andrea J. Sedlak, Nonfamily Abducted Children: National Estimates and Characteristics, National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children, Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (October 2002). Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/196467.pdf
59. David Finkelhor, Heather Hammer, and Andrea J. Sedlak, Nonfamily Abducted Children: National Estimates and Characteristics, National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children, Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (October 2002), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/196467.pdf
60. David Finkelhor, Heather Hammer, and Andrea J. Sedlak, Nonfamily Abducted Children: National Estimates and Characteristics, National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children, Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (October 2002), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/196467.pdf
61. David Finkelhor, Heather Hammer, and Andrea J. Sedlak, Nonfamily Abducted Children: National Estimates and Characteristics, National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children, Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (October 2002), p. 10. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/196467.pdf
62. Andrea J. Sedlak, David Finkelhor, and Heather Hammer, "Table 3: Characteristics of Missing Involuntary, Lost, or Injured and Missing Benign Explanation Episodes in the United States, 1999," National Estimates of Children Missing Involuntarily or for Benign Reasons, National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (July 2005), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/ojjdp/206180.pdf
63. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 18. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
64. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 15 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
65. ________, "Key Facts on Poverty," Press Kit for State of the World's Children, 2005, UNICEF. Accessed at http://www.unicef.org/sowc05/english/press_facts.html on September 18, 2005.
66. Betty Bigombe and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, "Major Trends Affecting Families in Sub-Saharan Africa," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 14 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbigombe.pdf
67. Mary Ross, "Why Social Security?" Publication No. 15, Bureau of Research and Statistics, Social Security Board, Washington, DC (1937). Archived at http://www.ssa.gov/history/whybook.html
68. Harold Underwood Faulkner, "The Quest for Social Justice," A History of American Life. Mark C. Carnes (gen. ed.), Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (consulting ed.), Scribner, New York, NY, p. 981 et seq. (1996), p. 1020 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0684807238/qid=1124130752/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
69. Harold Underwood Faulkner, "The Quest for Social Justice," A History of American Life. Mark C. Carnes (gen. ed.), Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (consulting ed.), Scribner, New York, NY, p. 981 et seq. (1996), p. 1020-1021 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0684807238/qid=1124130752/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
70. Mary Ross, "Why Social Security?" Publication No. 15, Bureau of Research and Statistics, Social Security Board, Washington, DC (1937). Archived at http://www.ssa.gov/history/whybook.html
71. ________, "Childhood Index," Press Kit for State of the World's Children, 2005, UNICEF. Accessed at http://www.unicef.org/sowc05/english/press_childhood_index.html on October 18, 2005.
72. ________, "Key Facts on Poverty," Press Kit for State of the World's Children, 2005, UNICEF. Accessed at http://www.unicef.org/sowc05/english/press_facts.html on September 18, 2005.
73. ________, "Key Facts on Poverty," Press Kit for State of the World's Children, 2005, UNICEF. Accessed at http://www.unicef.org/sowc05/english/press_facts.html on September 18, 2005.
74. ________, "Key Facts on Poverty," Press Kit for State of the World's Children, 2005, UNICEF. Accessed at http://www.unicef.org/sowc05/english/press_facts.html on September 18, 2005.
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78. ________, "Key Facts on Poverty," Press Kit for State of the World's Children, 2005, UNICEF. Accessed at http://www.unicef.org/sowc05/english/press_facts.html on September 18, 2005.
79. ________, "Facts for Features: Back to School," Press Release, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 15, 2005) citing the upcoming Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2006. as . Archived at: http://www.census.gov./Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/005225.html
80. Stephanie Coontz, "The American Family and The Nostalgia Trap," Phi Delta Kappan (March 1, 1995). Archived at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:16765761
81. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 9. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
82. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 11. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
83. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Current Population Reports, P60-229. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 11. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf
84. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 16. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
85. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 14-16. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
86. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
87. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 12. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
88. Terry Lugaila and Julia Overturf, Children and the Households They Live In: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-14. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-14.pdf
89. Ceridwen Roberts, The Situation of Families in the UK, 1997-2002, European Observatory on Family Matters (2002), p. 7 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_02_uk_roberts_en.pdf
90. Gabriel Kiely, The Situation of Families in Ireland, 1996-2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 4 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_ireland_kiely_en.pdf
91. Giovanni B. Sgritta, The Situation of Families in Italy in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 8 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_italy_sgritta_en.pdf 73.
92. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 4 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
93. ________, "Key Facts on Poverty," Press Kit for State of the World's Children, 2005, UNICEF. Accessed at http://www.unicef.org/sowc05/english/press_facts.html on September 18, 2005.
94. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 27. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
95. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003) p. 4 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
96. Sirpa Taskinen, The Situation of Families in Finland in 2001, European Observatory on Family Matters (2001), p. 4. Archived at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/eoss/downloads/gm_01_finland_taskinen_en.pdf