Family and Household Demographics
 
Estimated Number of Printed Pages: 10
 
TOPICS COVERED: This memo deals with: current U.S. and international demographics on households and families; portraits of how many of those families are nuclear, married-couple or single-parent; how many people live on their own; and the size of households (which may, or may not, consist of a family). And that makes this memo – and its related twin, Is the Family in Decline? (Demographics) – probably the most dangerous of the Factbook memos. We're sure you'll find the information fascinating, and often surprising. But we caution you – make sure you know when you're comparing apples to apples instead of oranges. And even if the facts appear to be all "apples" – you may be comparing data as different as a Macintosh and a Granny Smith.

Because how countries define "family" varies considerably from nation to nation. (Check out our memo on Definitions of Family to get an idea of just how different those definitions can be. Throughout the Factbook, we've generally followed U.S. Census Bureau definitions – at least when we're talking about American demographics.) In the U.S., a "household" is everyone who lives in a dwelling, be it an apartment, house, whatever. Everyone who lives together is a "household," but they are not always a family. For example, two roommates who found each other on craigslist aren't counted as a family. In the U.S., to be a "family" involves, generally speaking, blood relations, marriage, a legal tie like adoption, etc., while a "family household" would require that the family actually lives together. If Grandma lives down the block, she's not considered in the family household, and sometimes wouldn't even be considered in the "family," when, of course, she is. The famed "nuclear family" is usually understood to be a family unit of both parents and their children – but that doesn't necessarily mean that they are married. An "extended family" includes family members other than parents and kids – could be a grandparent, cousin, or uncle. And an extended family might be a nuclear family, but it doesn't have to be: a grandparent could live with a mother and child, while the father is absent (and that's a common arrangement in many nations and cultures.). Tricky, isn't it?

For information about how these demographics has been changing over time, go to our memo on Is the Family in Decline? (Demographics). For information specifically relating to extended families, try our memo on Multiple Generation / Extended Family Households. And please note that this memo just barely scratches the surface on single-parent families, married and unmarried couples, etc.: if that is where your interest is, please check out those memos for much more information.
 
MEMOS ON RELATED INFORMATION: Multiple Generation / Extended Family Households, Definitions of Family, Marriage Part Two (By the Numbers), Unmarried Partners, Single Parents, Delaying Marriage, Population, Is the Family in Decline? (Demographics), Demographics on Children
 
Links to Sources for this material are available below. Please also see The Factbook Sources page for further information regarding Factbook sources and their availability.
 
 

PAGE INDEX:

 
 

HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILY HOUSEHOLDS

COUPLES OR HOUSEHOLD HEADS ON THEIR OWN?

SINGLE PEOPLE ON THEIR OWN

HOUSEHOLD SIZE

 
 
 
 

HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILY HOUSEHOLDS

 
 
 
76 million
Number of U.S. “Family Households,” in 2003. 1.
 
 
 
68 percent
in 2003 of all U.S. households are “family households” (at least two members related by birth, marriage or adoption). 2.
 
 
 
68 percent
of U.S. blacks live in family households – the same as that of the U.S. population as a whole. That's 9.1 million black families – and nearly half, 47 percent, of these are married-couple families. 3.
 
 
 
79 percent
of Pacific Islander households in the U.S. are family households – higher than the national average (68 percent). 4.
 
 
 
7.4 million
Number of families with dependent children in the U.K. in 2004. 5.
 
 
 
14.8 million
Number of Australians (82 percent) who lived with at least one other family member in 2001, making up 4.9 million families in total. 6.
 
 
 
32 percent
of U.S. households have children. 7.
 
 
 
60 percent
of Australian families – 2.5 million – in 2003 had children in them. 8.
 
 
 
1.3 million
new households in the U.S. have been formed each year since 2000. 9.
 
 
 
7.6 million
Total number of Australian households. 10.
 
 
 
71 percent
of Australian households – just over 5.4 million – that are family households. 11.
 
 
 

HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILY HOUSEHOLDS
SINGLE PEOPLE ON THEIR OWN
HOUSEHOLD SIZE

 
 
 

COUPLES OR HOUSEHOLD HEADS ON THEIR OWN?

 
 
 
62 percent
of Jewish Israeli households are couples with children. 12.
 
 
 
84 percent
of Australian families in 2003 were couple families – 4.6 million. 13.
 
 
 
71 percent
of Australian families with at least one child age 0-17 years in 2003 – 1.8 million – are intact couple families. 14.
 
 
 
One-half
of families in South Africa are "nuclear families." 15.
 
 
 
86 percent
of families in the United Kingdom are "nuclear families." 16.
 
 
 
66 percent
of the 13.1 million children in the United Kingdom live in a married-couple family. 17.
 
 
 
In South America, nuclear households are "the most widespread form of residence." 18.
 
 
 
But just 11.7 percent
of urban households in Argentina are "nuclear families" – mom, dad, and kids. 19.
 
 
 
31.8 percent
of urban households in Venezuela are "nuclear families." 20.
 
 
 
57 million
Number of married-couple households residing in the United States in 2003 – 76 percent of family households. 21.
 
 
 
23 percent
of U.S. households are married couples with children. 22.
 
 
 
53 percent
of U.S. households in 2000 were married-couple households. 23.
 
 
 
32 percent
of U.S. black family households were married-couple households. 24.
 
 
 
56 percent
of Pacific Islanders households are married couple households. 25.
 
 
 
55.1 percent
of Hispanics in the U.S. in 2000 married-couple households. 26.
 
 
 
12.9 million
Number of U.S. female-maintained family households with no husband present: that’s 12.2 percent of all households. 27.
 
 
 
There are more than three times as many
married-couple households with children than there are female-headed family households with no husband but with children present. That’s 7.2 percent of all households. That is compared to 6.0 million (6.6 percent) in 1990. There are, nationally, more than three times as many married-couple households with children than there are female family households. 28.
 
 
 
At least twice as many
In every one of states in the U.S., there are at least twice the number of married-couple households with children as there are female-only headed family households. 29.
 
 
 
In Washington, DC
however, there are more female-headed only family households (25,000) than it does married couple couple households with children (21,000). 30.
 
 
 
30 percent
U.S. black family households headed with a woman, and no husband present – triple the national rate of 12 percent. 31.
 
 
 
Less than six percent
of U.S. blacks live in family households headed with by a man, with no wife present. – the same as that of the U.S. population as a whole. 32.
 
 
 
17 percent
of households in Peru, Guatemela, Mexico are headed by women. 33.
 
 
 
25 percent
of households in Chile during the 1990s were headed by women. 34.
 
 
 
South African children are more likely to be raised in a family without a father, but with other relatives living in the house, than are children in Western countries. 35.
 
 
 
13 percent
of black families in South Africa are headed by the grandparent. But that's only the case for 0.5 percent of white South African families. 36.
 
 
 
22.2 percent
of the richest households in Uruguay are married-couple households without children. 37.
 
 
 
4.4 percent
Of the poorest households in Uruguay are married-couple households without children. 38.
 
 
 
 

HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILY HOUSEHOLDS
COUPLES OR HOUSEHOLD HEADS ON THEIR OWN?
HOUSEHOLD SIZE

 
 
 

SINGLE PEOPLE ON THEIR OWN

 
 
 
One out of every four –
American households with just one person in 2000 – 26 percent of all households. 39.
 
 
 
One out of every four –
British households with just one person in 2004 – 29 percent of all households. That's 7.0 million – more than four times the number it was in 1961. 40.
 
 
 
In South America, "There is a clear class difference in the prevalence of one or another form of household. Singleperson households are a chosen form for the upper strata and are almost non-existent among the poorest sectors of society." 41.
 
 
 
32.4 percent
of the richest households in Uruguay are single-person households. 42.
 
 
 
2.7 percent
Of the poorest households in Uruguay are single-person households. 43.
 
 
 

HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILY HOUSEHOLDS
COUPLES OR HOUSEHOLD HEADS ON THEIR OWN?
SINGLE PEOPLE ON THEIR OWN

 
 
 

HOUSEHOLD SIZE

 
 
Party of Two and a Half?
In 2000, more than half of the people in the U.S. lived in households of one, two, or three people. 44.
 
 
 
2.57
Average number of people in an U.S. household in 2003. 45.
 
 
 
2.72
average household size of U.S. blacks who live in family households. 46.
 
 
 
3.08
Average number of people in an Asian household in the U.S., above the U.S. national average of 2.59. 47.
 
 
 
9.8 percent
of U.S. households in 2003 contained five people or more. 48.
 
 
 
74.2 percent
of households in Pakistan have five or more members. 49.
 
 
 
4.9
average family size in urban Egypt in the 1990s. 50.
 
 
 
6.5
average family size in rural Egypt in the 1990s. 51.
 
 
 
Eight
According to a study, the average family size in Qatar. 52.
 
 
 
7.28
average family size in the United Arab Emirates. 53.
 
 
 
 
3.1
The average size of an Australian family household in 2003. 54.
 
 
 
 
7.4
Average household size in Afghanistan in the 1990s. 55.
 
 
 
6.7
Average household size in Pakistan in the 1990s. 56.
 
 
 
5.4
Average household size in India in the 1990s. 57.
 
 
 
2.7
Japan’s average household size in 2000. 58.
 
 
 
5.4
India’s average household size in the 1990s, a decrease from 5.5, in the 1980s. 59.
 
 
____________________________________________________
 
 
1. Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 6. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
2. Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), pp. 1-2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
3. See Jesse D. McKinnon and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Blacks in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-25. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-25.pdf and ________, "African-American History Month: February 2006," Facts for Features, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (December 5, 2005). Archived at: 4http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/006088.html
4. Philip M. Harris and Nicholas A. Jones, "We the People: Pacific Islanders in the United States," Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-26. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov./prod/2005pubs/censr-26.pdf
5. ________, "Focus on Families: Dependent Children – 1 in 4 in lone-parent families," National Statistics Online, National Statistics, United Kingdom (July 7, 2005). Accessed at: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=1163 on December 27, 2005.
6. ________, "Living Arrangements: Changing Families," Australian Social Trends: Family and Community, Australian Bureau of Statistics (April 22, 2004). Accessed at: http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/abs@.nsf/94713ad445ff1425ca25682000192af2/ea563423fdbffd30ca256d39001bc33c!OpenDocument on August 13, 2005.
7. As of 2003. Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
8. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
9. ________, The State of the Nation’s Housing, 2004, Report by the Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University (2004), p. 11. Accessed at: http://www.jchs.harvard.edu/publications/markets/son2004.pdf on August 15, 2005.
10. As of 2003. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
11. As of 2003. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
12. Ruth Katz and Yoav Lavee, "Families in Israel," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 486-506 (2005), p. 487. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
13. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
14. As of 2003. Note that this means that both parents are present; it does not indicate whether or not the couple is married. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
15. Note that this means that both parents are present; it does not indicate whether or not the couple is married. Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 51. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
16. Note that this means that both parents are present; it does not indicate whether or not the couple is married. Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 51. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
17. ________, "Focus on Families: Dependent Children – 1 in 4 in lone-parent families," National Statistics Online, National Statistics, United Kingdom (July 7, 2005). Accessed at: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=1163 on December 27, 2005.
18. Note that this means that both parents are present; it does not indicate whether or not the couple is married. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
19. Note that this means that both parents are present; it does not indicate whether or not the couple is married. Elizabeth Fussell and Alberto Palloni, "Persistent Marriage Regimes in Changing Times," Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 66, pp. 1201-1213 (December 2004), p. 1208.
20. Note that this means that both parents are present; it does not indicate whether or not the couple is married.Elizabeth Fussell and Alberto Palloni, "Persistent Marriage Regimes in Changing Times," Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 66, pp. 1201-1213 (December 2004), p. 1208 (citation omitted).
21. Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
22. As of 2003. Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
23. Reneé Spraggins, We the People: Women and Men in the United States, Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-20. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-20.pdf
24. As of 2000. Jesse D. McKinnon and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Blacks in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-25. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-25.pdf
25. Philip M. Harris and Nicholas A. Jones, "We the People: Pacific Islanders in the United States," Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-26. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov./prod/2005pubs/censr-26.pdf
26. Roberto R. Ramirez, We the People: Hispanics in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-18. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-18.pdf
27. Tavia Simmons and Grace O'Neill, Households and Families: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-8. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2001), p.2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf; and Reneé Spraggins, We the People: Women and Men in the United States, Census 2000 Special Report, CENSR-20. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2005), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-20.pdf
28. Tavia Simmons and Grace O'Neill, Households and Families: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-8. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2001), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf
29. Tavia Simmons and Grace O'Neill, Households and Families: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-8. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2001), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf
30. Tavia Simmons and Grace O'Neill, Households and Families: 2000, U.S. Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-8. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2001), p. 7. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf
31. As of 2000. Jesse D. McKinnon and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Blacks in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-25. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-25.pdf
32. As of 2000. Jesse D. McKinnon and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Blacks in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-25. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-25.pdf
33. Elizabeth Fussell and Alberto Palloni, "Persistent Marriage Regimes in Changing Times," Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 66, pp. 1201-1213 (December 2004), p. 1209.
34. Elizabeth Fussell and Alberto Palloni, "Persistent Marriage Regimes in Changing Times," Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 66, pp. 1201-1213 (December 2004), p. 1209 (citation omitted).
35. Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 51. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
36. Susan C. Ziehl, "Families in South Africa," Handbook of World Families, Bert N. Adams and Jan Trost (eds). Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 47-63 (2005), p. 51. Available through: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0761927638/qid=1123855404/sr=8-1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/104-0887680-4192712?v=glance&s=books&n=507846
37. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 4-5. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
38. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 4-5. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
39. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 137. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
40. ________, "Focus on Families: Households & Families – Highlights," National Statistics Online, National Statistics, United Kingdom (March 22, 2005). Accessed at: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=1044 on January 2, 2006.
41. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 4-5. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
42. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 4-5. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
43. Elizabeth Jelin and Ana Rita Díaz-Muñoz, "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), pp. 4-5. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtjelin.pdf
44. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, US Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (November 2002), p. 2. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf
45. Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 4. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
46. As of 2000. Jesse D. McKinnon and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Blacks in the United States, U.S. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-25. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (August 2005), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/censr-25.pdf
47. Terrance J. Reeves and Claudette E. Bennett, We the People: Asians in the United States, Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-17. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 8. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-17.pdf
48. Jason Fields, America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003, Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC (2004), p. 5. Archived at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf
49. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 4. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
50. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 5 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
51. Hoda Badran, "Major Trends Affecting Families El Mashrek El Araby," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (2003), p. 5 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtbadran.pdf
52. Yahya El-Haddad, "Major Trends Affecting Families in the Gulf Countries," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (200_), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtelhaddad.pdf
53. Yahya El-Haddad, "Major Trends Affecting Families in the Gulf Countries," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (200_), p. 3 (citation omitted). Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtelhaddad.pdf
54. ________, "4442.0 Family Characteristics, Australia," Australian Bureau of Statistics (updated March 15, 2005). Accessed at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/5087e58f30c6bb25ca2568b60010b303/e6a9286119fa0a85ca25699000255c89!OpenDocument on August 28, 2005.
55. Indralal De Silva, Table No. 7 of "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003). Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
56. Indralal De Silva, Table No. 7 of "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003). Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
57. Indralal De Silva, Table No. 7 of "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003). Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf
58. Stella R. Quah, "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (March 2003), p. 17. Archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtquah.pdf
59. Indralal De Silva, "Demographic and Social Trends Affecting Families in the South and Central Asian Region," Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, Report for United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Program on the Family (May 2003), p. 4. Report archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf Tables archived at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtscatables.pdf