Domestic Violence
 
Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 11
 
TOPICS COVERED: We titled this page "domestic violence," for recognition of the issue, but what we're really talking about here is violence between "intimate partners." That includes husbands and wives, but it also includes ex-spouses, unmarried partners, boyfriends and girlfriends. We also have some other numbers relating to violence within the family unit as a whole. For information relating to child or elder abuse, though, we've put that with other material in the Related Memos.
 
MEMOS ON RELATED INFORMATION: Divorce, Children at Risk (for information relating to child abuse), Aging (for information relating to elder abuse), Marriage / Divorce (analysis).
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 

PAGE INDEX:

 

INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN THE UNITED STATES
Prevalence Costs / Financial Impact

FAMILY VIOLENCE (INTERNATIONAL)

Prevalence of Violence, Internationally Social Justification for Abuse


 

INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN THE UNITED STATES

Prevalence Costs / Financial Impact


 
Intimate Partner Violence in the US – Prevalence
 
 
 
33 percent
of all violent crimes recorded by police in 18 U.S. States and the District of Columbia in 2000 – over 207,000 reported crimes – were incidents of family violence. Of these incidents, about half (53 percent, or 110,000) were crimes between spouses. 1.
 
 
 
20 percent
of all nonfatal violent crime experienced by U.S. women in 2001 was due to violence of an intimate partner – defined as a spouse, former spouse, current or former boyfriend or girlfriend. 2.
 
 
 
Approximately 1.5 million women and 834,700 men
are estimated to be raped or physically assaulted by an intimate partner in the United States each year. 3.
 
 
 
Almost 5.3 million
Annual number of victimizations of U.S. women age 18 and older, by an intimate partner. 4.
 
 
 
These 5.3 million incidents will cause almost 2.0 million injuries and almost 1,300 deaths. Of the injuries, over 555,000 will be serious enough to receive medical attention – and of these, more than 145,000 will require hospitalization for at least one night. 5.
 
 
 
Intimate partner violence occurs in all social, economic, religious, or cultural groups. 6.
 
 
 
Almost 25 percent
of U.S. women are raped and/or physically assaulted by an intimate partner during their lifetimes. 7.
 
 
 
Almost 7.8 million
of U.S. women will be raped by an intimate partner at some point in their lives. 8.
 
 
 
201,394
Estimated number of U.S. women raped by an intimate partner each year. The average victim was raped 1.6 times in a year – for a total of 322,230 intimate partner rapes. 9.
 
 
 
Just under 25.7 million
Estimated number of American women who will be victims of intimate partner violence at some point in their lifetimes. 10.
 
 
 
76 percent
of the U.S. women who were the victim of a rape or physical assault said that their assailant was a current or former spouse, a cohabiting partner, or a date. Only 18 percent of men said that their assailant fell into one of the same categories. 11.
 
 
 
1,252
Estimated number of women killed by an intimate partner in the U.S. each year. A third of all of these women are killed by an intimate partner –while intimate partners are responsible for only four percent of male homicides. 12.
 
 
 
22 percent
of the 86,500 convicted violent offenders in local jails in 2002 were incarcerated because of family violence. Of these family violence offenders, most (60 percent) of these – approximately 18,700 inmates – were in jail for an aggravated assault. 13.
 
 
 
Sorry, You Don't Want to Hear This, Guys – But it's the Men's Fault:
American women in an opposite sex relationship are nearly twice as likely to report they have been victimized by a male partner than those women in same sex relationships. Of the women in a same-sex relationship, they are three times more likely to report that they had been victimized by a male partner, than a female partner. And more men than women also victimize their male intimate partners. 14.
 
 
 
503,485 women and 185,496 men
are stalked by an intimate partner in the U.S. every year. 15.
 
 
 
Scot Free
Of the 322,230 estimated annual rapes of women by their partners, just over 55,000 of them are reported to the police. Over 10,000 of the perpetrators – almost all men – were convicted. But just 7,000 of them received jail time. 16.
 
 
 
Scot Free (redux)
Of the 4.5 million estimated assaults against women by their partners, almost 1.2 million of them would be reported to the police. Only 324,000 of them would be criminally prosecuted, and 155,600 of them – almost all men – would be convicted. Still, just 55,405 received a jail sentence. 17.
 
 
 
American Indian/Alaska Native women and men
report more violent victimization than do those of other racial backgrounds. However, researchers aren't yet sure if that is due to a significantly higher prevalence of victimization, or it is because members of other racial backgrounds aren't as willing to admit that they have been victimized. 18.



Hispanic women are "significantly" more likely to report intimate partner rape than non-Hispanic women. 19.
 

 
324,000
Estimated number of women in the U.S. each year who are victims of intimate partner violence while pregnant. 20.


 
Firearms
the major weapon type used in U.S. intimate partner homicides from 1981 to 1998. 21.

 
 
4.5
Average number of rapes committed by a male intimate partner against a woman over the course of an ongoing abusive relationship – usually lasting 3.8 years. 22.
 
 
 
6.9
Average number of physical assaults committed by a male intimate partner against a woman over the course of an ongoing abusive relationship – usually lasting 4.5 years. 23.
 
 
 
4.4
Average number of physical assaults committed by a female intimate partner against a man over the course of an ongoing abusive relationship – usually lasting 3.6 years. 24.
 
 
 
1.3 million
Estimated number of American women physically assaulted each year by an intimate partner. 25.
 
 
 
3.4
Average number of separate assault incidents that each of those 1.3 million women have suffered in a year. That is almost 4.5 million physical assaults. 26.
 
 

While men are also victims, women are two to three times more likely to report an intimate partner pushed grabbed or shoved them, and seven to 14 times more likely to report that their intimate partner beat them up, choked them, or tied them down. 27.

 
 
23.1 percent
of U.S. men in same-sex cohabiting relationships reported that they had been raped, physically assaulted, and or stalked by a marital / cohabiting partner at some point in their lives, while just 7.4 percent of men in opposite sex cohabitation reported a victimization. 28.
 
 
 
39.2 percent
of U.S. women in same-sex cohabiting relationships reported that they had been raped, physically assaulted, and or stalked by a marital / cohabiting partner at some point in their lives, when 21.7 percent of women in opposite sex cohabitation reported a victimization. 29.
 
 
 
Intimate Partner Violence in the US – Costs and Financial Impact
 
 
$5.8 billion
Estimated annual total costs of intimate partner violence against women in the United States, including almost $4.1 billion in medical care and $0.9 billion in lost productivity. 30.

 
 
47,339 person-years
The total amount of lost time and productivity due to intimate partner violence in a single year. The study was conducted in 1995; that is the year the amount was calculated for. 31.
 
 
 
Almost 8 million
Estimated number of days lost from paid work each year by female victims of intimate partner violence. That is 32,114 full-time jobs. 32.
 
 
 
$727.8 million
Estimated value of the lost income from paid work due to female intimate partner victimization. 33.
 
 
 
Over 5.56 million
Estimated number of days lost from household chores each year by female victims of intimate partner violence. 34.
 
 
 
$130.8 million
Estimated value of the lost income from paid work due to female intimate partner victimization. 35.
 
 
 

INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN THE UNITED STATES

 
 
 

FAMILY VIOLENCE (INTERNATIONAL)
Prevalence of Violence, Internationally Social Justification for Abuse

 
 
Prevalence of Violence, Internationally
 
 
 
29 percent
of women in Canada are physically abused by an intimate partner during their lifetime. In a survey, of those abused, one-third said that they feared being killed by their batterer. 36.
 
 
 
30 percent
of women in North London, England are physically abused by an intimate partner during their lifetime, while 23 percent are the victim of a rape or attempted rape by their partner. For those currently being physically abused, they're assaulted an average of seven times in a year. 37.
 
 
 
21 percent
of women in Switzerland are physically abused by an intimate partner during their lifetime. 38.
 
 
 
37 percent
of Kenyan wives are abused every day. 67 percent of the abuse is committed by husbands, or the wives' in-laws. Abuse is not considered a legitimate reason for a wife to leave her husband. 39.
 
 
 
About 60 percent –
of Indian women feel that they deserve to be beaten by their husbands if they neglect the house or their children. 40.
 
 
 
27 percent
of women in Guadalajara, Mexico are physically abused by an intimate partner during their lifetime, while 23 percent are sexually assaulted by their partners. 41.
 
 
 
22 percent
of men surveyed in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, who admitted that they had used sexual violence against their wives. 17 percent admitted to using physical violence. And another seven percent had said they had used both physical and sexual violence. 42.
 
 
 
7,000 - 25,000 dowry deaths
Official government reports estimate about 7,000 Indian women were murdered in 2001 by their in-laws because they were not able to pay the required dowry. Often, the death occurs by their husband or other relative pouring gas on the woman and setting her on fire. Another common form of attack is by throwing acid on the woman. 43. But the United Nations has estimated that as many as 25,000 women are murdered each year in these "dowry deaths." 44.
 
 
 
45 percent
of women in Ethopia are physically abused by an intimate partner during their lifetime. 45.
 
 
 
31 percent
of Nigerian women are physically abused by an intimate partner during their lifetime. 46.
 
 
 
67 percent
of women in Papua New Guinea are physically abused by an intimate partner during their lifetime. 47.
 
 
 
80 percent
of women in two municipalities in Mendoza, Argentina, reported that they had been victims of physical or emotional violence in their lives. And 70 percent of time, the perpetrator of the violence was the women's current husband or partner. 48.
 

 
More than half
of women surveyed in Metropolitan Lima, Peru who reported having at one point suffered physical or sexual violence by their partners. In rural Peru, as many as 70 percent of the women reported having been abused. While half of the affected women in Lima were from low-income backgrounds, 36 percent were from middle and lower middle incomes, and 13 percent were from upper middle and upper sectors of the population. 49.
 
 
 
Almost 40 percent
of upper class families in Uruguay report a history of violence in the family: “Violence was an everyday affair among close to 40 percent of upper class families, more than 50 percent of middle class families, and close to 50 percent of lower income families.” 50.
 
 
 
40 percent
of Uruguayan households have some history of violence. 51.
 
 
 
Social Justification for Abuse
 
 
 
Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe –
nations where men see the ability to inflict physical punishment on his wife as a right, according to various studies. 52.
 
 
 
They think it's justified for a husband to beat his wife if . . .

. . . she refuses to have sex with her husband
. . . according to: one percent of men in New Zealand; five percent of men in Singapore; 28 percent of Palestinian men; 33 percent of women in Ghana; and 81 percent of women in rural Egypt. 53.

. . . she neglects her housework or children
. . . according to: one percent of men in New Zealand; 15 percent of women in urban Nicaragua; and 61 percent of women in rural Egypt. 54.

. . . the husband suspects her of having an affair
. . . according to: five percent of men in New Zealand; 19 percent of men in Brazil; 33 percent of men in Singapore; 32 percent of women in rural Nicaragua; 14 percent of women in Colombia; and 71 percent of Palestinian men. 55.

. . . she goes out of the house without telling her husband
. . . according to: 11 percent of women in urban Nicaragua. 56.

. . . doesn't respect her in-laws
. . . according to: 23 percent of Palestinian men. 57.

. . . talks back or disobeys her husband
. . . according to: one percent of men in New Zealand; four percent of men in Singapore; 10 to 50 percent of men in Uttar Pradesh, India; 32 percent of women in rural Egypt; 14 percent of women in Colombia; and 57 percent of Palestinian men. 58.

. . . uses birth control without her husband's knowledge
. . . according to: 51 percent of men and 43 percent of women in Ghana. 59.

____________________________________________________
1. Matthew R. Durose, Caroline Wolf Harlow, Patrick A. Langan, Mark Motivans, Ramona R. Rantala, and Erica L. Smith, Family Violence Statistics, NCJ 207846 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics (6/2005), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/fvs.pdf
2. Callie Marie Rennison, Intimate Partner Violence, 1993–2001. Publication No. NCJ197838. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice. (2003). Archived at: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/ipv01.pdf
3. Laney, Garrine P., Violence Against Women Act: History and Federal Funding, CRS Report for Congress, Report No. RL30871, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Washington, DC (3/18/2005), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.opencrs.com/rpts/RL30871_20050318.pdf
4. ________, Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (2003), p. 3, 19. http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/ipv_cost/ipv.htm.
5. ________, Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (2003), p. 19. http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/ipv_cost/ipv.htm.
6. ________, Intimate Partner Violence: Fact Sheet, Center for Disease Control's National Center for Injury Prevention and Control http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/factsheets/ipvfacts.htm citing Heise L, Garcia-Moreno C. Violence by intimate partners. World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002. See also Bergen, Raquel Kennedy, "Marital Rape," Domestic Violence Applied Research Documents, VAWNet, National Resource Center on Domestic Violence, Harrisburg, PA (3/1999). (citations omitted). Accessed at: http://www.vawnet.org/DomesticViolence/Research/VAWnetDocs/AR_mrape.php on 8/15/2005.(citations omitted).
7. ________, Intimate Partner Violence: Fact Sheet, Center for Disease Control's National Center for Injury Prevention and Control http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/factsheets/ipvfacts.htm citing (Tjaden and Thoennes 2000b). Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (2003), p. 1, 21. http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/ipv_cost/ipv.htm. and Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes, Extent, Nature, And Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence: Findings From The National Violence Against Women Survey, Research Report. Report for grant 93-IJ-CX-0012, funded by the U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Publication No. NCJ 181867, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC (2000), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/nij/181867.pdf
8. ________, Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (2003), p. 1, 21. http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/ipv_cost/ipv.htm. and Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes, Extent, Nature, And Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence: Findings From The National Violence Against Women Survey, Research Report. Report for grant 93-IJ-CX-0012, funded by the U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Publication No. NCJ 181867, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC (2000), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/nij/181867.pdf
9. Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (2003), pp. 13-14. http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/ipv_cost/ipv.htm. Only one-fifth of these would have been reported to the police, and only 7.5 percent of the rapes would have been criminally prosecuted. Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes, Extent, Nature, And Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence: Findings From The National Violence Against Women Survey, Research Report. Report for grant 93-IJ-CX-0012, funded by the U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Publication No. NCJ 181867, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC (2000), p. 49, 52. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/nij/181867.pdf
10. ________, Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (2003), p. 1, 21. http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/ipv_cost/ipv.htm. and Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes, Extent, Nature, And Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence: Findings From The National Violence Against Women Survey, Research Report. Report for grant 93-IJ-CX-0012, funded by the U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Publication No. NCJ 181867, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC (2000), pp. 9-10. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/nij/181867.pdf
11. Laney, Garrine P., Violence Against Women Act: History and Federal Funding, CRS Report for Congress, Report No. RL30871, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Washington, DC (3/18/2005), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.opencrs.com/rpts/RL30871_20050318.pdf
12. ________, Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (2003), pp. 3, 31. http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/ipv_cost/ipv.htm.
13. Matthew R. Durose, Caroline Wolf Harlow, Patrick A. Langan, Mark Motivans, Ramona R. Rantala, and Erica L. Smith, Family Violence Statistics, NCJ 207846 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics (6/2005), p. 3. Archived at: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/fvs.pdf
14. Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes, Extent, Nature, And Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence: Findings From The National Violence Against Women Survey, Research Report. Report for grant 93-IJ-CX-0012, funded by the U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Publication No. NCJ 181867, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC (2000), pp. 30-31. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/nij/181867.pdf
15. Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes, Extent, Nature, And Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence: Findings From The National Violence Against Women Survey, Research Report. Report for grant 93-IJ-CX-0012, funded by the U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Publication No. NCJ 181867, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC (2000), pp. 55. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/nij/181867.pdf
16. Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes, Extent, Nature, And Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence: Findings From The National Violence Against Women Survey, Research Report. Report for grant 93-IJ-CX-0012, funded by the U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Publication No. NCJ 181867, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC (2000), pp. 52-53. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/nij/181867.pdf
17. Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes, Extent, Nature, And Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence: Findings From The National Violence Against Women Survey, Research Report. Report for grant 93-IJ-CX-0012, funded by the U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Publication No. NCJ 181867, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC (2000), pp. 52-53. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/nij/181867.pdf
18. Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes, Extent, Nature, And Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence: Findings From The National Violence Against Women Survey, Research Report. Report for grant 93-IJ-CX-0012, funded by the U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Publication No. NCJ 181867, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC (2000), p. 26. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/nij/181867.pdf
19. Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes, Extent, Nature, And Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence: Findings From The National Violence Against Women Survey, Research Report. Report for grant 93-IJ-CX-0012, funded by the U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Publication No. NCJ 181867, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC (2000), p. 26. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/nij/181867.pdf See also Laney, Garrine P., Violence Against Women Act: History and Federal Funding, CRS Report for Congress, Report No. RL30871, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Washington, DC (3/18/2005), p. 2 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.opencrs.com/rpts/RL30871_20050318.pdf
20. ________, Intimate Partner Violence: Fact Sheet, Center for Disease Control's National Center for Injury Prevention and Control http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/factsheets/ipvfacts.htm citing Gazmararian JA, Petersen R, Spitz AM, Goodwin MM, Saltzman LE, Marks JS. "Violence and Reproductive Health: Current Knowledge and Future Research Directions," Maternal and Child Health Journal 2000;4(2):79–84.
21. ________, Intimate Partner Violence: Fact Sheet, Center for Disease Control's National Center for Injury Prevention and Control http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/factsheets/ipvfacts.htm citing Paulozzi LJ, Saltzman LA, Thompson MJ, Holmgreen P., "Surveillance for Homicide Among Intimate Partners—United States, 1981–1998." CDC Surveillance Summaries 2001;50(SS-3):1–1.
22. Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes, Extent, Nature, And Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence: Findings From The National Violence Against Women Survey, Research Report. Report for grant 93-IJ-CX-0012, funded by the U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Publication No. NCJ 181867, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC (2000), pp. 39-40. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/nij/181867.pdf
23. Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes, Extent, Nature, And Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence: Findings From The National Violence Against Women Survey, Research Report. Report for grant 93-IJ-CX-0012, funded by the U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Publication No. NCJ 181867, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC (2000), pp. 39-40. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/nij/181867.pdf
24. Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes, Extent, Nature, And Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence: Findings From The National Violence Against Women Survey, Research Report. Report for grant 93-IJ-CX-0012, funded by the U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Publication No. NCJ 181867, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC (2000), pp. 39-40. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/nij/181867.pdf
25. Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (2003), p.14. http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/ipv_cost/ipv.htm.
26. Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (2003), p. 14. http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/ipv_cost/ipv.htm.
27. Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes, Extent, Nature, And Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence: Findings From The National Violence Against Women Survey, Research Report. Report for grant 93-IJ-CX-0012, funded by the U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Publication No. NCJ 181867, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC (2000), p. 17. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/nij/181867.pdf
28. Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes, Extent, Nature, And Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence: Findings From The National Violence Against Women Survey, Research Report. Report for grant 93-IJ-CX-0012, funded by the U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Publication No. NCJ 181867, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC (2000), p. 30. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/nij/181867.pdf
29. Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes, Extent, Nature, And Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence: Findings From The National Violence Against Women Survey, Research Report. Report for grant 93-IJ-CX-0012, funded by the U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Publication No. NCJ 181867, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC (2000), p. 30. Archived at: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/nij/181867.pdf
30. ________, Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (2003), p. 32. http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/ipv_cost/ipv.htm.
31. ________, Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (2003), pp. 26, 31. http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/ipv_cost/ipv.htm.
32. ________, Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (2003), pp. 26, 31. http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/ipv_cost/ipv.htm.
33. ________, Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (2003), pp. 26, 31. http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/ipv_cost/ipv.htm.
34. ________, Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (2003), pp. 26, 31. http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/ipv_cost/ipv.htm.
35. ________, Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (2003), pp. 26, 31. http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/ipv_cost/ipv.htm.
36. Based on a 1993 survey of women years old and over. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 90 (citation omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
37. Based on a 1993 survey of women 16 years old and over. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), pp. 89-91, 152. (citations omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
38. Based on a 1994-1996 survey of women 20 to 60 years old. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 90 (citation omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
39. Edward K. Mburugu and Bert N. Adams, "Families in Kenya," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 3-24 (2005), pp. 16-17. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
40. J.P. Singh, "The Contemporary Indian Family," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 129-166 (2005), p. 153 (citation omitted). Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
41. Based on a 1996 survey of women 15 years old and over. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), pp. 90, 152 (citation omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
42. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 151 (citation omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
43. Lucy Ash, "India's dowry deaths," BBC News Website (July 16, 2003). Accessed at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/crossing_continents/3071963.stm on August 28, 2005. But the United Nations has estimated that as many as 25,000 women are murdered each year in these "dowry deaths."
44. _________, "Dowry and Bride-burning in India - Parts 1 & 2," United Nations' Women Features, website and radio news program. Accessed at http://www.un.org/av/special/womradpr.htm#prog3-4 on August 28, 2005.
45. Based on a 1995 survey of women 15 years old and over. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 90 (citation omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
46. Based on a 1993 survey of women. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 90 (citation omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
47. Based on a 1982 survey of women 18 and over. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 90 (citation omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
48. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 13-14 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
49. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 14 (citations omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
50. According to a study. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 14 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
51. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 14. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
52. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), pp. 94-95 (citations omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
53. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 94 (citations omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
54. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 94 (citations omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
55. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 94 (citations omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
56. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 94 (citation omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
57. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 94 (citations omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
58. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 94 (citations omitted). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.
59. Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano (eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva (2002), p. 94 (citation omitteds). Accessed at: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/full_en.pdf on August 18, 2005.